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Praxis - PLT Grades K-6 5622
Terms in this set (430)
Zone of Proximal Development
Students learn best in a social context in which a teacher teaches the students something they could not learn on their own. A teacher must determine what a student can do independently and then provide the student with opportunities.
Measure mastery of skills. A teacher can use the results of the test to determine whether the student is on grade level.
Difficulty remembering information and trouble following directions
Research about bullying consistently shows that boys are more likely to bully others and to use physical aggression.
A learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
Explains why some students show a particular dislike of certain subjects that continue throughout their academic career.
Students build upon prior knowledge to construct new meaning.
The roles of the teacher are to facilitate interactive, discovery learning and to avoid direct instruction and passive learning.
Under copyright laws, teachers may not make copies of music to be performed outside the classroom by students.
Are used for assessing student mastery of specific concepts or skills.
1. Identify the lesson's objective
2. Develop assessment criteria
3. Choose instructional activities
Teacher Planning Instruction (3 steps)
Analytic scoring rubrics
Used to evaluate specific criteria the students must incorporate in an assignment.
One-to-One Support between new teachers and the school
A measure of how spread out, or bunched together, the numbers are in some data set.
"Why do you think...?"
Which question best promotes the highest level of student thinking skills?
Used to give students a single, overall score for an assignment as a whole.
Subject-specific professional organizations
Best way to improve content knowledge on a subject?
Rank an individual's score among the scores of a specific population.
A graphic organizer that encourages students to consider what they know about a topic and what they want to learn about the topic before beginning a unit of study, and then record what they learned about the topic after the lesson.
Providing students with instructional choices
One way to increases students' motivation and achievement.
Request a meeting with the principal to discuss how to manage the problem
If you are having an issue with your mentor the first thing you should do is...
Engagement of students and student success lead to.....
A well-stocked and well-organized classroom library
Teaching strategy for motivating elementary students to read recreationally?
The No Child Left Behind Act
Which of the following requires that public schools provide increased accountability measured by the administration of standardized tests?
Relating classroom activities to the various needs and interests of children and families
Which of the following activities best reflects a family-centered program and a promotion of parent partnerships with the school?
Providing frequent and specific positive feedback
The best action for a teacher to take to develop self-motivation in a group of students?
Moving closer to the students
If students are socializing during instructional time, which of the following teacher responses is most likely to be effective in redirecting the students' attention to their task?
Keep a reflective journal about the types of problematic behaviors that occur
After the first week of school, a beginning teacher has concerns about managing behavior in the classroom. Which of the following is the teacher's best first step to address the concern?
Ensuring that each student's needs are individually addressed.
Observing the new teacher in the classroom and then meeting with them to discuss and reflect on the observations and plan strategies for improvement.
The primary role of a mentor working with a new teacher?
Written criteria that detail expectations of what students will need to know and be able to do in order to receive a given grade.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
A student who has been diagnosed with ADHD needs additional time to complete work and to take tests. Which of the following pieces of legislation is most appropriate for the school to use in implementing a plan to help the student?
Exposing students to a topic or theme several times with increasing complexity and in context to the prior experience.
Two teachers share responsibilities for leadership and instruction in a classroom. The teachers alternate leading instructional activities and supporting students
Increasing the font size of a student's reading assignment is best described as.....
An adjustment in teaching strategies, environment, or the assessment to content to allow students to learn a target skill at the same level as other students.
Social Cognitive Theory
Focus on the ways people learn from observing one another.
Reviewing the curriculum standards provided by the state and school district
Best strategy for a new teacher to use when determining instructional content?
Relates to accuracy
Relates to consistency
Timed repeated readings
Most effective for improving the reading fluency of emerging readers?
Using pretest data to develop lessons that account for students' prior knowledge
Example of a teacher applying the zone of proximal development theory?
"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task.
A test that attempts to predict a student's ability to succeed. They are "forward-looking" in that they typically attempt to forecast or predict how well students will do in a future educational or career setting.
Any form of test that requires students to answer the same questions in the same way and that is scored in a "standard" or consistent manner, which makes it possible to compare the relative performance of individual students or groups of students.
Evaluating student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark
On-going throughout the learning process - to
discover where students are at in the learning process.
Test students can take before a new unit to find out what the students need more instruction on and what they may already know.
An evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts.
Scoring that provides students with a rating score for each criterion and teacher's feedback on each criterion.
Serious, persistent problems that involve
relationships, aggression, depression, fears associated with personal or school matters, and other inappropriate socioemotional characteristics.
A wide variety of conditions that affect vision abilities
Specific language impairment: Involves problems in language
development that are not accompanied by other obvious physical, sensory, or emotional problems. In some cases, the disorder is called developmental language disorder.
States that all knowledge is organized into units. Within these units of knowledge, or schemata, is stored information.
Based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information.
An element of cooperative and collaborative learning where members of a group who share common goals perceive that working together is individually and collectively beneficial, and success depends on the participation of all the members.
Refers to a variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater independence in the learning process.
The process of mentally taking a single idea and expanding it in several directions.
The use of straightforward, explicit teaching techniques, usually to teach a specific skill. It is a teacher-directed method
The process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection on doing".
Discussion and sharing among students. Students can learn from peers and teachers to develop social skills and abilities, to organize their thoughts, and to develop rational arguments.
Tests that report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student, which is determined by comparing scores against the performance results of a statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam.
Tests and assessments are designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards
Used to record specific observations of individual student behaviours, skills and attitudes
Inquiry Based Learning
A student-centered, active learning approach focusing on questioning, critical thinking, and problem-solving. It's associated with the idea "involve me and I understand".
Problem Based Learning
Student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem.
Project Based Learning
Teaching method in which students gain knowledge and skills by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to an authentic, engaging and complex question, problem, or challenge.
Is an educational process in which two or more subject areas are integrated with the goal of fostering enhanced learning in each subject area.
An instructional strategy used by teachers to meet the needs of their students and engage them in explicit, clearly articulated teaching.
Is disciplined questioning that can be used to pursue thought in many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truth of things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts, etc.
Whole Class Instruction
Is direct instruction using traditional textbooks or supplemental materials with minimal differentiation in either content or assessment. It is typically provided through teacher-led direct instruction.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
A four-part piece of American legislation that ensures students with a disability are provided with Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) that is tailored to their individual needs.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A Federal law that protects the privacy of student education records.
The Common Core State Standards Initiative
An educational initiative in the United States that details what K-12 students should know in English language arts and mathematics at the end of each grade.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
A civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all areas of public life, including jobs, schools, transportation, and all public and private places that are open to the general public.
Allows the use of portions of copyrighted works and materials for educational purposes
Protects "original works of authorship," fixed in a tangible medium including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and other intellectual works.
Refers to any significant and persistent disparity in academic performance or educational attainment between different groups of students, such as white students and minorities, or students from higher-income/lower-income households.
Cooperative Learning Groups
The instructional practice of placing students into small groups and having them work together toward a common goal. Each group member learns new material and helps other group members learn important information.
Mental skills (knowledge). Involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
Manual or physical skills (skills). Includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas.
Growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self). Includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.
Six major categories of cognitive an processes, starting from the simplest to the most complex
Tests used to assess the skills an individual already possesses; Also called performance tests.
A theory of learning. The idea is that learning is a conscious, rational process. People learn by making models, maps and frameworks in their mind.
View of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality. (Learning by doing.)
Transfer learning theory
Transfer of learning-- connection or application of learned material to future skill or knowledge acquisition. transferring one's knowledge and skills from one problem solving situation to another.
Fill in the blank production. an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed. The participant is asked to replace the missing words.
A tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their attitudes, beliefs. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors, something must change to eliminate the discomfort/stress.
Provides a visual framework for organizing conceptual information in the process of defining a word or concept. The framework contains the category, properties, and examples of the word or concept.
Reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
Means that fairness should be rendered in all areas, and that the teacher's or student's rights as individuals should under no circumstances be violated.
The teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy, practice done with frequent and immediate teacher assistance.
Perhaps the most student-directed model of instruction.
Teachers may (or may not) initiate a project but the learner generally takes responsibility for setting learning contracts, research projects, computer mediated-instruction, and distance learning.
Deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").
Primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion
Has been used to refer to the selective placement of special education students in one or more "regular" education classes.
Term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend.
Least Restrictive Environment
The most appropriate educational placement
that is closest to the mainstream.
In other words, a setting that is similar as
possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated.
IEP (Individual Education Plan)
A written educational plan that specifies a special
student's current levels of educational performance, annual goals, short-term instructional objectives, related services, supplementary aids, testing modifications, projected date of service, and assessment methods for monitoring progress; prepared by a team that includes the students' parent(s), teacher(s), and, if appropriate, the student.
Children with above-average intelligence
and/or superior talent in some domain such as art, music, or mathematics.
Usually defined as IQ of 130 or higher.
Believe that reality is constantly changing and that we learn best through applying our experiences and thoughts to problems, as they arise. Derived from the teaching of Charles Sanders Peirce, who believed that thought must produce action, rather than linger in the mind and lead to indecisiveness.
In-service education, is an opportunity for you to learn and grow as an educator.
Information Processing Theory
focus more on what happens inside the learner's mind, considering the processes of learning, memory, and performance.
The combination of social, cultural, and historical contexts in which a learner exists have great influence on the person's knowledge construction and the ways teachers must organize instruction.
A process of gathering several pieces of information together to solve a problem
Based on the idea that learning is a function of change in observable behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of a person's response to events (stimuli)
When a stimulus-response is reinforced (rewarded) the students becomes conditioned to respond.
Teacher-Based Theory - focuses on observable and measurable aspects of students' behavior. Proposes behavior can be learned or unlearned as the result of stimulus-and-response actions. Views learning as process of stimuli/responses.
Example of a Teacher-Based Learning Theory
Characteristics of Behaviorism (Learning Theory)
*Focuses on observable changes in behavior
*Views the teacher's role as providing information and supervising practice
*Describes learning as the result of stimulus-response actions
*Uses incentives and rewards for motivation
Applications of Behaviorism (Learning Theory)
Examples of Student-Based Learning Theories
Social Cognitive Learning Theory
Theorists focus on the ways people learn from observing one another.
Characteristics of Sociolinguistics Learning Theory
*Emphasizes the Importance of language and social interaction on learning,
*Views reading and writing as social and cultural activities,
Students learn best through authentic activities,
Teacher's role is to scaffold students learning, *Advocates culturally responsive teaching,
*Challenges students to confront injustices and inequities in society,
Applications of Sociolinguistics Learning Theory
*Reading and writing workshop
Information Processing Learning Theory
Theorists focus more on what happens inside the learner's mind, considering the process of learning, memory, and performance. Some theorists compare the mind to a computer and use terms like storage, retrieval, working memory, and long-term memory.
Characteristics of Cognitive / Information Processing Learning Theory
*Compares the mind to a computer
*Recommends integrating reading and writing
*Views reading and writing as a meaning-making processes
*Explains that readers' interpretations are individualized
*Describes students as strategic readers and writings
Applications of Cognitive / Information Processing Learning Theory
A student-based learning theory that suggests learning isn't observable. Rather, it involves mental processes and occurs when students integrate new knowledge with their existing knowledge. It describes students as active and engaged learners who construct their own knowledge. It suggests that people construct or create knowledge (as opposed to absorb knowledge) based on their experiences and interactions.
Characteristics of Constructivism Learning Theory
*Describes learning as the active construction of knowledge
*Recognizes the importance of background knowledge
*Views learners as innately curious
*Advocates collaboration, not competition
*Suggests ways to engage students so they can be successful
Applications of Constructivism Learning Theory
*Literature focus units
Sociocultural Learning Theory
Theorists believe the combination of social, cultural, and historical contexts in which a learner exists have great influence on the person's knowledge construction in addition to the ways teachers organize instruction.
This theory states that there are 3 learning domains: cognitive, performance or psychomotor, and affective. These domains should impact the way educators write lesson objectives, plan learning activities, and assess student performance.
AKA: Knowledge - This domain of Bloom's Taxonomy involves the mind and skills or strategies one uses. It is organized into six levels, from lowest order to highest order: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation.
To recall information. Key words: defines, lists, locates, recites, states. First of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in the Cognitive or Knowledge Domain.
To understand meaning of problems. Key words: confirms, describes, discusses, explains, matches. Second of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in the Cognitive or Knowledge Domain
To use a concept in a new situation. Key words: applies builds, constructs, produces, reports. Third of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in the Cognitive or Knowledge Domain.
To separate concepts into parts. Key words: analyzes, builds, constructs, produces, reports. Fourth of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in the Cognitive or Knowledge Domain
To build a pattern from diverse elements. Key words: composes, designs, hypothesizes, implements, revises Fifth of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in the Cognitive or Knowledge Domain.
To make judgments. Key words: assesses, concludes, critiques, justifies, solves. Final 6th level of Bloom's Taxonomy in the Cognitive or Knowledge Domain
Performance or Psychomotor Domain
AKA: Skills - Bloom's Taxonomy's domain which involves manual or physical skills, which are divided into seven levels: perception, set, guided responses, mechanism, complex overt responses, adaptation, and origination.
To use senses to guide motor activity. Key words: chooses, describes, identifies, selects. First of seven levels of Bloom's Taxonomy Performance or Skills Domain.
To be ready to act. Key words: begins, moves, proceeds, shows, states. Second of seven levels of Bloom's Taxonomy Performance or Skills Domain.
To use trial and error or imitation for early learners. Key words: copies, traces, follows, reproduces, replicates. Third of seven subdivisions of Bloom's Taxonomy Performance or Skills Domain.
To respond in a habitual way with movements performed with some confidence and proficiency; usually in intermediate learners. Key words: assembles, calibrates, displays, manipulates. Fourth of seven subdivisions of Bloom's Taxonomy Performance or Skills Domain.
Complex Overt Responses
To perform complex movement patterns; usually in more skillful learners. Key words are the same as the mechanism stage, but adverbs or adjectives are added to indicate proficiency. For example, assembles quickly, calibrates accurately, or displays proficiently. Fifth of seven levles of Bloom's Taxonomy Performance or Skills Domain.
To use well-developed skills and be able to modify to fit special requirements. Key words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, revises. Sixth of seven levels of Bloom's Taxonomy Performance or Skills Domain.
To create new movement patterns to fit a specific problem or situation. Key words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, revises. Final 7th level of Bloom's Taxonomy Performance or Skills Domain.
AKA: Attitude - The third of three domains in Bloom's Taxonomy. It has five levels: receiving phenomena, responding to phenomena, valuing, organization, internalizing values.
To be aware, to have selected attention. Key words: asks follows, gives, locates, uses. First of five levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective or Attitude Domain.
Responding to Phenomena
To actively participate. Key words: answers, discusses, helps, tells. Second of five levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective or Attitude Domain.
To determine worth. Key words: demonstrates, differentiates, explains, invites, joins. Third of five levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective or Attitude Domain.
To organize values into priorities. Key words: arranges, alters, modifies, relates, synthesizes. Fourth of five subdivisions of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective or Attitude Domain.
To control behavior using own value system. Key words: acts, discriminates, listens, modifies, verifies. Fifth of five subdivisions of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective or Attitude Domain.
Created a Taxonomy of learning domains
Creator of Social or Observational Learning Theory which requires several steps:
1. Attention - Attending to the lesson
2. Retention - Remembering what was learned
3. Reproduction - Trying out the skill or concept
4. Motivation - Willingness to learn and ability to self-regulate behavior
Social or Observational Learning Theory
Children learn by observing others. In a classroom setting, this may occur through modeling or learning vicariously through others' experiences. One important concept from this theory is Distributed Cognition.
A process in which two or more learners share their thinking as they work together to solve a problem. A person is able to learn more with another or in a group than he or she might be able to do alone. This is an important concept from the Social or Observational Learning Theory.
Enactive learning 0-1 - muscle memory, Iconic 1-6 stored in forms of imagines. Symbolic - 7+ knowledge stored as words
Established Experiential Education: Learning Through Experience. Considered the father of progressive education practices that promotes individuality, and free activity, such as project-based learning cooperative learning, arts-integration activities, and teacher reflective practices.
Learning Through Experience-Experiential Education
John Dewey theorized that school is primarily a social institution and a process of living, not an institution to prepare for future living. He believed that schools should teach children to be problem solvers by helping them learn to think as opposed to helping them learn only the content of a lesson and that students should be active decision makers in their education.
He suggested that there are eight stages of human development, which are based on a crisis or conflict that a person resolves.
Trust vs. Mistrust: first of eight stages of human development. Key event: feeding, age range: 0 to 1.
Autonomy vs. Doubt: second of eight stages of human development. Key event: toilet training, age range: 1 to 2.
Early Childhood Stage
Initiative vs. Guilt: third of eight stages of human development. Key event: independence, age range: 2 to 6.
Elementary & Middle School Stage
Competence vs. Inferiority: fourth of eight stages of human development. Key event: school, age range: 6 to 12.
Identity vs. Role Confusion: fifth of eight stages of human development. Key event: sense of identity, age range 12 to 18.
Young Adulthood Stage
Intimacy vs. Isolation: sixth of eight stages of human development. Key event: intimate relationships, age range: 18 to 40.
Middle Adulthood Stage
Generavity vs. Stagnation: seventh of eight stages of human development. Key event: supporting the next generation, age range: 40 to 65.
Late Adulthood Stage
Integrity vs. Despair: eighth of eight stages of human development. Key event: reflection & acceptance, age range: 65 to death.
Created Stages of the Ethic of Care.
Stages of the Ethic of Care
Carol Gilligan questions the male-centered psychology of Freud and Erikson, as well as Kohlberg's stages of moral development. She proposed the following theory of the moral development of women: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional.
Pre-Conventional Stage (Ethic of Care)
First of three stages of Carol Gilligan's Theory. Goal: Individual Survival
Conventional Stage (Ethic of Care)
Second of three stages of Carol Gilligan's Theory. Goal: Self-Sacrifice is Goodness
Post-Conventional Stage (Ethic of Care)
Third of three stages of Carol Gilligan's Theory. Goal: Principle of Nonviolence
Created Theory of Moral Development
Theory of Moral Development's Levels & Stages
Has 3 levels with 2 stages in each level:
*Level 1, Pre-conventional: Stage 1, Obedience & Punishment. Stage 2, Individualism, Instrumentalism, & Exchange
*Level 2, Conventional: Stage 3, Good Boy, Good Girl. Stage 4, Law & Order
*Level 3, Post-Convectional: Stage 5, Social Contract. Stage 6, Principled Conscience
Pre-Conventional Level (Moral Development)
First of three levels of Kohlberg's theory, includes stages 1 & 2 of social orientation. Elementary students are generally at this level in which some authority figure's threat or application of punishment inspires obedience.
Social Orientation Stages are:
1. Obedience and punishment
2. Individualism, instrumentalism, and exchange
Age Range: Birth to 9
Conventional Level (Moral Development)
Second of three levels of Kohlberg's theory, includes stages 3 & 4 of social orientation. This level is found in society.
Social Orientation Stages are:
3. "Good boy/good girl" - seeking to do what will gain the approval of peers or others
4. Law and order - abiding by the law and responding to obligations
Age Range: 9 to 20
Post-Conventional Level (Moral Development)
Third of three levels of Kohlberg's theory, includes stages 5 & 6 of social orientation. According to Kohlberg, this level is rarely achieved by the majority of adults.
Social Orientation Stages are:
5. Social contract: shows an understanding of social mutuality and genuine interest in the welfare of others
6. Principled conscience: based on respect for the universal principles and the requirements of individual conscience
Age Range: 20+ or maybe never
A cognitive theorist who established the theory of Cognitive Development which suggest that there are four stages of cognitive development:
First of four stages of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory. Occurs from birth to 2 years and behaviors include: exploring the world through senses and motor skills.
Second of four stages of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory. Occurs from 2 years to 7 years and behaviors include: believing that others view the world as they do, can use symbols to represent other things.
Third of four stages of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory. Occurs from 7 years to 11 years. Behaviors include: ability to reason logically in familiar situations,
able to conserve and reverse operations.
Fourth of four stages of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory. Occurs from age 11 and up. Behaviors include:
ability to reason in hypothetical situations and use abstract thought.
Responding to a new event or object by changing an existing scheme or creating a new scheme. In other words, when students begin learning about a completely new topic, they create a mental file and place the new information in it. Piaget called this process accommodation and it is more difficult than assimilation.
Responding to a new event or object that is consistent with an existing scheme. In other words, when students already know something about a topic, the new information is added to that mental file, or schema in a revision process.
Pavlovian process of behavior modification in which an innate response to a potent biological stimulus becomes expressed in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the potent biological stimulus that elicits the desired response.
Knowing that a number or amount stays the same even when rearranged or presented in a different shape. For example, a child understands that a specified amount of fluid remains constant regardless of the varied ways it appears in glasses of different sizes.
A process of gathering several pieces of information together to solve a problem.
New and original behavior that creates a culturally appropriate product.
One's inability to explain new events based on existing schemes, which is usually accompanied by discomfort.
Declarative, Procedural, & Conditional Knowledge
3 stages of acquiring knowledge because knowledge is constructed, not absorbed. Used to develop lesson plans that explicitly help student to: 1. Know what they are learning 2. how to complete the thinking procedure or acquire the content 3. when he or she can transfer or use the new knowledge in another situation or experience.
First of three stages of acquiring knowledge. The knowledge of what is or the student's knowledge of what he or she is learning.
Second of three stages of acquiring knowledge. The knowledge of how to or the student's knowledge of how to complete the thinking procedure or acquire the content.
Third of three stages of acquiring knowledge. The student's knowledge of when he or she can transfer or use the new knowledge in another situation or experience.
A person's natural tendency to approach learning or problem solving in certain ways.
The process of mentally taking a single idea and expanding it in several directions.
Movement from equilibrium to disequilibrium and then back to equilibrium again.
One's ability to explain new events based on existing schemes.
The part of memory that holds skills and knowledge for a long time.
A person's ability to think about his and her own thinking. It requires self-awareness and self-regulation. A student who demonstrates this ability can explain his or her own thinking and describe which strategies he or she uses to read and to solve a problem.
To use existing knowledge or skills to solve problems or complex issues.
Established the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in which certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be met.
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Abraham Maslow theorized that there are five levels of needs. The higher needs cannot be met until certain lower needs are satisfied, as follows:
Level 1. Physiological
Level 2. Safety
Level 3. Love & Belonging
Level 4. Esteem
Level 5. Self-Actualization
First of five levels listed in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. These very basic needs include air, water, food, sleep, & sex.
Second of five levels listed in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. These needs help us establish stability & consistency in a chaotic world, such as a secure home & family.
Love & Belong
Third of five levels in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. This level occurs when people need to belong to groups: churches, schools, clubs, gangs, families, and so on. People need to be needed.
Fourth of five levels in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. This level results from competence or the mastery of the task and the ensuing attention & recognition received from others.
Fifth of five levels listed in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. People who have achieved the first four levels can maximize their potential into this final level. They seek knowledge, peace, oneness with the higher power, self-fulfillment, and so on.
Established the theory, "Follow the Child." Believed there are 3 learning stages and that childhood is divided into four stages that have six year intervals in each stage. She also believed that adolescence can be divided into two sub-groups.
Learning Stages of Follow the Child
1. Introduce a concept by lecture, lesson, experience, read-aloud, and so on.
2. Process the information and develop an understanding of the concept through work, experimentation, and creativity.
3. "Knowing" - possessing an understanding of something that is demonstrated by ability to pass a test with confidence, teach the concept to another, or express understanding with ease.
Age Divisions of Follow the Child
According to Montessori, childhood can be divided as follows:
Also, Adolescence can be divided into sub-groups, as follows:
Behavioral theorist best known for his theory of Operant Conditioning which is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in observable behavior.
Changes in behavior are the result of a person's response to events-stimuli. When a stimulus-response is reinforced, the individual becomes conditioned to respond.
Best known for his theory of the Zone of Proximal Development. Credited for the Social Development Theory of Learning in which he suggested that social interaction influence cognitive development.
Zone of Proximal Development Theory
A key concept in Vygotsky's theory of learning which suggests that students learn best in a social context in which a more-able adult or peer teaches the student something he or she could not learn on his or her own.
Readiness to Learn
A context within which a student's more basic needs, such as sleep, safety, & love, are met and the student is cognitively ready for developmentally appropriate problem solving & learning.
A specific behavior that a person demonstrates after a given stimulus.
A concept in the mind about events, scenarios, actions, or objects that have been acquired from past experience. The mind loves organization and must find previous events or experiences with which to associate the information, or the information may not be learned.
A belief that one is capable.
The process of taking control of one's own learning or behavior.
A specific object or event that influences, positively or negatively, a person's learning or behavior.
Students' ability to apply a lesson learned in one situation to a new situation. Example: A student reads the word milk in a book about cows and then successfully reads the word milk in a parent's note on the counter. A transfer may be positive or negative.
Occurs when something is learned at one point that facilitates learning or performance in another situation.
Occurs when something learned interferes with the learning or performance in another situation.
The part of memory that holds and actively processes a limited amount of information for a short amount of time.
A teacher that poses a question like, "How did people measure length before they had rulers?" best exemplifies which theory?
A teacher may use the theory of constructivism to pose a question that helps students find their own answers because the students came to the learning situation with prior knowledge regarding measurement. Their prior knowledge will help them understand the new knowledge that they create.
An assignment that involves the creation of an original piece of art could be associated with this domain.
The Psychomotor Domain because it describes creating something with manual or physical skills.
An assignment that involves the use of favorite colors could be associated with this domain.
The Affective Domain because it describes the attitude or feeling that the child has of his/her favorite colors.
An assignment that involves students labeling the states and capitals on map of the U.S. could be associated with this domain.
The Cognitive Domain because it involves recalling and matching data through cognitive skills.
An assignment that involves solving conflict through the use of active discussion could be associated with this domain.
The Affective Domain because it involves the students feelings or attitude about the topic and the discussion techniques to solve conflict.
An assignment that involves solving conflict through the use of role play could be associated with this domain.
The Psychomotor Domain because it involves students physically acting out solutions in role-play situations.
The type of quiz given at the end of a unit to determine if the students are ready for the next unit or if the instructor needs to reteach and review the concept.
A formative assessment because this type of assessment is designed to give feedback during the instructional process, thereby assessing students' understanding prior to building on it in the next step.
May a teacher make 25 copies of a compilation of songs for his or her students to practice and perform in an auditorium for their parents?
No, because copyright laws prohibit teachers from copying music that students will perform outside of the classroom.
May a teacher make 25 copies of a short story from a book for his or her students to read in class?
Yes, because copyright laws allow teachers to make a reasonable amount of copies from a book as long as the copies are for the exclusive purpose of teaching within a classroom environment.
Developed the behavioral learning theory of connectionism which is the original S-R, stimuli & response, framework. His theory consists of three primary laws:
1. Law of Effect
2. Law of Readiness
3. Law of Exercise
In later versions of the theory, additional concepts were added:
*Spread of Effect
Law of Effect
First of three primary laws in Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism. Responses to a situation, which are followed by a rewarding state of affairs, will be strengthened and become habitual responses to that situation.
Law of Readiness
Second of three primary laws in Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism. A series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked.
Law of Exercise
Third of three primary laws in Thorndike's S-R Theory of Connectionism. The law basically states, connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued.
Law of Belongingness
Reward or punishment to be maximally effective must be relevant to the situation. Was added to Thorndike's S-R Theory of Connectionism.
Law of Polarity
Learned response is most easily given in the direction in which it was formed. Was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism.
Law of Spread of Effect
Reward strengthens, not only the response to which it belongs, but also the responses adjacent, after or before. It gives rise to a gradient effect. The effect of reward is maximal for the rewarded response. Then its effect decreases for each step that a response is removed from the rewarded one. Was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism.
Law of Primacy
The state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakeable impression. Was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism.
Law of Recency
Things most recently learned are best remembered, while the things learned some time ago are remembered with more difficulty. Was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism.
Law of Intensity
If the stimulus or experience is real, the more likely there is to be a change in behavior or learning. Was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism.
Law of Freedom
Things freely learned are best learned and the greater freedom enjoyed by the students in the class, the greater the intellectual and moral advancement. Was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism.
A measure of how spread out the numbers are.
High Standard of Deviation
This means that the students' abilities and skills are diverse.
Low Standard of Deviation
This means that the students' abilities and skills are similar.
An Example of Holistic Scoring
A teacher uses a rubric to address the scoring criteria of a student's paper. Then, the teacher balances the paper's strengths and weaknesses and assigns an overall grade.
Example of How a Teacher can Improve Content Knowledge in Science
Join the National Science Teachers Association
Example of Independent Study
Use of learning centers at which students can practice literacy skills and create learning logs
Example of a Strategy to Increase Motivation and Achievement in Students
Providing students with a menu of instructional choices
Best Solution for a New Teacher Whose Mentor is not Helpful
Meet with the principal to discuss how to manage the problem
A test that compares student's skills with peers of same grade level, thereby helping ascertain whether a student has acquired the skills needed to function successfully at his or her grade level. Example: Assessment given to determine a need for academic support.
A test designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards. For example, written descriptions of what students are expected to know and be able to do at a specific stage of their education. Used to: determine whether a student has obtained the expected knowledge and skills in a certain area and whether there are any gaps in learning, used to evaluate the effectiveness of a course of study.
What is a new teacher's best first step to address the concern of managing behavior?
Keeping a reflective journal about the types of problematic behaviors that occur, ABC or FBA, taking data on strategies that work versus those that don't
What is an effective strategy to encourage parents to help their child continue learning outside of school?
Posting assignments on a website so parents can monitor their child's work, having parent's sign their child's HW, keeping HW short and relevant
What piece of legislation is appropriate for implementing a plan to help a student with ADHD who needs extra time to complete homework and tests?
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
Name an effective strategy to increase students' self-motivation during a unit.
Offering students a menu of activities to choose from, offering reinforcements
Name an example of an instructional accommodation.
Increasing the font size of a student's reading assignment
Name an example of a teacher who supports the theory of social learning
Using thinkalouds to model how to question text
What strategy should a new teacher use when determining instructional content?
Reviewing the curriculum standards provided by the state and school district
Established the theory of Multiple Intelligences. The six intelligence are:
Students learn best by saying, hearing, and seeing words
Students are conceptual thinkers, compute arithmetic in their heads, and reason problems easily
Students use mental pictures and visual images
Students are athletically gifted and acquire knowledge through bodily sensations
Students have sensitivity to pitch, sound, melody, rhythm, and tones
Students have the ability to engage and interact with people socially; these students have a strength in making sense of their world through relationships
Students have the ability to observe nature and see patterns
Established the theory of Three Levels of Culture. The levels include:
Concrete Level of Culture
Most vivid and tangible level of Nitza's Hidalgo theory which includes surface-level aspects, such as clothes, music, games, and food.
Behavioral Level of Culture
The level of Nitza's Hidalgo theory that is defined by our social roles, language, and approaches to nonverbal communication and helps us situate ourselves organizationally in society. For example, gender roles, family structure, and political affiliation.
Symbolic Level of Culture
The level of Nitza's Hidalgo theory that involves our values and beliefs. It is often abstract yet is key to how one defines himself or herself. For example, customs, religion.
Established the theory of Funds of Knowledge which states that multicultural families can become social and intellectual resources for a school.
The ways the student tends to approach classroom tasks and cognitive activities: auditory, kinesthetic, or visual.
Students who process information through listening.
Kinesthetic or Tactile Learner
Students who process information through moving, touching, and doing.
A process of learning and adopting the customs and values of another culture.
Established the theory of Advance Organizer, which is a teaching technique in which an organizer is introduced before learning begins and is designed to help students link prior knowledge to the current lesson's content. Examples include: KWL chart, concept map, semantic web.
Established the Theory of Assertive Discipline in which teachers clearly communicate expectations and class rules and follow through with expectations. Students have a choice to follow the class rules or face consequences.
Established the Choice Theory, AKA: Control Theory, in which teachers focus on students' behavior, not students, when resolving classroom conflicts. Students have a say in the rules, curriculum, and environment of the classroom. Emphasizes creating a safe space to learn and promotes intrinsic motivation.
Established the theory of "with-it-ness" in which teachers have an awareness of what is happening in their classrooms and they pace their lessons appropriately and create smooth transitions.
Established the theory of Classical Conditioning in which he conducted experiments with dogs in the 1920s. His experiment showed that dogs could have a conditioned response, salivate, to a conditioned stimulus, smell of food.
When one constructs a causal explanation for failure or success.
A feeling of mental discomfort in which new information conflicts with beliefs or previously learned information.
Motivation from external sources like stickers, food, good grades, or external rewards
Motivation from internal sources like social and verbal praise, or self pride.
A tendency for a person to be a passive learner who is dependent on others for guidance and decision making.
The process or action of strengthening a behavior.
A learning technique to help you remember information by connecting new & prior knowledge, such as a pattern of letters, ideas, or associations that assists in memory. Example: acronyms or songs
Teachers can use this type of graphic organizer to help students see the relationships and interrelationships among concepts and new ideas.
Teachers and more capable peers provide important positive models for learners. One of the central beliefs of social-learning theory. Example: Teacher may share his or her thinking while reading a challenging vocabulary word, discussing strategies to figure out the meaning of the word.
Alfred Bandura posits that people's behavior is controlled by the individual through internal cognitive processes and external events in the environment. Example: A child may act-out due to a dislike of school. The teacher may respond by keeping the child in for recess, thereby fueling the child's disdain of school.
Type of learning which occurs through social interaction and/or observation.
The teacher offers the same core content to each student but provides varying levels of support for students.
The teacher finds the key content that must be learned and reduces the number of examples, activities, or lessons so that a student - usually one who is advanced - can demonstrate the content and move on to another level.
The teacher breaks down a unit's content into smaller units (sections) and provides support and frequent feedback to the student as he or she demonstrates understanding of each section of information.
Flexible groups are groups that change as the students' learning needs change. For example, students who need to better understand how to make inferences work together until they are proficient, and then the group disbands.
Direct Instruction Methods
Instructional strategies including demonstration, lecture, mastery learning, review of student performance, and student examination.
Indirect Instruction Methods
Instructional strategies including concept mapping, inquiry, discovery learning, case studies, and problem solving.
A direct instruction strategy. Teacher explicitly shows students what something is or how to do something.
A direct instruction strategy. Teacher transmits information to the students verbally and may include text based, technology, oral essays, or participatory aids.
A direct instruction strategy. Teacher uses a group-based, teacher-centered, instructional approach to provide learning conditions for all students to master assigned information.
Designed to enable individuals or small groups of students to interact with course content after the teacher has taught the focus lesson or while the teacher is leading small-group sessions.
Experiential and Virtual Instruction
Also known as Anchored Instruction. The student uses concrete applications of the concept being taught, the anchor, to connect what he or she is learning to a concrete experience. Example: Students learning about civil rights might simulate walking over the Edmund Pettus Bridge at a local river bridge. Teachers can also use computers to simulate experiences.
Interactive Instruction Methods
Instructional methods including cooperative learning, student teams achievement divisions (STAD), jigsaw,numbered heads together, think-pair-share, and reciprocal teaching, and more.
An interactive instructional method that requires students to work together to solve a problem or achieve a goal
Key Features of Cooperative Learning
Positive Interdependence, Positive Interaction, Individual and Group Accountability, Interpersonal Skills, and Group Processing
One of the key features of cooperative learning because students must work together to successfully accomplish a task.
One of the key features of cooperative learning because student interaction is designed to promote face-to-face or individual interaction and relationships.
Individual and Group Accountability
One of the key features of cooperative learning because students must contribute to the group's success and complete their portion of the task to receive a successful assessment.
One of the key features of cooperative learning because students must be taught and learn to use teamwork and positive social skills when working with others.
One of the key features of cooperative learning because teachers must provide an opportunity for feedback, not only on the group's product but also on the group's process.
Examples of Cooperative Learning
*Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)
*Numbered Heads Together
Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which students are assigned to heterogeneously grouped teams of four or five members who collaborate on worksheets designed to provide extended practice on instruction given by the teacher.
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which instructional materials are divided and then studied by individuals or pairs of students. After students become "experts" on their sections of information, they share the information with the group.
Numbered Heads Together
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which students are heterogeneously grouped into a "home team." Then each student is assigned a number so that he or she can join all the students with the same number to become an "expert" on assigned materials. For example, all the students who were assigned the number five read about and discuss music during the Harlem Renaissance. Once each of the numbered groups has had time to learn the assigned materials, the students return to their home team and teach their peers the content they have learned.
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which the teacher poses a problem or situation and asks students to think individually. The teacher then suggests that each student pair with a peer and share his or her thinking on this problem or situation. Sometimes students then share their ideas as a whole group; other times, the students share only in pairs.
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which the teacher and the student engage in a discussion of the text. Both the student and the teacher question and respond to the text in an effort to improve the student's comprehension of the material.
Rationally deciding what to believe or what to do. When a person rationally decides something, he or she evaluates information to see if it makes sense, whether it is coherent, and whether the argument is well founded on evidence.
A type of graphic organizer that help students identify causes and effects in narrative or expository texts. Example: Write the event in the center and then list the causes on the left and the effects on the right.
A type of graphic organizer that can help students learn key vocabulary or concepts. Example: If the vocabulary word is feelings, ask students to generate a list of words that represent feelings and write them along a positive-to-negative line chart.
A type of graphic organizer that is beneficial when a teacher wants students to understand the revolving sequence of a text. Example: Science fact of water to evaporation to precipitation...etc.
A type of graphic organizer that can be used for a variety of purposes to help students recall information. Example: The teacher might list categories along the first row and ask students to provide examples from the lesson for each category.
A type of graphic organizer in which students can use a sequence diagram, with the teacher's modeling guidance, to remember the sequence of events in a factual or fictional text.
A type of graphic organizer used with narrative texts to help students identify and recall key story elements, such as characters, setting, plot, and conclusion.
Problem- or Project-Based Learning
Includes an in-depth investigation of real-world, authentic topics or problems that is meaningful to students. The students work in small groups or pairs to solve the problem or learn more about the topic. The teacher facilitates student projects and supports students' inquiries and discoveries.
Types of Learning Groups
*Partner Check or Think Pair/Share
*Independent Study Sessions or Units
Other grouping techniques and strategies include:
*Grouping by Gender or Interest
Similar ability groups
Factual Recall Techniques
Examples: Mnemonic devises, mental imagery, patterns of organization, recitation, questions from Bloom's Taxonomy's "knowledge" level, flash cards, games that require memory and immediate recall, and computer drill programs.
Forming pictures or images in the mind to recall information.
Patterns of Organization
Presenting material to students in a logical and organized manner and helping students see the pattern of the content.
Having students read and repeat important content out loud.
Questions based on Bloom's Taxonomy at the evaluation, synthesis, and analysis levels, use open ended questions
Best Practices for Student Question Generating
*Probing for Understanding
*Modeling Higher-Level Questioning
*Highlighting Patterns and Connections
*Providing a Framework for the Questioning
*Providing Scaffolding of Instruction and Watching for Misconceptions and correcting as needed
A purposeful pause of time that a teacher uses to give a student and the remainder of the class a chance to think and more deeply formulate a response.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student listens to the discussion carefully and summarizes either one person's point or the entire discussion.
Note Taker or Illustrator
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student is required to use active listening and good note taking or drawing skills. The notes can be read at the close of the discussion or to open the discussion another day. A visual representation of the discussion can be shared to further the understanding of the group.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student finds a meaningful line or passage from the text and reads it to the group to trigger deeper understanding in the discussion.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student watches the time for the overall discussion, as well as the equitable chances for people to speak.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student asks probing questions or asks for clarification.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student (or teacher) manages the overall discussion to keep students actively moving toward deeper understanding.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student (or teacher) offers a critical, constructive view of the discussion's process and content.
Initiate, Respond, and Evaluate (IRE)
A common structure for classroom questioning which may include questions from Bloom's Taxonomy:
*Knowledge: Remember, recognize, recall who, what, where...
*Comprehension: Interpret, retell, organize, and select facts
*Application: Subdivide information and show how it can be put back together. What are examples?
*Analysis: What are the features of? How does this compare with?
*Synthesis: Create a unique product that combines ideas from the lesson. What would you infer from?
*Evaluation: Make a decision about an issue in the lesson. What criteria would you use to assess?
Either visual or verbal structures that provide a general idea of the new information to be learned, building knowledge of the key concepts to be learned in the lesson. Introduced by David Ausubel.
Teacher-led discussion strategy in which the teacher engages students in dialogues by responding to questions with questions, instead of just providing answers. Although it engages higher-order thinking, it can be a time consuming technique.
A formal discussion structure in which four to eight students discuss a topic while the rest of the class listens. After the discussion, the class questions the panel members for further whole group discussion.
A formal discussion structure made up of a set of speeches by students from two opposing views. Debate groups present their views, followed by rebuttals of the opposing side's views.
A type of reader response in which students discuss the text by making sense of the content, the meaning of the text, or the factual points of the text.
A type of reader response in which students discuss the text by connecting personal experiences to the text, discussing thoughts and feelings about the text.
Reader + Text = Meaning
A teacher with this view of students' reading responses will strive to question students in order to help them come to their own interpretations of the text, not necessarily the teacher's or the author's view.
Helps students who have been at odds with one another to arrive at a mutually beneficial solution. The goal is to help students resolve strife peacefully and cooperatively without using the traditional school discipline plans or structures.
Used to change observed behavior. The steps include:
1. Identifying the problem behavior
2. Planning a method for changing the behavior
3. Offering positive reinforcement when the student's behavior is positive
4. Using positive reinforcement consistently to shape and change the problem behavior
Suggested 10 basic principles for the development of an Explicit Teaching session.
The teacher directly says what they are going to do, what they are going to teach, and what they want from the students. Includes 10 basic principles.
Basic Principles of Explicit Teaching
1. Create a short statement of lesson purpose.
2. Provide a short review of previous, prerequisite learning.
3. Present new material in small steps, with student practice.
4. Provide clear, detailed explanations and instructions.
5. Provide active practice for all students.
6. Ask effective questions, check for student understanding, and encourage all pupil response.
7. Guide students during practice.
8. Offer feedback and corrections.
9. Provide practice for independent work and monitor students.
10. Continue practice until students are ready to use new information confidently and independently.
Dawn Abt-Perkins and Lois Matz Rosen
Author's of Preparing English Teachers to Teach Diverse Student Populations: Beliefs, Challenges, Proposals for Change. They suggested five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Teachers must first understand the influences of their own cultures and critique their own values. First of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Teacher shows understanding of the importance of culture and how culture affects student views of the world. Knowing students' families, languages, literacy practices, communities, and values. Second of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Teachers must understand the patterns of communication and dialects of the students they teach...acknowledge and validate the student's home language. Third of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Culturally Informed Teaching Knowledge
Teachers create a collaborative and culturally sensitive classroom environment...view student's differences as "funds of knowledge." Fourth of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Knowledge of Multicultural Materials and Methods
Teacher uses multicultural literature and texts that present balanced global views of historical events offer powerful ways for teachers to show respect for their students' cultures, as well as promote cross-cultural understanding. Fifth of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Degree of Directness
This varies from direct to indirect. Teachers must be a good interpreter of the person's meaning and use inference to gather the person's true message. First of four general elements of communication.
The Role of Context
Teachers must determine the amount of instinctive understanding a person is expected to bring to the table, low to high, based upon cultural expectations. Second of four general elements of communication
The Importance of "Saving Face"
Teachers must consider an act that avoids the loss of a person's dignity or prestige. In some cultures, this is more important than in others. The degree of importance affects communication. Third of four general elements of communication.
The Task and the Person
Teachers must consider if the culture places more emphasis on individuals or on their assigned work because this will affect the level of importance they place upon working/social relationships. Fourth of four general elements of communication.
Standardized tests used to evaluate an individual's performance in a specific area. Examples: cognitive or psychomotor
Tests written for a variety of subjects and levels designed to measure a student's knowledge or proficiency in something that has been learned or taught. Examples: SAT, MAT, CAT.
Tools designed to provide specific information about each aspect of a task in order to share specific strengths and weaknesses of a student.
Written notes that teachers maintain based on their observations of individual children. Teachers use a variety of methods to organize these types of records, such as file folders, mailing labels, index cards, and Post-it notes.
Standardized or norm-referenced tests that are designed to measure a student's ability to develop or acquire skills and knowledge.
Assessment procedures that test skills and abilities as they would be applied in real-life situations. Not a multiple choice or matching type of assessment.
Standardized or norm-referenced assessments that are given before instruction begins to help teachers understand students' learning needs.
This type of question requires the students to make connections between new and previously learned content, apply information to new situations, and demonstrate (write) that they have learned the new information.
This type of assessment is given while learning is in progress and offers the teacher and the student an opportunity to monitor and regulate learning.
This can be used as an authentic assessment of a student's understanding of key concepts or his or her ability to communicate ideas in writing. Generally, the teacher assesses the process, not the product, informally.
Also known as standardized tests and used to determine a student's performance in relation to the performance of a group of peers who have taken the same test.
Observation of Students
This could be the most important assessment tool in a teacher's toolkit. Also known as kidwatching, the teacher monitors (watches) the students and then, takes notes (a.k.a. anecdotal records).
This type of assessment requires a student to perform a task or generate his or her own response during the assessment. Example: During a composition class, the student would be required to write something rather than answer multiple-choice questions or match question items.
A carefully selected collection of student products, and sometimes teacher observations, collected over time, that reflect a student's progress in a content area.
Scoring guides used in assessments. They can be analytic or holistic.
Type of assessment that measures student progress toward meeting goals that are based upon local, state, and/or national goals.
Type of assessment that provides information about learning to be used to make judgments about a student's achievement and the teacher's instruction.
Type of scoring typically used for constructed-response tests (essays, short-answer) and includes detailed descriptions of the criteria. (focuses on parts, not just the whole)
May be age-level, comparing student to children of same age, or grade-level, demonstrating the grade and month of the school year to which a student score can be compared.
Average of set of scores
Midpoint of a set of numbers
Most common number in a set of numbers
The percentage of students (of given group) that scored above or below the student's score
When you divide the normal distribution of scores into four equal parts, you can describe the student's score as it falls into one of three groups:
Q1 = The lowest 25%
Q2 = The middle 50% (median)
Q3 = The highest 25%
Equivalent to the number of questions answered correctly on an assessment
A score that is based upon a mathematical transformation of raw scores.
Standard Error of Measure
The standard deviation of test scores you would have obtained from a single student who took the same test multiple times
Derived from standard nine - based on a nine-point standard scale with a mean of 5 and standard deviation of 2. Rarely used by classroom teachers (except math teachers)
The extent to which an assessment is consistent with its measures
When a test measures what it was designed to measure
Each content area has a national organization. Example: National Science Teachers Association
'dynamic conservatism' - people will fight to resist change
Suggests that in a concerns-based reflection model, the teacher should conduct an incident analysis; deeply think about one particular teaching or learning event that concerns him or her.
Little Rock 9
In 1957, 9 African American students, nonviolently challenged segregation. The court ruled in their favor and ordered that they be admitted to the All White Little Rock High School.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
A federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of a person's disability for all services, programs, and activities provided by state and local governments.
Race to the Top
The Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).
(of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973), is a civil-rights law prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federally assisted programs or activities.
Passed in 1975, is now the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
The Nation at Risk
This report was issued during the Reagan Administration and called for the creation of teaching, teacher education, and education standards.
Started the TESTING MOVEMENT by introducing the Stanford-Binet intelligence test in 1916 along with other tests, such as the Stanford Achievement Test.
involves students in the process of exploring the natural and/or material world in an effort to help them discover meaning
The ability to understand one's own emotions, motivations, inner states of being, and self-reflection.
NEA Committee of Ten
Created the report which resulted in the U.S. education school configuration of eight years of elementary education and four years of secondary education.
Standards that specify learning outcomes in a subject or discipline (for example, mathematics or social studies).
Standards that set the level of expectation for student groups (example grade-level or age-level).
Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggens
Suggested that teachers use a BACKWARD DESIGN when planning for standards-based instruction.
An approach to instructional planning in which a teacher first determines the desired end result (i.e., what knowledge and skills students should acquire) and then identifies appropriate assessments and instructional strategies. (suggested by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggens -- does not include the scope and sequence of the unit)
Which psychologist suggests using an incentive system, providing individualized help that efficiently supports the learning of each student and using body language to convey behavioral messages as strategies that may decrease off-task behaviors during independent practice times?
Frederic Jones, a psychologist in the field of behavior modification, identifies these as important aspects of a positive classroom management system. Positive classroom management uses reinforcers rather than punishment. Individualized help increases the likelihood that students will understand the classroom expectations and lessons, thus decreasing the downtime caused by confusion. This, in turn, decreases opportunities for misbehavior. Body language allows the teacher to communicate more privately with a student, rather than drawing negative attention to them as a verbal redirect would.
Nitza Hidalgo, an educational theorist, tells us that there are the three levels of culture that can be identified as influential in the way students learn. What are these levels?
The three levels of culture that educational theorist Nitza Hidalgo identifies as influential in the way students learn are concrete, behavioral and symbolic. The concrete level of culture includes those aspects that are more readily observed among a group: the way they dress, their food preferences and the art forms that they may be identified by as a whole. The behavioral level of culture can be seen as the less visible patterns of action common to the group as a whole, such as speaking a common language, the ways they organize themselves socially and mannerisms practiced by all. Lastly, the third and most abstract of the three, is the symbolic level of culture. This level includes what some might refer to as convictions or beliefs that are seen as the values of a group. These three levels can also be identified within sub-cultures.
Early theories regarding the phases of moral development were typically male-centered. Which theorist recognized this and proposed the stages of ethical care to address the phases of moral development as they relate to women?
Carol Gilligan used her concept of the stages of ethical care to address the phases of moral development as they relate to women. She felt that the male-centered theories of other professionals such as Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson were insufficient to address the moral development of women, because their psychological characteristics are innately different from those of men. The three stages she identifies in her theory are pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional.
Carefully constructing a seating chart, establishing daily classroom routines and directly teaching the classroom rules are examples of what?
Carefully constructing a seating chart, establishing daily classroom routines and directly teaching the classroom rules are all examples of preventative measures aimed at minimizing the occurrence of undesirable behaviors among students. These are valuable attributes of a positive classroom management system since they decrease the likelihood of misbehavior BEFORE teacher redirection is needed.
According to Piaget, what is likely NOT indicative of a student that is a formal operational thinker?
According to Piaget, a student that is a formal operational thinker would likely NOT require the use of math manipulatives to complete algorithms. Students reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development when they are approximately 11-15 years old. They are characterized by the ability to use logic to solve abstract problems and can reason through hypothetical situations. Therefore, students at the formal operational stage would most likely be able to complete algorithms without the need for manipulatives in order to solve math problems.
What is teacher behavior that demonstrates "with-it-ness" according to Jacob Kounin?
According to Kounin, having good classroom management skills and well-paced lessons are both teacher behaviors that demonstrate "with-it-ness." While the other behaviors are also good ones to have, they are not part of Kounin's theory. Kounin also stated that "with-it" teachers transition their classes smoothly between activities and know what is happening in their classrooms at all times.
Andrew, a fourth grader, is showing signs commonly seen in young children experiencing depression. Despite the fact that he is successful in his academics, has a healthy home-life and has all of his physical needs met, he does not appear to have any friends. He cries often for reasons that are unapparent and wanders off to sit away from the other students during lunch and recess. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which of the following needs are likely not being met and are, therefore, hindering his self-actualization?
According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, it is likely that Andrew's belongingness and love needs are not being met and are, therefore, hindering his self-actualization. The hierarchy dictates that students' belongingness and love needs are satisfied by participation in healthy, positive relationships with family members, peers and other individuals that they connect with emotionally. Whenever belongingness and love needs are satisfied, an individual can then begin to seek ways to fulfill their esteem needs. Without this satisfaction, it is likely that the esteem needs will not be met either; thus, self-actualization cannot be obtained. Self-actualization involves feelings of fulfillment coupled with developments in specific areas of personal growth.
According to Piaget's theory of development, at what stage of cognitive development are most children in Kindergarten and the first grade functioning?
According to Piaget's theory of development, most children in Kindergarten and the first grade are functioning at the pre-operational stage of cognitive development. The pre-operational stage occurs around ages 2 to 7 years old and typically involves the belief that other individuals see the world as they do: an egocentric viewpoint. They learn to use language and are capable of representing objects with images and words. Additionally, they can classify objects by a single feature.
Teachers that demonstrate positive classroom management skills understand the difference between punishment and discipline. Describe characteristics that are indicative of discipline?
Discipline is based on logical consequences and centers on the student. It takes a positive approach to modifying problem behaviors rather than a punitive and reactionary one.
As the students within Mr. Shore's third-grade class entered the room, they immediately noticed that the room had been rearranged from rows into groups of four. Each grouping had a red envelope on top of one of the desks. The envelope had "Top Secret" written on the front. Mr. Shore dodged their questions and asked everyone to select a seat and wait until morning announcements were finished. At that time, he announced that today's math lesson would end with a word problem whose answer was inside their red envelopes. He then whispers that all students whose answers are correct will receive a class privilege or reward, though he will not be specific. Students are advised that opening the envelope before being told to would immediately disqualify them from the reward associated with the correct answer. The most likely reason Mr. Shore is using this instructional strategy is to
The most likely reason Mr. Shore is using this instructional strategy is to stimulate curiosity in the lesson and therefore increase student engagement. By stimulating curiosity, he will likely inspire dialogue and activate their prior knowledge. Because the reward is unknown, students will likely speculate and build the expectation that all of their group members should be attentive to the lesson in order to increase the likelihood that they will successfully solve the word problem.
What are non-verbal forms of communication which can be used as part of an effective classroom management system?
Proximity control, Eye contact, Signaling
One example of proximity control is modeled when a teacher moves to stand next to a student's desk during lecture to stop them from talking. Eye contact, including "the look," simply communicates to the student that the teacher is watching them or did see what they just did. Signaling, such as raising the hand to achieve class-wide attention, can be used silently to affect change in student behavior.
What are questioning techniques which teachers may use to stimulate learning among their students?
Students generate questions prior to a lesson, Providing a 3 second wait time for students to generate a response, The teacher prompts other students to answer a peer's question, Use sentence stems from a variety of knowledge levels on Bloom's taxonomy
Tanya has finished her course work and is sitting in the reading area of her classroom. She is reading an anthology of children's poetry and laughs quietly at the silliness of some of them. She enjoys saying the poems aloud and wants to share one of them with a friend that is also in the reading area. Tanya is demonstrating the stance of a(n)
Tanya is demonstrating the stance of an aesthetic reader. Aesthetic readers appreciate the experience of reading and appreciate the way things are written. They may enjoy the tone or mood of the piece or even the shape of a poem. Poems, plays and novels lend themselves to aesthetic reading.
reading to "take away" particular bits of information. Here, the reader is not interested in the rhythms of the language or the prose style but is focused on obtaining a piece of information. Rosenblatt states, "the reader's attention is primarily focused on what will remain as a residue after the reading — the information to be acquired, the logical solution to a problem, the actions to be carried out." An example would be a deep sea fishing guide to decide where to go fishing, or a textbook to learn about the economic causes of the Great Depression.
When preparing students to communicate academically, it is appropriate to question at the knowledge level of Bloom's taxonomy. These types of questions require that students use their memory and promote factual recall. What strategies can be used for improving memory and are at the knowledge level of Bloom's taxonomy?
Creating mental imagery, Using mnemonic devices, Reciting content repeatedly out loud
Which report, written in 1983 by the National Commission on Excellence in Education, provided research-supported evidence that American schools were falling farther behind schools of other countries?
A Nation at Risk was a report written in 1983 by the National Commission on Excellence in Education which provided research-supported evidence that American schools were falling farther behind schools of other countries. It identified that this lag occurred primarily within the nation's secondary schools. It began dialogue that would later evolve in the concept of highly qualified teachers by calling for the creation of standards within teacher education programs.
What are the five stages of the SQ3R note-taking strategy as they are cued by the acronym?
The five stages of the SQ3R note-taking strategy, as they are cued by the acronym, are:
Survey - During the survey stage, students perform pre-reading behaviors such as scanning.
Question- The students then use chapter headings and subheadings to create questions.
Read- The students read the sections of the text, keeping in mind the questions.
Recite - In this stage, the students attempt to answer the questions they created in their own words. This may be done orally or in written form
Review- The students review the information they have processed.
It is important to include an anticipatory set, also known as a set induction, when planning for a lesson or a unit of lessons. The purpose of an anticipatory set is to:
The purpose of an anticipatory set is to activate the students' prior knowledge and to spur interest in the topics covered. In other words, its purpose is to create anticipation for the upcoming unit or lesson and to make connections to prior knowledge.
According to Bloom's taxonomy, the most advanced category of questioning is:
According to Bloom's taxonomy, the most advanced category of questioning is evaluation. The order of learning concentrations in Bloom's taxonomy from most basic to most complex is: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
What graphic organizer would best allow students to log the effects of a variety of chemicals on a series of compounds?
A matrix would be the best graphic organizer to log the effects of a variety of chemicals on a series of chemicals. Matrixes use rows and columns to present information in a way that simplifies relationships and promotes retention. Teacher-made rubric are often set up in a matrix.
Mr. McMullin has assigned an essay to be written on the causes of the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and Great Britain. He will score the students on several dimensions, including their use of prior knowledge, their application of principals, their use of original source material to support their point of view and the actual composition. This type of scoring is commonly referred to as
This type of scoring is commonly referred to as analytical scoring. Analytical scoring also involves the use of detailed descriptions of criteria and is typically used to assess constructed-response questions within assessments. It helps teachers to score a large numberof items while providing meaningful feedback.
When students demonstrate that they are capable of using previously acquired knowledge in either a new situation or context, they are said to demonstrate:
When students demonstrate that they are capable of using previously acquired knowledge in either a new situation or context, they are said to demonstrate transference. Another term used to refer to this behavior is generalization. Transference is typically nurtured at the culmination of a unit and during enrichment and extension activities.
One of the core purposes of providing direct instruction on current technologies is to:
One of the core justifications for providing direct instruction oncurrent technologies is to prepare students to function in the real world and to access higher paying jobs. Technology develops rapidly, and therefore instruction should be on-going with competent individuals leading the instruction. For many students, school represents the only location wherein they can access current technologies. The schools in the United States value the direct instruction of technology usage as a means to keep its workforce competitive at a global level.
As a culminating activity on a unit on the drafting of the United States Bill of Rights, Mr. Conden's class works as a single group to create a Student Bill of Rights. At which level of Bloom's taxonomy would this activity be categorized?
Mr. Conden's activity would be categorized under the synthesis level on Bloom's taxonomy. Within the synthesis level, students are expected to combine concepts from the lesson in order to create a new product. It is assumed that in order to create a Student Bill of Rights, they had to understand the model provided by the US Bill of Rights enough that the abstract concepts behind its creation could be recreated to a degree.
What assessment is issued prior to instruction in order to identify students' areas of strength and difficulty so that teacherscan make informed decisions as they plan instruction or form educational judgments?
Diagnostic evaluations are used prior to instruction in order to identify students' areas of strength and difficulty so that teachers can make informed decisions as they plan instruction or form educational judgments. They can be used to eliminate repetitive teaching and to identify potholes in students' learning. Additionally, teachers may create homogeneous or heterogeneous groupings based on the students' performance on diagnostic tools.
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