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parts of the cell membrane

-glycoproteins (ID tages)

importance of cholesterol

-helps maintain flexibility
-helps maintain fluid-like shape

passive transport



equal solute concentrations when comparing 2 solutions

hypertonic solution

higher solute concentration


lower solute concentration

water potential

tendency of water to move to another area
-high solute = low WP
-high pressure = low WP

facilitated diffusion

-channel proteins: ions
-carrier proteins: changes shape; glucose, amino acids
-aquaporins: channel protein for water

active transport use

move molecules against the concentration gradient

Na+/K+ pump

-active transport
-ATP used
-3 Na out, 2 K in
-creates a electrochemical gradient

cells are limited in size because

-rate of diffusion: larger cells = longer diffusion time
-volume to surface area: when cells grow their volume increases more rapidly than SA


-structure: has two membranes for more surface area
-function: cellular respiration

golgi apparatus

-structure: stacks of flat sacks
-function: sorts, packages into vesicles, and ships

rough ER

-structure: membranous canals + ribosomes
-function: protein synthesis

smooth ER

-structure: membranous canals
-function: lipid synthesis


-structure: rRNA
-function: protein synthesis


-structure: microtubules (9+0) 9 groups of 3
-function: cell division (mitosis)


-structure: protein tubulin
-function: cytoskeleton (structure)


-structure: microtubules (9+2) 9 groups of 2 plus 1 group in middle
-function: movement


-structure: protein actin/myosin
-function: cytoskeleton (structure)


-structure: sac filled with digestive enzymes
-function: digestion


-structure: sac filled with food/water
-function: storage

tight junction

animal cells
-sealed off like stitches


animal cells
-nuts and bolts

gap junctions

animal cells
-allows ions and small molecules to move from cell to cell


plant cells
-strands of cytoplasm connecting cells

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