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44 terms

Organic Compounds

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organic compound
compounds containing the element carbon
hydrocarbons
compounds made up of C and H
methane
CH4
saturated hydrocarbons
A hydrocarbon in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds.
isomers
compounds with identical chemical formulas but different molecular structures and shapes
enantiomers
right and left-handed isomers; mirror images of each other; can have identical physical properties
unsaturated hydrocarbon
Compound, such as ethene or ethyne, that contains at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms
compounds ending in -ane
single bonds, saturated hydrocarbon
compounds ending in -ene
double bonds, unsaturated hydrocarbon
compounds ending in -yne
triple bonds, unsaturated hydrocarbon
aromatic compound
a compound that contains a benzene structure having a ring with 6 carbons; most have a distinct odor
benzene ring
a ring of six carbons joined with alternating double and single bonds (C6H6)
fused -ring structure
an aromatic compound that is made up of two or more benzene rings fused together
naphthalene
an aromatic compound with 10 carbon atoms and 8 hydrogen atoms; 2 benzene fused-ring structure; used in moth balls
substituted hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by atoms of other elements
alcohol
a hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by an -OH group
ethanol
C2H5OH; grain alcohol that comes from corn
carboxyl group
-COOH; found in organic acids
petroleum
an oily, dark-colored, flammable liquid found in the earth, consisting mainly of a mixture of various hydrocarbons.
fractional distillation
The process by which petroleum can be separated into simpler components, called fractions, as they condense at different boiling points
fractionating tower
big metal towers used in petroleum refineries to separate petroleum into fractions by their boiling points
polymers
A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain.
monomers
smaller molecular units that join together to form polymers
polyethylene
polymer formed from a chain containing many ethylene units; used in plastic bags and bottles
polypropylene
polymer used in the making of glue and carpets
polystyrene
polymer used in foam cups and packing peanuts
depolymerization
process using heat or chemicals to break a polymer chain into its monomers
proteins
large organic polymers formed from organic monomers called amino acids; make up many body tissues such as hair, muscles, tendons, and hemoglobin; 15% of total body weight comes from protein
amino acids
the monomers that combine to form proteins' your body breaks protein into amino acids and then uses the amino acids to build the protein you need
hemoglobin
a protein polymer that carries oxygen in your blood, it contains four peptide chains coiled around each other; each chain has an atom of iron
peptide
a compound containing two or more amino acids in which the carboxyl group of one acid is linked to the amino group of the other.
nucleic acid
essential organic polymers that control the activities and reproduction of cells
DNA
nucleic acid built of complex molecules called nucleotides; found in the cell nucleus; it codes and stores genetic information and controls the production of RNA
4 base pairs of DNA
adenine and thymine
cystosine and guanine
RNA
ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of protei
carbohydrates
compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms; ex. sugars and starches
sugars
carbohydrates that provide your body quick energy
ex. sucrose, fructose, glucose
starches
carbohydrate of large polymers built of sugar units; provides long-lasting energy
lipids
biological compounds containing the same elements of carbohydrates but in different arrangements and combinations; includes fats and oils
monounsaturated
unsaturated fat having one double bond ex. olive oil
polyunsaturated
unsaturated fat having two or more double bonds
cholesterol
found in meats, eggs, butter and cheese; it is a lipid but not a fat; your body produces it in the liver; it is a precursor of many hormones
pheromones
chemical used in communication among individuals of the same species
ribose
sugar found in RNA