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Cell Structure

STUDY
PLAY
parts of the cell membrane
-cholesterol
-glycoproteins (ID tages)
-proteins
importance of cholesterol
-helps maintain flexibility
-helps maintain fluid-like shape
passive transport
-diffusion
-osmosis
isotonic
equal solute concentrations when comparing 2 solutions
hypertonic solution
higher solute concentration
hypotonic
lower solute concentration
water potential
tendency of water to move to another area
-high solute = low WP
-high pressure = low WP
facilitated diffusion
-channel proteins: ions
-carrier proteins: changes shape; glucose, amino acids
-aquaporins: channel protein for water
active transport use
move molecules against the concentration gradient
Na+/K+ pump
-active transport
-ATP used
-3 Na out, 2 K in
-creates a electrochemical gradient
cells are limited in size because
-rate of diffusion: larger cells = longer diffusion time
-volume to surface area: when cells grow their volume increases more rapidly than SA
mitochondria
-structure: has two membranes for more surface area
-function: cellular respiration
golgi apparatus
-structure: stacks of flat sacks
-function: sorts, packages into vesicles, and ships
rough ER
-structure: membranous canals + ribosomes
-function: protein synthesis
smooth ER
-structure: membranous canals
-function: lipid synthesis
ribosomes
-structure: rRNA
-function: protein synthesis
centrioles
-structure: microtubules (9+0) 9 groups of 3
-function: cell division (mitosis)
microtubules
-structure: protein tubulin
-function: cytoskeleton (structure)
cilia/flagellum
-structure: microtubules (9+2) 9 groups of 2 plus 1 group in middle
-function: movement
microfilaments
-structure: protein actin/myosin
-function: cytoskeleton (structure)
lysosomes
-structure: sac filled with digestive enzymes
-function: digestion
vacuoles
-structure: sac filled with food/water
-function: storage
tight junction
animal cells
-sealed off like stitches
demosomes
animal cells
-nuts and bolts
gap junctions
animal cells
-allows ions and small molecules to move from cell to cell
plasmodesmata
plant cells
-strands of cytoplasm connecting cells