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Curriculum Review SUNY 102
Terms in this set (175)
The protagonist of the Aeneid. Aeneas is a survivor of the siege of Troy, a city on the coast of Asia Minor. His defining characteristic is piety, a respect for the will of the gods. He is a fearsome warrior and a leader able to motivate his men in the face of adversity, but also a man capable of great compassion and sorrow. His destiny is to found the Roman race in Italy and he subordinates all other concerns to this mission. The Aeneid is about his journey from Troy to Italy, which enables him to fulfill his fate.
The queen of Carthage, a city in northern Africa, in what is now Tunisia, and lover of Aeneas. Dido left the land of Tyre when her husband was murdered by Pygmalion, her brother. She and her city are strong, but she becomes an unfortunate pawn of the gods in their struggle for Aeneas's destiny. Her love for Aeneas proves to be her downfall. After he abandons her, she constructs a funeral pyre and stabs herself upon it with Aeneas's sword.
The ruler of the Rutulians in Italy. Turnus is Aeneas's major antagonist among mortals. He is Lavinia's leading suitor until Aeneas arrives. This rivalry incites him to wage war against the Trojans, despite Latinus's willingness to allow the Trojans to settle in Latium and Turnus's understanding that he cannot successfully defy fate. He is brash and fearless, a capable soldier who values his honor over his life.
Aeneas's young son by his first wife, Creusa. Ascanius (also called Iulus) is most important as a symbol of Aeneas's destiny—his future founding of the Roman race. Though still a child, Ascanius has several opportunities over the course of the epic to display his bravery and leadership. He leads a procession of boys on horseback during the games of Book V and he helps to defend the Trojan camp from Turnus's attack while his father is away.
Aeneas's father, and a symbol of Aeneas's Trojan heritage. Although Anchises dies during the journey from Troy to Italy, he continues in spirit to help his son fulfill fate's decrees, especially by guiding Aeneas through the underworld and showing him what fate has in store for his descendants.
Aeneas's wife at Troy, and the mother of Ascanius. Creusa is lost and killed as her family attempts to flee the city, but tells Aeneas he will find a new wife at his new home.
The Greek youth who pretends to have been left behind at the end of the Trojan War. Sinon persuades the Trojans to take in the wooden horse as an offering to Minerva, then lets out the warriors trapped inside the horse's belly.
The king of the Latins, the people of what is now central Italy, around the Tiber River. Latinus allows Aeneas into his kingdom and encourages him to become a suitor of Lavinia, his daughter, causing resentment and eventually war among his subjects. He respects the gods and fate, but does not hold strict command over his people.
Latinus's daughter and a symbol of Latium in general. Lavinia's character is not developed in the poem; she is important only as the object of the Trojan-Latin struggle. The question of who will marry Lavinia—Turnus or Aeneas—becomes key to future relations between the Latins and the Trojans and therefore the Aeneid's entire historical scheme.
Queen of Laurentum (a region of Latium, in Italy) and wife of Latinus. Amata opposes the marriage of Lavinia, her daughter, to Aeneas and remains loyal throughout to Turnus, Lavinia's original suitor. Amata kills herself once it is clear that Aeneas is destined to win.
King of Pallanteum (a region of Arcadia, in Italy) and father of Pallas. Evander is a sworn enemy of the Latins, and Aeneas befriends him and secures his assistance in the battles against Turnus.
Son of Evander, whom Evander entrusts to Aeneas's care and tutelage. Pallas eventually dies in battle at the hands of Turnus, causing Aeneas and Evander great grief. To avenge Pallas's death, Aeneas finally slays Turnus, dismissing an initial impulse to spare him.
A Trojan and a personal friend of Aeneas.
The queen of the gods, the wife and sister of Jupiter, and the daughter of Saturn. Juno (Hera in Greek mythology) hates the Trojans because of the Trojan Paris's judgment against her in a beauty contest. She is also a patron of Carthage and knows that Aeneas's Roman descendants are destined to destroy Carthage. She takes out her anger on Aeneas throughout the epic, and in her wrath acts as his primary divine antagonist.
The goddess of love and the mother of Aeneas. Venus (Aphrodite in Greek mythology) is a benefactor of the Trojans. She helps her son whenever Juno tries to hurt him, causing conflict among the gods. She is also referred to as Cytherea, after Cythera, the island where she was born and where her shrine is located.
The king of the gods, and the son of Saturn. While the gods often struggle against one another in battles of will, Jupiter's will reigns supreme and becomes identified with the more impersonal force of fate. Therefore, Jupiter (also known as Jove, and called Zeus in Greek mythology) directs the general progress of Aeneas's destiny, ensuring that Aeneas is never permanently thrown off his course toward Italy. Jupiter's demeanor is controlled and levelheaded compared to the volatility of Juno and Venus.
God of the sea, and generally an ally of Venus and Aeneas. Neptune (Poseidon in Greek mythology) calms the storm that opens the epic and conducts Aeneas safely on the last leg of his voyage.
The messenger god. The other gods often send Mercury (Hermes in Greek mythology) on errands to Aeneas.
The god of the winds, enlisted to aid Juno in creating bad weather for the Trojans in Book I.
A son of Venus and the god of erotic desire. In Book I, Cupid (Eros in Greek mythology) disguises himself as Ascanius, Aeneas's son, and causes Dido to fall in love with Aeneas.
One of the Furies, or deities who avenge sins, sent by Juno in Book VII to incite the Latin people to war against the Trojans.
God of fire and the forge, and husband of Venus. Venus urges Vulcan (Hephaestus in Greek mythology) to craft a superior set of arms for Aeneas, and the gift serves Aeneas well in his battle with Turnus.
The river god associated with the Tiber River, where Rome will eventually be built. At Tiberinus's suggestion, Aeneas travels upriver to make allies of the Arcadians.
The father of the gods. Saturn (Chronos in Greek mythology) was king of Olympus until his son Jupiter overthrew him.
The goddess who protects the Greeks during the Trojan War and helps them conquer Troy. Like Juno, Minerva (Pallas Athena in Greek mythology) is motivated against the Trojans by the Trojan Paris's judgment that Venus was the most beautiful among goddesses.
A son of Jupiter and god of the sun. Apollo was born at Delos and helps the Trojans in their voyage when they stop there. Because he is often portrayed as an archer, many characters invoke his name before they fire a shaft in battle.
The hero of Homer's Odyssey, and one of the captains of the Greek army that takes Troy. Ulysses (Odysseus in Greek lore), like Aeneas, must make a long and treacherous voyage before he finds home again, and references to his whereabouts in the Aeneid help situate Aeneas's wanderings in relation to Ulysses'.
The greatest of the Greek warriors. Achilles slew the Trojan hero Hector during the war and is the tragic hero of the Iliad.
The greatest of the Trojan warriors, killed at Troy. Hector is in some ways a parallel figure to Turnus, who also defends his native city to the death.
A Trojan prince, son of Priam and Hecuba, and brother of Hector. The handsomest of men, Paris is asked to judge which goddess is most beautiful: Venus, Juno, or Minerva. Venus promises him Helen as his wife in exchange for his judgment, so Paris selects Venus. This selection inspires the permanent wrath of Juno against the Trojans. Stealing Helen from her Greek husband, Menelaus, Paris provokes the Trojan War.
The most beautiful of mortal women and wife of Menelaus. Helen's abduction to Troy by Paris sparks the Trojan War.
A Greek king who wed Helen and made a pact with her other suitors to fight anyone who tried to steal her. When Paris took Helen, the pact was invoked and the Trojan War began.
The leader of the Greek army at Troy, and the king of Argos, a city in Greece. Upon his return from the war, Agamemnon is killed by his adulterous wife, Clytemnestra.
The king of Troy. Priam is slain before Aeneas's eyes during the Greeks' sacking of Troy.
The son of Achilles. Pyrrhus, also called Neoptolemus, appears in Aeneas's account of the siege of Troy as the brutal murderer of Priam and Priam's sons.
Repetition of the same letter or sound, usually at the beginning of a series of words.
Repetition of a word or words at the beginning of successive clauses.
Sudden break from the previous narrative for an address, in second person, of some person or object, absent or present.
The omission of conjunctions.
Arrangement of words, usually adjectives and nouns, in the pattern A B B A.
Exaggeration for rhetorical effect.
An implied comparison, that is, the use of a word or words suggesting a likeness between what is actually being described and something else.
Substitution of one word for another which it suggests.
Treatment of inanimate objects as human.
An overabundance of conjunctions.
A question that anticipates no real answer.
Likens or asserts an explicit comparison between two different things. Uses "like" or "as".
Interlocking word order, A B A B.
1st Julio-Claudian emperor
2nd Julio-Claudian emperor
4th Julio-Claudian emperor
Gaius and Lucius
Julia's 1st husband
Julia's 2nd husband
Lucius' friend, Julia's lover
Dates of Monarchy
753 BCE to 509 BCE
Dates of Republic
509 BCE to 27 BCE
Dates of Empire
27 BCE to 476 CE
Roman upper class descended from first 100 senators appointed by Romulus
Plebs; Lower class, common people; would leave the city in protest
Most important and powerful branch of government during the majority of the republic; represented the patricians; originally from 100 patricians appointed by Romulus
Former magistrates appointed for life, but not elected
The scope of the Senate's power
Controlled money, domestic and foreign policy
4 different assemblies; elected magistrates and had the power to pass laws but those laws had to be approved by the Senate; made up of citizens who showed up to participate, i.e. NOT elected; less powerful than the Senate
Highest elected office; 2 were elected for one year term; could not become consul again for 10 years.
12 men who accompanied each consul while carrying a fasces.
A bundle of rods with an axe attached; symbol of power; carried by lictors
Originally an emergency position granting one man absolute power for a maximum of 6 months
dictator for life; Julius Caesar was named this in Feb. 44 BCE
Leges duodecim tabularum
Laws of the 12 tables
The 12 Tables
Ancient laws inscribed in bronze and posted publicly; Demanded by the Plebeians in order to secure their rights and fair treatment.
Conflict of Orders
The series of struggles between the Patricians and Plebeians, because the Patricians controlled the majority of government and restricted the rights of Plebeians.
Results of Conflict of Orders
Patricians became less important as their influence was limited; The office of consul changed from 2 Patricians to 1 Patrician and 1 Plebeian; Plebeian Assembly gained more power; the Senate included Plebeians as well as Patricians.
The power one consul had over the other consul to forbid his decision.
One of the wealthiest Romans
When was Caesar assassinated?
March 15th, 44 BC
Who was defeated by Caesar at Pharsalus, Greece 48 BCE?
Pompey the Great
Caesar traced his ancestry back to the goddess _____ and her son Aeneas.
By allying himself with the _____, Caesar angered Sulla
Caesar won the _____ for saving a fellow citizen in battle of Miletus (81-79 BCE)
In Egypt, Caesar supported the claims of _____
In reforming the calendar, Caesar introduced a _____ year of 365 days
The First Triumvirate consisted of Caesar, Pompey, and ___
Caesar was once captured and held for ransom by ___
Caesar's daughter ___ became the wife of Pompey
The cursus honorum consisted of quaestor, aedile, _____________and consul
Caesar was assassinated by a group of Roman citizens headed by Cassius and ___
Caesar usually wore a crown to conceal his ___
As aedile Caesar was concerned with _____
Lavish games to gain support
In the first triumvirate Pompey furnished _____
The saying "Alea iacta est" is associated with the _____
Crossing of the Rubicon
59 -50 BC
Caesar appointed himself dictator
Caesar had a son Caesarian with
Caesar was the only ___________ person to be depicted on a coin
What did the comet on Caesar's coin means?
Romans believed Caesar became a god.
path of offices
first citizen; Augustus' preferred title
a temple in Turkey; location of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti
(the era of) Roman Peace
Ara Pacis Augustae
the altar of Augustan Peace
public works officials
public works officials
imperium sine fine
rule without limit
time it took Augustus to gain control of Rome after Caesar's death
closing the doors of the shrine of Janus Quirinus
symbolic gesture of peace; 3 times during Augustus' reign
Augustus' right hand man and son-in-law; oversaw the rebuilding of Rome
division of the empire into smaller units; allowed Augustus to maintain order in a large territory
the Aeneid of Vergil
Augustan propaganda, "foretold" the rise of a Caesar who was the son of a god and would establish an Aurea Saecula
Etruscans, Latins, Greeks
What groups of people originally occupied the Italian Peninsula?
Imperial Roman. 118-125 C.E. Concrete with stone facing
One of the great buildings in western architecture, the Pantheon is remarkable both as a feat of engineering and for its manipulation of interior space, and for a time, it was also home to the largest pearl in the ancient world.
Greek vase-painting periods
Geometric, archaic (black-figure), classical (red-figure)
Paintings made on wet plaster walls
Pictures made with pieces of colored stone or glass
Roman Art and Architecture
-Copied Greek styles
-Was realistic and practical
Greek Art and Architecture
Most famous example is the Parthenon, sought perfect balance, style emphasized natural poses and idealism
Roman Baths (Thermae)
Romans came to socialize and relax.
Located in Vatican City, they display the collection of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Theater Building
semi-circular, based off of Greek designs
Working class Roman town
Roman graffiti is found at the site of Pompeii
epic poem by Vergil that told the story of a great Trojan hero, Aeneas
Battle of Philippi
Battle in which Antony and Octavian defeated Brutus and Cassius in 42BC.
In the battle of Pharsalus in July 48 BCE, Caesar's army defeated that of
Pax Romana (Roman Peace)
200 year period of peace and prosperity in Rome
Brutal Roman General who treated Germanic peoples like slaves and was lured into a Barbarian trap. Augustus never did get back his legions or his horses.
A Roman historian of the early second century C.E., best known for a multivolume work giving biographies of the Roman emperors, The Lives of the Caesars.
son-in-law of Augustus who became a suspicious tyrannical Emperor of Rome after a brilliant military career (42 BC to AD 37)
Leader of the Praetorian Guard who tricked Tiberius into moving to the island of Capri. After a plot that he was going to kill Tiberius was discovered Sejanus and his entire family were executed.
Roman Governer who sentenced Jesus to death
Roman Emperor who succeeded Tiberius and whose uncontrolled passions resulted in manifest insanity
a member of Nero's court who wrote the Satyricon about a rich freedman named Trimalchio
Roman Emperor after his nephew Caligula was murdered
Agrippina the Elder
Wife of Germanicus and mother of Gaius Caligula
Ancient school of philosophy that believed happiness was best gained by learning to withstand pain and overcoming suffering; avoiding emotion
the philosophy of Epicurus, stating that the purpose of life is to look for happiness and peace
First Roman emperor to persecute Christians
Great Fire of Rome
A first-century Jewish historian, appointed court historian by the Roman emperor Vespasian, whose works The Jewish War and The Antiquities of the Jews are principal resources for information about life in first-century Palestine.
Year of the Four Emperors
Slaves did nearly all the work, not just the menial but also such important tasks as operating stores, delivering mail, practicing medicine, and tutoring the children of the wealthy. This lead to rampant unemployment of the plebian class and a lack of innovation in agriculture where slave labor dominated.
Vespasian, Titus, Domitian
Pliny the Elder, died
Pliny the Younger
Roman aristocrat who ruled the province of Bithynia-Pontus in the early second century C.E., and whose correspondence with the emperor Trajan contains the earliest reference to Christ in a pagan source
Titus' brother; Possibly an awful, cruel, and strict ruler; Possibly a good emperor, painted in a negative light by the Senate and writers of the senatorial class.
Publius ______ius Maro, 70 BC - 19 BC, important poet of the Augustan period (circle of Maecenas). Known for the
, and the
Caesar's book about his governorship of Gaul
Commentaries on the Gallic Wars - De Bello Gallico
The First Triumvirate was made up of
Pompey, Crassus, Caesar
The Second Triumvirate was made up of
Octavian, Antony, Lepidus
name of two kings of Judea (father and son) who ruled during the lifetime of Jesus
a war, fought around 1200 B.C., in which an army led by Mycenaean kings attacked the independent trading city of Troy in Anatolia
a large hollow wooden figure of a horse (filled with Greek soldiers) left by the Greeks outside Troy during the Trojan War
Marius and Sulla
88 BC, 2 Roman generals who entered into a civil war and used their private armies to gain control of Rome, fought for power of Rome.
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