AP Human Geography Chapter 12-Review
Terms in this set (49)
Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
What is a service?
Permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work, and obtain services.
What is a settlement?
Consumer, business, public.
What are the 3 services in MDCs?
To provide services to individual consumers who desire them and can afford to pay for them.
What is the purpose of consumer services?
Retail, education, health, and leisure.
What are the 4 main types of consumer services?
To help other businesses.
What is the purpose of business services?
Financial, Professional, Transportation and information services.
What are the 3 kinds of business services?
Provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.
What is the purpose of public services?
Jobs in retailing has not increases - more stores are opening all the time, but they do not need as many employees as in the past - technology advances
What is one main change in the status re: the number of employees in public services in 2014?
Rapid rise in real estate prices; poor judgment in lending financial institutions that allowed too many people to get mortgages; too many people could not pay their mortgages; government decided to reduce or eliminate regulation of financial institutions that allowed too many people to buy homes.
What caused the Recession in the USA?
Buildings in early settlements were often the tallest structures in a community?
soldiers, forts, walls
Give examples of early public services.
Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, Indus River Valley
Where did ancient urban settlements begin?
Independent, self-governing communities that included the settlement and nearby countryside.
Ancient settlements were called city-states in Athens. What is a city-state?
Asia - Istanbul, Kyoto, Agra, Cairo, Canon, Isfahan
Most of the Middle Ages' largest cities were located where?
Rural settlements main service is what?
religion, politics, manufacturing, protection
What are reasons for establishing a settlement?
Looking at the # and % of people living in city/urban.
How can urbanization be analyzed?
I.R. promoted/led to urbanization
What is the relationship between urbanization and the Industrial Revolution?
Clustered rural: place where a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings; dispersed rural: type of North American rural landscape, is characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside of other farmers in settlements.
What is the difference between a clustered rural settlement and a dispersed rural settlement?
Everyone has access to a river.
What is the advantage of having linear rural settlement called "long-lot" once common in France?
Clustered rural settlements in Colonial America were found predominately in what region?
Land opened for settlers due to the Louisiana Purchase by President Jefferson. There was plenty of land and for a cheap cost. Men/women from the Middle Atlantic States started crossing the Appalachian Mountains. Because men/women could afford more land, they had large farms and the next neighbor might be a mile or two away.
What is the history behind dispersed rural settlements in the USA in the early years?
Great Britain between 1750 and 1850. British government destroyed village life, confiscated small farmers' land, and consolidated many small farmers' land to rich landowners. The Gov't believed larger farms would produce more food for Great Britain. Small farmers had to move to urban places like London and Dublin and Edinburgh to find work. This caused Great Britain to have large, dispersed farmsteads like in the USA west of the Appalachian Mts.
What is the Enclosure Movement and where did this happen?
1. large size (relationships are contractual - meet people mostly at work or at service like a doctor, lawyer, etc.) 2. high density: causes social problems - survival, groups compete for land 3. social heterogeneity - large settlements have a greater variety of people - good and bad -- find more people with the same interests cluster together in a city - but there is also loneliness.
Explain the 3 principles of Louis Wirth's Model/Theory of urban settlements.
the potential use of a service at a location is related directly to population and inversely to distance.
Explain the Gravity Model as it applies to services in cities.
Helps LDCs that have only 1 major, primate city. Vendors travel to all the small hamlets and villages of an LDC country and provide supplies, food, clothing, etc. at a certain time each week or month. Poor rural people cannot afford to travel to the primate city; they count on vendors to come to them. Works in MDCs but on a smaller scale with farmers' markets.
What are periodic markets?
An increase in the percentage of the number of people living in urban cities.
What is urbanization?
Increase in the number of people living in cities and an increase to the percentage of people living in cities.
What are the 2 outcomes of urbanization?
Market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area - also centrally located to maximize accessibility..
Define central place.
Area surrounding a services from which customers are attracted - nodal region - functional region.
Define market area/hinterland.
Maximum distance people are willing to travels to use a service - measured in time in 2014, also in miles, but most people talk about the time it takes to reach a place rather than the exact miles.
Minimum number of people needed to support the service.
Computer the range, compute the threshold, draw the market area.
What are the 3 steps to Market Analysis - finding the right place to start a store/business?
Hamlet, village, town, city, conurbation
Hierarchy of Settlements according to Christaller is what?
A pattern of settlements in a country that is the from the smallest to the largest: the 2nd largest city is 1/2 the size of the largest; the 3rd largest city is 1/3 the size of the largest, etc. Most common in USA and Canada.
Define a the rank-size rule distribution of cities.
Often in poor LDCs and also Europe like France. Largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. The largest settlement is the primate city.
Define the primate city rule distribution of cities.
Rank-size rule because a country has services evenly distributed in various large cities, not just in one primate city.
Which distribution of cities is the most advantageous or goal?
World cities, command and control centers, specialized produce service centers, and dependent centers.
What are the four types of urban settlements?
Flow of info and money.
What services are provided in world cities?
Tokyo, NYC, and London
What are the 3, dominant world cities?
Offshore financial services & Back-office functions.
What are the 2 types of business services in LDCS?
Taxes and privacy
What are the two benefits of Offshore Financial Services?
British dependences, independent island countries, and other independent countries (Barbados, Bahamas, Samoa, Belize, Bahrain, Netherlands Antilles, and some MDCs like Liechtenstein and Monaco.
Name a couple of Offshore financial places?
Payroll management, processing insurance claims, billing inquiries for credit cards, shipments, and claims.
What do Back Offices do?
Low ages and ability to speak English
Why have LDCs attracted back offices?
A collection of basic industries in a community.
What is an economic base?
Basic industries- sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside of the settlements; nonbasic industries: industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
What is the difference between basic and nonbasic industries?
Because exporting by the basic industries brings money to the local economy thus stimulating the provision of more nonbasic consumer services to a settlement, and they bring their families with them.
Why is a settlement's economic base important?
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