1,138 terms

AP Environmental Science Vocabulary List

A comprehensive list of vocabulary words associated with AP Environmental Science, including words and subjects found in Botkin/Keller's 7th Edition Environmental Science textbook.
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Deep Ocean
Of all the aquatic biomes on earth, we know the least about the _____. Image:
Coral Reefs
Where the most biodiversity is found; being destroyed by global warming. Image: (http://www.picture-newsletter.com/corals/coral-22.jpg)
Aquatic Ecosystems
Chapter 8: An ecosystem located in a body of water; provides flood control, climate moderation, and nutrients cycling. Includes fresh and saltwater ecosystems. Information: Wikipedia. Image URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Estuary-mouth.jpg
Trawl Fishing (Trawling)
____ has the most destructive effects on ocean floor ecosystems. Image: (http://www.ilvo.vlaanderen.be/Portals/27/Gallery/Album/4/Beam_trawl_being_set_for_fishing.jpg) [B.L.]
tragedy of the commons
When the ambitions of individuals destroy what is shared. written by Garret Hardin [D-N.P.]
cetaceans
Whales and porpoises are called _____. Image: (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/59/Cetaceans.svg/320px-Cetaceans.svg.png) [B.L.]
International Whaling Commission
intergovernmental organization that sets quotas for hunting certain whale species
Image (http://iwcoffice.org/images/final_logo_rgb.png) [D - H.M.]
optimum sustainable yield
the largest yield of a renewable resource achievable over a long time period without decreasing the ability of the resource, its ecosystem or its environment to maintain this level of yield. [D-N.P.]
http://gwwho.sdsu.edu/groundwater_sustainable_yield_01.jpg
High Seas
Ocean areas beyond any country's legal jurisdiction. Image (http://www.seaaroundus.org/biomassmaps/) [Dº - W.W.M.]
Everglades
The largest wetlands restoration project in the US is in the _____. http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRYknXbMFov3GvdFMfSftjgURJyyyedtAU8Zp3r722dqfOAZkdyAw [D-M.Z.]
US Army Corps of Engineers
The _____ is responsible for undoing the development of the Everglades that the same agency has done since the 1940s. http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQMwfffP1F8mwvd3YWPLbdX7MAcrG_XV2pIPbCYVgDTrNUpzQWx [D-M.Z.]
Alien Species
Are species that are not native to an area, and can be there due to human activity. Image (http://www.grampiansquirrelgroup.co.uk/red_squirrels_fact_sheets.htm) {Red Squirrel is an alien to India} [D-N.P] [Dº - W.W.M.]
Columbia River
The worlds largest hydroelectric power system is located on the _____. http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR1cGgZJZKnnduYCMW4aohaNyaDxPlnHkTYgl3lSkOoDF7Rx_2A [D-M.Z.]
Zebra mussel
_____ was introduced into the Great Lakes and has now spread through most of the major river systems in central and eastern U.S. Image:(http://www.okbassfednation.com/zebra_mussel.jpg) [B.L.]
national wild and scenic rivers act
Under _____ protection can be offered to rivers and river segments with cultural and historic value, wildlife and scenic value, and recreational value.
biodiversity hot spots
Areas with exceptionally high numbers of endemic species
Endangered species
Chapter 14: A species considered to be in imminent danger of extinction as classified by the IUCN. Source: Wikipedia. Image URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Siberischer_tiger_de_edit02.jpg [C period - yy]
intrinsic value
Value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth's biodiversity based on its existence, regardless of whether it has any usefulness to us.
extinction
The irrevocable elimination of species; can be a normal process of the natural world as species out-compete and kill off others or as environmental conditions change. - http://wattsupwiththat.com/2011/06/01/common-sense-added-to-endangered-species-list/ - [Per. C - Ian S.]
habitat conservation plan
Agreements under which property owners are allowed to harvest resources or develop land as long as habitat is conserved or replaced in ways that benefit resident endangered or threatened species in the long run. Some incidental "taking" or loss of endangered species is generally allowed in such plans
invasive species
Organisms that thrive in new territory where they are free of predators, diseases, or resource limitations that may have controlled their population in their native habitat; See also exotic/introduced species. An example of one would be the Cane Toads in Australia. [D° S.C.]
http://www.fws.gov/glri/images/Large-Zebra-Mussel.jpg
Threatened Species
While still abundant in parts of its territorial range, this species has declined significantly in total numbers and may be on the verge of extinction in certain regions or localities. Example: Canada Lynx Info (http://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Wildlife-Library/Mammals/Canada-Lynx.aspx) Image (http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2011/06/rise-fall-canada-lynx-snowshoe-hare/) [Dº - W.W.M.]
Vulnerable species
Chapter 14: A species categorized by the IUCN as likely to become endangered unless there is an intervention. Information: Wikipedia. Image URL: http://www.pictures-of-cats.org/images/IUCN-categories.jpg [C period - yy]
crude oil
the form petroleum takes when in the ground Image: (http://www.crudeoiltrade.com/classified_img/DP11_18.jpg) [B.L.]
Energy
Chapter 5: The capacity to work. Information: textbook. Image URL: http://greenenergyv.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Green-Energy1.jpg [C period -yy]
fission
The process that occurs when an especially a heavy nucleus such as an isotope of uranium, splits into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable mass, releasing from 100 million to several hundred million electron volts of energy. - http://www.google.com/imgres?q=fission&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&sa=N&biw=1920&bih=965&tbm=isch&tbnid=D2SwPtM560yGLM:&imgrefurl=http://investingreenenergy.com/nuclear-power-as-green-energy/&docid=Eiz9dgsZaWWMJM&w=1400&h=799&ei=PJVVTsfUJ6bbiALWkKCXCQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=650&vpy=131&dur=1523&hovh=169&hovw=297&tx=129&ty=81&page=1&tbnh=88&tbnw=155&start=0&ndsp=61&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0 - [Per. C - Ian S.]
fossil fuel
a hydrocarbon deposit, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time and used for fuel. http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS9Oo6x5SqCwwlWoy5_oKCvP6S4cZz2eWkc-2lI9U4fZubShZWITQ [D-M.Z.]
Fly Ash
a waste product produced by the burning of coal. Image: http://coletoash.com/images/flyash.jpg [J.T]
half life
the amount of time it takes for half of a radioactive sample to disappear.
Image (http://library.thinkquest.org/27917/content/halflife_ra_decay.gif) [D - H.M.]
fusion
The process of fusing two nuclei together. Releases tremendous amounts of energy, but also requires tremendous energy input. Impossible with current technology. -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Deuterium-tritium_fusion.svg - [Per. C - Ian S.]
overburden
the rocks and Earth that is removed when mining for a commercially valuable mineral resource.
Image (http://lh3.ggpht.com/_HmJbAJv9QnY/SuXkTBd1myI/AAAAAAAABS8/UCO2clUYn8I/overburden-removal.jpg) [D - H.M.]
petroleum
a hydrocarbon that forms as sediments are buried and pressurized.http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQFmrQXlClUj4mmQWkQiEZa-SBeVWzOV8TdeT8uckC9kZUOnj_BeA [R.P.]
scrubbers
devices containing alkaline substances that precipitate out much of the sulfur dioxide from industrial plants.
http://www.induscoenviro.com/img/scrubber1.jpg
Strip Mining
Double, already a notecard for strip mining. http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/images/stripmining.jpg [D-M.Z.]
underground mining
involves the sinking of shafts to reach underground deposits. In this type of mining, networks of tunnels are dug or blasted and humans enter these tunnels in order to manually retrieve the coal. http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/20/1520-004-D9F70F17.jpg [D-M.Z.]
Surface mining
removing shallow deposits such as nonfuel mineral and rock resources and 60% of U.S. coal http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/Coal_mine_Wyoming.jpg/350px-Coal_mine_Wyoming.jpg [D-M.Z.]
Average residence time
(3) A measure of the time it takes for a given part of the reservoir of a particular material in a system to be cycled through the system [D° - T.G]
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_cQdmVs0FKpg/TPbnXYMkPSI/AAAAAAAAAA8/iSrPBgmwxns/s1600/water+cycle.bmp
Open-pit Mining
Chapter 26: is used to create large pits to extract iron, copper, sand, gravel, and stone Image: http://www.ritchiewiki.com/wiki/files/thumb/Open_Pit_Mine.jpg/300px-Open_Pit_Mine.jpg [J.T]
Strip mining
(18) Involves the removal of the Earth's surface all the way down to the level of the mineral seam. Used for extracting mineral deposits that lie close to the earth's surface in large horizontal beds. {D.B}. Image: <http://www.wvgazette.com/mediafiles/thumbs/595/374.85/mtr_I100403174415.jpg>.
Contour strip mining
(18) Used on mountainous terrain; Terraces cut into the sides of hills; highwalls. {D.B}. Image: <http://www.unitedmountaindefense.org/images/MTRfacts1.jpg>.
Ore
the valuable material that is extracted from the ground. Usually refined in some way before use. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Vxl95PopxJo/TKQY1nIVNjI/AAAAAAAAAK4/nuu5uyunhIs/s1600/1.075833PeacockOre_A_%5B1%5D.jpg [D-M.Z.]
Gangue
the waste material left over after the desired metal is extracted http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Rubis_sur_gangue_(Vietnam).jpg [D-M.Z.]
Tailings
Chapter 26: solid waste left over from ore mineral removal (http://www.edwardburtynsky.com/WORKS/Breaking_Ground/Tailings/Nickel_Tailings_36.jpg) [C° A.H.]
Smelting
the process of heating ores to remove metals
Image (http://www.hardwaresource.com/images/hinge_history_images/copper_smelting.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Cyanide heap extraction
involves spraying toxic cyanide salts on heaps of crushed ore, where it reacts with the material and separates the gold from the ore
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
requires mining companies to restore most surface-mined land by grading and replanting it; Established in 1977 due to growing concerns about strip mining, it is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States. It regulates active coal mines and created a program for reclaiming old mine lands. [D° S.C.] Information Wikipedia
Net energy
the amount of high-quality energy that is available to be used from a resource after subtracting the energy needed to make it usable
http://www.greencirclebio.com/images/netEnergyGain_img.jpg
Crude oil
(18) A thick liquid hydrocarbon that is extracted from underground deposits and separated into a wide variety of products. [D.B]. Image: <http://nedgrace.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/crudeoil.jpg>.
Hydrocarbons
made of long chains of carbon atoms bonded together and also bonded to hydrogen, as well as smaller amounts of sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen Image: (http://www.universetoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Hydrocarbons.jpg) [B.L.]
Peak production
(18) Passes when the pressure starts to decline and more and more energy is expended to get oil to the surface (Generally only 35-50% of oil is retrieved from any particular well). [D.B]. Image: <http://www.hydrowaterpower.com/PeakGraph.jpg>
Natural gas
is a mixture of gases, with a majority of methane (CH4). Becoming more widely used as a source of energy. Cleaner burning than coal or petroleum. http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ68QtL_kNZ_OJUm7OCf9XOYR-346s9RtIvlLKojdx8H_0YKyfn [D-M.Z.]
Conventional natural gas
found above most reservoirs of crude oil
http://naturalgas.wiki.lovett.org/file/view/naturalgas.jpg/112234705/naturalgas.jpg
Peat
Partially decayed plant matter in swamps and bogs, low heat content; an important source of fuel and under certain conditions, will turn into lignite coal over geologic periods of time. [D° S.C.] Information Wikipedia, Image: Peat Bog (http://pixdaus.com/pics/1219375888jFKAcrV.jpg) [B.L.]
Lignite
(18) Brown coal; coal with a low heat content; low sulfur content; limited supplies in most areas. [D.B]. Image: <http://www.listze.com/uploads/item-17721.jpg>.
Bituminous
(18) Soft coal; Coal that is extensively used as a fuel because of its high heat content and large supplies; normally has a high sulfur content. [D.B]. Image: <http://www.chemical-engineering.co/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/BITUMINOUS-COAL.jpg>.
Anthracite
(18) Hard coal; highly desirable fuel because of its high heat content and low sulfur content; supplies are limited in most areas. [D.B]. Image: <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Coal_anthracite.jpg/300px-Coal_anthracite.jpg>.
Coal gasification
the process behind the concept of "clean coal," and is designed to remove carbon dioxide from the emissions produced by burning coal and turn coal into liquid gas fuel (E-LS)
http://fossil.energy.gov/images/programs/powersystems/gasification_schematic.jpg
Barrier Islands
Low, narrow, sandy islands that form offshore from a coastline. http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRpz_rDY3ZVjf78gcDE4PcVHdyTf5no6PBffP-3UZzG7IF6xtMH [D-M.Z.]
Benthic zone
The lowest level of a body of water. http://static.newworldencyclopedia.org/b/b7/Floridian_seagrass_bed.jpg [D-M.Z.]
Biomes
A broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions.
Image (http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/biome.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Bogs
An area of waterlogged soil that tends to be peaty; fed mainly by precipitation; low productivity; some are acidic.
Image (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/L%C3%BCtt-Witt_Moor-2.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Boreal Forest
A broad band of mixed coniferous and deciduous trees that stretches across northern North America (and also Europe and Asia); its northernmost edge, the taiga, intergrades with the arctic tundra, Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Talkessel_von_Werchojansk.JPG [S.K]
Chaparral
Thick, dense, thorny evergreen scrub found in Mediterranean climates. Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Chaparral1.jpg [S.K.]
Cloud Forest
High mountain forests where temperatures are uniformally cool and fog or mist keeps vegetation wet all the time. Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/83/Cloud_forest_mount_kinabalu.jpg [S.K.]
Conifer
Needle-bearing trees that produce seeds in cones. Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Conifer_forest.jpg [S.K.]
Coral Reefs
Prominent oceanic features composed of hard, carbonaceous skeletons produced by coral animals; usually formed along edges of shallow, submerged ocean banks or along shelves in warm, shallow, tropical seas. Home to the greatest biodiversity of any biome. Threatened by certain fishing practices and ocean acidification.
Image (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Coral_reef_diagram.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Deciduous
Trees and shrubs that shed their leaves at the end of the growing season.
Image (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Langaa_egeskov_rimfrost.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Deserts
A type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely.
Image (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Judea_2_by_David_Shankbone.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Estuaries
A bay or drowned valley where a river empties into the sea.
Image (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/River_Nith_estuary.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Grasslands
A biome dominated by grasses and associated herbaceous plants. Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/bf/AntelopeValleyCAgrassland.JPG [S.K.]
Mangroves
Trees from a number of genera that live in salt water. Above surface root structure extends below water level, providing habitats for marine life. Also can provide buffer against erosion and storm surge. Image: http://www.traveljournals.net/pictures/l/6/63756-thick-yet-diminishing-mangroves-palawan-philippines.jpg [J.T] [
Marshes
Wetland without trees; in North America, this type of land is characterized by cattails and rushes.
Image (http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/01/0f/91/09/marsh-view.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Reefs
A ridge of rocks or sand, often of coral debris, at or near the surface of the water. http://nature-talk.com/oceans/climate/images/coral-reef-image.jpg [R.P.]
Swamps
Wetland with trees.vhttp://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium/florida-swamps-peter-mcintosh.jpg [R.P.]
Taiga
The northernmost edge of the boreal forest, including species-poor woodland and peat deposits; intergrading with the arctic tundra.
Image (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Picea_glauca_taiga.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Temperate Rainforest
The cool, dense rainy forest of the northern Pacific coast; enshrouded in fog much of the time; dominated by large conifers.http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/images/temprain/temperate_rainforest_nurse_log.jpg [R.P.]
Tropical Rainforest
Forests in which rainfall is abundant- more than 00 cm (80 in.) per year- and temperatures are warm to hot year-round.
Image (http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/rainforest.jpg) [D - H.M.]
Tundra
Treeless arctic or alpine biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, a short growing season, and potential for frost any month of the year; vegetation includes low-growing perennial plants, mosses, and lichens.
Image (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Kerguelen_RallierDuBatty.JPG) [D - H.M.]
Wetlands
Chapter 21: Ecosystems of several types in which rooted vegetation is surrounded by standing water during part of the year. (http://www.wondercide.com/content/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/wetlands.jpg) [C° A.H.]
biotic potential
The maximum reproductive rate of an organism when given unlimited resources and ideal environmental conditions.
http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/learning/hunter_education/homestudy/wildlife/images/duckchart.gif (D-D.S.)
demographic bottleneck
a population founded when just a few members of a species survive a catastrophic event or create a new habitat geographically isolated from other members of the same species
http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol3/iss1/art2/figure2.gif (D-D.S.)
dieback
a sudden decline in population
http://ipm.illinois.edu/diseases/series600/rpd641/641-2.gif (D-D.S.)
Emigration
Chapter 7: The movement of members from a given population. Source: Wikipedia. Image URL: http://biology.nicerweb.com/med/Emigration-immigration.jpg [C period - yy]
zero population growth
Ch 4. No growth in population. CH
http://web.pdx.edu/~rueterj/courses/casestudies/demographic_transition/demo_trans.gif
exponential growth
Chapter 3, growth at a constant rate of increase per unit of time; can be expressed as a constant fraction or exponent.
Image: (http://www.onlineinvestingai.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/exponential-curve.gif) [B.L.]
fecundity
the actual physical ability to reproduce
fertility
(4) Pregnancy or the capacity to become pregnant or to have children http://www.fertilityproregistry.com/blog/2009/01/ (MC)
founder effect
The effect on a population founded when just a few members of a species survive a catastrophic event or when they create a new habitat geographically isolated from other members of the same species. Associated with a loss of genetic variation due to a restricted gene pool. May lead to new population becoming markedly different from original population. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Founder_effect.png [Per.C - Ian S.]
genetic drift
the gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-JeqkZxrR65I/TZWu7Pyj6DI/AAAAAAAAB5Y/wRFkdpqHJiM/s1600/genetic-drift-1.gif
irruptive growth
a population explosion followed by a population crash
http://zoology.muohio.edu/oris/cunn06/graphics/cunningham06es_s/ch06/others/fig6_06.gif (D-D.S.)
island biogeography
the study of rates of colonization and extinction of species on islands or other isolated areas based on size, shape, and distance from other inhabited regions
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/images/FilsonFig2.gif
J curve
a growth curve that depicts exponential growth
Image (http://emssolutionsinc.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/j-curve.jpg) [D - H.M.]
life expectancy
(4) Number of years of life at a given age http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_expectancy (MC)
maximum lifetime
Ch 4. the longest period of life reached by a type of organism. CH
logistic growth
growth rates regulated by internal and external factors that establish an equilibrium with environmental resources
http://www.nlreg.com/aids.jpg
mortality
death rate in a population; the probability of dying
http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/02.whostat2005graph_under5infantmortality.jpg
natality
production of new individuals by birth, hatching, germination, or cloning
http://www.rdrop.com/~half/Personal/Hobbies/Books/US.natality.default.gif
Overshoot and collapse
(3) (Overshoot) the extent to which a population exceeds the carrying capacity of its environment;
Occurs when growth in one part of a system over time exceeds carrying capacity, resulting in a sudden decline in one or both parts of the system. (Long lag times can lead to this.) [D° S.C.] Information Botkin-Keller
http://www.streetsblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2006/10a/11_nation_traffic4_gn_5.jpg
population crash
a sudden population decline caused by predation, waste accumulation, or resource depletion
http://www.galtoninstitute.org.uk/Newsletters/GINL9803/crises2.gif (D-D.S.)
population explosion
growth of a population at exponential rates to a size that exceeds environmental carrying capacity; usually followed by a population crash
http://angeles.sierraclub.org/ocglobalwarming/images/population%20Images/population-growth.JPG (D-D.S.)
S curve
A curve that depicts logistic growth over time. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=s+curve+logistic+growth&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&biw=1920&bih=965&tbm=isch&tbnid=7vLHMmVuvLPxHM:&imgrefurl=http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookpopecol.html&docid=JUfAUG-yDI2HKM&w=531&h=321&ei=eKJVTt6lBMnSiAL9vbm9CQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=178&page=1&tbnh=106&tbnw=176&start=0&ndsp=57&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:0&tx=6&ty=66 [Per.C - Ian S]
survivorship
the percentage of a population reaching a given age or the proportion of the maximum life span of the species reached by any individual
http://www.econguru.com/fundamentals_of_ecology/image/survivorship.gif (D-D.S.)
Adaptation
Any genetically controlled structural,
http://bioap.wikispaces.com/file/view/swim_adaptation.gif
Adaptive radiation
Chapter 7: Process in which numerous new species evolve to fill vacant and new ecological niches in changed environments, usually after a mass extinction. Typically, this takes millions of years. Source: textbook. Image URL: http://www.cod.edu/people/faculty/fancher/AdapRadB.jpg [C period - yy]
artificial selection
Process by which humans select one or more desirable genetic traits in the population of a plant or animal species and then use selective breeding to produce populations containing many individuals with the desired traits. Compare genetic engineering, natural selection.
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/evo/mustardselection.jpg
background extinction
Normal extinction of various species as a result of changes in local environmental conditions. Compare mass depletion, mass extinction.
http://www.tropical-rainforest-animals.com/image-files/dodo.jpg
Biological evolution
Chapter 7; Change in the genetic makeup of a population of a species in successive generations. If continued long enough, it can lead to the formation of a new species. Note that populations not individuals evolve. See also adaptation, differential reproduction, natural selection, theory of evolution.
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_Un6ZEpyBmKI/S8ShKLUH51I/AAAAAAAAAQc/n2-CmGtFgHE/s1600/Evolution.jpg [I.S]
biopharming
Use of genetically engineered animals to act as biofactories for producing drugs, vaccines, antibodies, hormones, industrial chemicals such as plastics and detergents, and human body organs.
http://www.redicecreations.com/specialreports/2006/06jun/biopharming.jpg
chemical evolution
Formation of the earth and its early crust and atmosphere, evolution of the biological molecules necessary for life, and evolution of systems of chemical reactions needed to produce the first living cells. These processes are believed to have occurred about 1 billion years before biological evolution. Compare biological evolution.
http://history.nasa.gov/CP-2156/p23.jpg (D-D.S.)
coevolution
Evolution in which two or more species interact and exert selective pressures on each other that can lead each species to undergo various adaptations. See evolution, natural selection.
http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/3/4/9/5590721928641108.jpg
differential reproduction
Phenomenon in which individuals with adaptive genetic traits produce more living offspring than do individuals without such traits. See natural selection.
http://bealbio.wikispaces.com/file/view/natural_selection.png/89421291/natural_selection.png
domesticated species
Wild species tamed or genetically altered by crossbreeding for use by humans for food (cattle, sheep, and food crops), pets (dogs and cats), or enjoyment (animals in zoos and plants in gardens). Compare wild species.
http://365thingsaustin.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/austin-dog-fair.jpg
ecological niche
Total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem. It includes all physical, chemical, and biological conditions a species needs to live and reproduce in an ecosystem. See fundamental niche, realized niche.
http://faculty.southwest.tn.edu/rburkett/GB%20Pro11.jpg (D-D.S.)
endemic species
Species that is found in only one area. Such species are especially vulnerable to extinction.http://www.naturescapes.net/042008/sc0408_images/endemic%20species_1.jpg [R.P]
extinction
(14) end of an organism or of a group of organisms http://www.oberlin.edu/faculty/bsimonso/group4.htm (MC)
fossils
Skeletons, bones, shells, body parts, leaves, seeds, or impressions of such items that provide recognizable evidence of organisms that lived long ago. Image: http://cache2.allpostersimages.com/p/LRG/21/2173/YWLCD00Z/posters/waltham-tony-fossils-ammonites.jpg [J.T]
fundamental niche
The full potential range of the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if there is no competition from other species. See ecological niche. Compare realized niche.
gene pool
The sum total of all genes found in the individuals of the population of a particular species.
generalist species
Species with a broad ecological niche. They can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Examples are flies, cockroaches, mice, rats, and human beings. Compare specialist species.
genetic adaptation
Changes in the genetic makeup of organisms of a species that allow the species to reproduce and gain a competitive advantage under changed environmental conditions. See differential reproduction, evolution, mutation, natural selection.
genetic engineering
Insertion of an alien gene into an organism to give it a altered genetic trait. Compare artificial selection, natural selection. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Genetic-engineering-wheat.jpg [Per. C - Ian S]
geographic isolation
Separation of populations of a species for long times into different areas.
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/owlrange.gif (D-D.S.)
Invertebrates
Animals that have no backbones.
macroevolution
Long-term, large-scale evolutionary changes among groups of species. Compare microevolution.
http://creationwiki.org/pool/images/0/04/Evolution_tree_of_life.png (D-D.S.)
mass depletion
Widespread, often global period during which extinction rates are higher than normal but not high enough to classify as a mass extinction. Compare background extinction, mass extinction.
mass extinction
A catastrophic, widespread, often global event in which major groups of species are wiped out over a short time compared with normal (background) extinctions. Compare background extinction, mass depletion.
microevolution
The small genetic changes a population undergoes. Compare macroevolution.
mutation
Random change in DNA molecules making up genes that can alter anatomy, physiology, or behavior in offspring. See mutagen. http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/images/mutation.gif (Wil Loveless photo)
natural selection
Process by which a particular beneficial gene (or set of genes) is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes. The result of natural selection is a population that contains a greater proportion of organisms better adapted to certain environmental conditions. See adaptation, biological evolution, differential reproduction, mutation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Antibiotic_resistance.svg
[Per.C - Ian S.]
realized niche
Parts of the fundamental niche of a species that are actually used by that species. See ecological niche, fundamental niche.
http://science.halleyhosting.com/sci/ibbio/ecology/notes/pics/fundnicheex2.gif (D-D.S.)
reproductive isolation
Long-term geographic separation of members of a particular sexually reproducing species.
http://www.pnas.org/content/102/suppl.1/6522/F1.large.jpg (D-D.S.)
specialist species
Species with a narrow ecological niche. They may be able to live in only one type of habitat, tolerate only a narrow range of climatic and other environmental conditions, or use only one type or a few types of food. Compare generalist species.
speciation
Formation of two species from one species because of divergent natural selection in response to changes in environmental conditions; usually takes thousands of years. Compare extinction.
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3306/4554217436_3129f0798d_m.jpg
subpopulation
Individuals of a species that live in a habitat patch.
http://www.geatbx.com/docu/algindex-57.gif
theory of evolution
Widely accepted scientific idea that all life forms developed from earlier life forms.http://creationwiki.org/pool/images/thumb/c/c5/Evolution_timeline.jpg/400px-Evolution_timeline.jpg (Wil Loveless photo)
vertebrates
Animals that have backbones.http://cliluva-s1-vertebrates.wikispaces.com/file/view/vertebrates_divider.jpg (Wil Loveless photo)
adaptive trait
any heritable trait that enables an organism to survive through natural selections and reproduce better under prevailing environmental conditions
hybridization
occurs when species crossbreed to produce fertile offspringhttp://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/images/NUCLEIC.gif (Wil Loveless photo)
horizontal gene transfer
When some species can exchange genes without sexual reproductionhttp://chem3513-2007.pbworks.com/f/HorizontalTransfer.gif (Wil Loveless photo)
biosphere
zone of earth where life is found, abiotic and biotic factorshttp://images.tutorvista.com/content/environment/biosphere-illustration.jpeg (Wil Loveless photo)
ecosystem
(3) A community consisting of biotic and adiabatic components and containing an energy flow. [ Ji.T.] Image:http://www.kidsgeo.com/images/ecosystem.jpg
communities
(6) set of species interacting with the ecosystem http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/ecol_com/ecol_com.html (MC)
population
(4) A group of the same species occupying a specific region or sharing genetic information. [ Ji.T.] Image: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Large_number_of_flamingos_at_Lake_Nakuru.jpg)
species
(4) Same appearance, chemical and genetic composition, able to reproduce. Image:(http://www.flickr.com/photos/bbfineartphotograhy/5212539466/)
Crude birth rate
(4) The number of live births per thousand people yearly in a population. The crude birth rate is not age-specific, i.e. it is per one thousand people in a population rather than an age range. [ Ji.T.] Image: (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe
dia/commons/c/c5/Birth_rate_figures_for_countries.PNG)
Crude death rate
(4) The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population. Image: (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Death_rate_world_map.PNG)
growth rate
(4) The net change in a population's size over a specific amount of time and often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals at the beginning of the time.
[ Ji.T] Information: (http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Population_growth_rate#Population_growth_rate) Image: (http://upload.wikimedia .org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Population_curve.svg)
age structure
(4) A ratio of age classes consisting of organisms (1) not yet mature enough to reproduce, (2) capable of reproduction, and (3) beyond their reproductive years. Visualization provided by Age Structure Diagram.
age structure diagram
(4) A diagram demographers use to show the age structure of a population. Four general types: pyramid, column, inverted pyramid, and column with a bulge. Each variation tells us something about death rate and birth rate patterns.[ Ji.T] Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/China_population_pyramid_2005.png
population dynamics
(4) The general study of the changes in the age and size composition of a population. Population change depends on the growth rate, or the difference between the birth rate and death rate. Information:
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_ dynamics)
organisms
Any form of life, such as animals and plants. Even cells are organisms, but they are extremely small and m
range of tolerance
the extent to which an organism can handle a specific factor in a ecosystem
http://www.ic.ucsc.edu/~wxcheng/envs23/lecture8/tolerance.jpg (D-D.S.)
limiting factor
abiotic factors that limit an organisms ability to survive in an area according to their range of tolerance and genetic makeup
H
habitat destruction and degradation-(deforestation, land development)
I
Invasive species- deliberately or accidentally take away from the natives
P
Population growth- crowds out wildlife and degrades their lives
P
Pollution-putting nondegradeable materials into the environment, chemicals into the waters, burning fossil fuels, leads to climate change
O
Overexploitation- overhunting of species and overconsumption of resources that the wildlife needs
functional diversity
biological and chemical processes such as energy flow and mater recycling needed for the SURVIVAL of ORGANISMS (species, communities, and ecosystems)
ecological diversity
(7) variety of biological communities or ecosystems in a given area. http://s623.photobucket.com/albums/tt318/trodger1/?action=view&current=EvergladesDiversity.jpg&sort=ascending (MC)
genetic diversity
(7) total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species http://www.epa.gov/eerd/GeneticDiversityIndicators.htm (MC)
species diversity
(7) number of species in an area and also their relative abundance http://www.npgrc.tari.gov.tw/npgrc-web/diversity/diversity.html (MC)
biogeochemical cycle
nutrients cycling in a continuous flow in various forms from the environment to organisms and back to the environment http://www.google.com/imgres?q=biogeochemical+cycle&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&sa=N&biw=1920&bih=965&tbm=isch&tbnid=Y2YVAmbRmRKIpM:&imgrefurl=http://staff.tuhsd.k12.az.us/gfoster/standard/bcycles.htm&docid=XJYjgOzxI2yxiM&w=400&h=384&ei=GqlVTtziHMnZiAL0p9m6CQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=487&vpy=245&dur=396&hovh=215&hovw=224&tx=166&ty=72&page=1&tbnh=119&tbnw=123&start=0&ndsp=66&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:0 [Per.C - Ian S]
nutrients
chemicals and compounds needed by organisms to sustain life and facilitate proper function. See macronutrients and micronutrients.
water cycle
evaporation + transpiration-->condensation-->precipitation->infiltration+peroculation-->ground water movement+surface runoff-->evaporation + transpiration http://www-k12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/pilot/water_cycle/water2.gif [R.P.]
nitrogen cycle
nitrogen fixation-->ammonification-->nitrification + nitrifying bacteria-->assimilation-->nitrification-->nitrifying bacteria-->denitrifying bacteria-->nitrogen fixation
http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/climate/images/nitrogencycle_sm.jpg [R.P]
Soil
Mixture of decomposed organic matter, organic matter, inorganic minerals (rocks, sand, clay, insects), water and air Image (http://www.blogrollcenter.com/news/how-to-improve-your-garden-soil/) [Dº - W.W.M.]
weathering
when solid rock is decomposed then moved as sediment. Caused by the slight acidity of rainwater. See carbon-silicate cycle.
Erosion
The process by which the surface of the earth is worn away. Image is a result of sharp wind erosion. Image (http://www.google.com/search?q=erosion&hl=en&client=safari&rls=en&prmd=ivns&source=lnms&tbm=isch&ei=TDxQTuK3MeKMsAL8ufDcBg&sa=X&oi=mode_link&ct=mode&cd=2&ved=0CBQQ_AUoAQ&biw=1280&bih=610) [Dº - W.W.M.]
humus
fertile soil. partially decomposed bodies of dead plants and animals that the topsoil (a horizon) is a porous mixture of.
soil texture
determined by the amounts, size, and texture of sand, clay, and silt particles
http://www.soilsensor.com/images/soiltriangle_large.jpg (D-D.S.)
porosity
the volume of all open spaces between the solid grains of soil
http://www.belmont.sd62.bc.ca/teacher/geology12/photos/erosion-water/porosity-low-high.jpg (D-D.S.)
permeability
the property of the soil pore system that allows fluid to flow
http://www.funsci.com/fun3_en/exper1/exper1_02.gif (D-D.S.)
o horizon
surface litter layer- forest litter leaf mold
a horizon
topsoil layer- humus-mineral mixture
b horizon
subsoil- light grayish brown, silt loam
c horizon
parent material- dark brown firm clay http://www.enchantedlearning.com/geology/soil/soillayers.GIF [MG]
Birth control
Any method used to reduce births, including celibacy, delayed marriage, contraception; devices or medication that prevent implantation of fertilized zygotes, and induced abortions http://www.doesbirthcontrolwork.com/does-birth-control-work-3.jpg [R.P.]
Demographic transition
The process by which a country moves from relatively high birth and death rates to relatively low birth and death rates
Family planning
Controlling reproduction; planning the timing of birth and having as many babies as are wanted and can be supported; has decreased the growth rate (in particular, developing countries) [D° S.C.]
Total fertility rate
The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years
Total growth rate
The net rate of population growth resulting from births, deaths, immigration, and emigration
benthos
Bottom-dwelling organisms.
coastal wetland
Land along a coastline, extending inland from an estuary, that is covered with salt water all or part of the year. Examples are marshes, bays, lagoons, tidal flats, and mangrove swamps. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=coastal+wetland&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&sa=N&biw=1920&bih=965&tbm=isch&tbnid=3B7U_Pol3VIulM:&imgrefurl=http://dcerp.rti.org/DCERPPublicSite/EcosystemModules/CoastalWetlands/tabid/105/Default.aspx&docid=U5g1kP8ThAocEM&w=800&h=400&ei=4KlVTo_PIoTUiALO7YCaCQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=265&page=1&tbnh=82&tbnw=163&start=0&ndsp=62&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:0&tx=39&ty=30 [Per.C - Ian S]
coastal zone
Warm, nutrient-rich, shallow part of the ocean that extends from the high-tide mark on land to the edge of a shelflike extension of continental land masses known as the continental shelf.
cyanobacteria
Single-celled, prokaryotic, microscopic organisms. Before being reclassified as monera, they were called blue-green algae. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:20100422_235222_Cyanobacteria.jpg [Per. C - Ian S]
estuary
Partially enclosed coastal area at the mouth of a river where its fresh water, carrying fertile silt and runoff from the land, mixes with salty seawater. http://sitemaker.umich.edu/chrpwe/files/estuary_image1.jpg [R.P.]
euphotic zone
Upper layer of a body of water through which sunlight can penetrate and support photosynthesis.
eutrophic lake
Chapter 22; Lake with a large or excessive supply of plant nutrients, mostly nitrates and phosphates.
http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/como1.jpg [I.S]
floodplain
Chapter 16, Flat valley floor next to a stream channel. For legal purposes, the term often applies to any low area that has the potential for flooding, including certain coastal areas. [K.E]
freshwater life zones
Aquatic systems where water with a dissolved salt concentration of less than 1% by volume accumulates on or flows through the surfaces of terrestrial biomes. Examples are standing (lentic) bodies of fresh water such as lakes, ponds, and inland wetlands and flowing (lotic) systems such as streams and rivers.
inland wetland
Chapter 21; Land away from the coast, such as a swamp, marsh, or bog, that is covered all or part of the time with fresh water.
http://www.branford-ct.gov/images/Wetland-view.jpg [I.S]
intertidal zone
Chapter 8; The area of shoreline between low and high tides.
http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Life/images/coast1_sm.jpg [I.S]
Lake
Large natural body of standing fresh water formed when water from precipitation, land runoff, or groundwater flow fills a depression in the earth created by glaciation, earth movement, volcanic activity, or a giant meteorite. Image (http://www.flickr.com/photos/alq666/2339444058/) [Dº - W.W.M.]
mangrove swamps
Swamps found on the coastlines in warm tropical climates. They are dominated by mangrove trees, any of about 55 species of trees and shrubs that can live partly submerged in the salty environment of coastal swamps. http://inchinapinch.com/hab_pgs/marine/mangrove/images/mangrove4.jpg [MG]
mesotrophic lake
Lake with a moderate supply of plant nutrients.
nekton
Strongly swimming organisms found in aquatic systems.
oligotrophic lake
(22) Lake with low primary productivity, the result of low nutrient content http://www.rmbel.info/reports/Static/trophicstates.aspx (MC)
Open Sea
The part of an ocean that is beyond the continental shelf. Image: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3471/3195616770_1cd0c2b6f5.jpg [J.T]
phytoplankton
Small, drifting plants, mostly algae and bacteria, found in aquatic ecosystems. Image:(http://nerrs.noaa.gov/Doc/SiteProfile/ACEBasin/html/image/photos/phyto.jpg) [B.L.]
plankton
Small plant organisms (phytoplankton) and animal organisms (zooplankton) that float in aquatic ecosystems. http://spongebob.net/sbcharacterpics/plankton.jpg [R.P.]
runoff
Fresh water from precipitation and melting ice that flows on the earth's surface into nearby streams, lakes, wetlands, and reservoirs.
stream
Flowing body of surface water. Examples are creeks and rivers. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=stream&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&sa=N&biw=1920&bih=965&tbm=isch&tbnid=RQ9XfVRF7zioDM:&imgrefurl=http://streamstar-mountainclan.blogspot.com/2010/04/stream.html&docid=HWXOnDRFA03l8M&w=1024&h=768&ei=l61VTuOeLYPWiAKMjbmwCQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=576&vpy=120&dur=1120&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=131&ty=96&page=1&tbnh=119&tbnw=160&start=0&ndsp=64&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0 [Per. C - Ian S.]
surface water
Precipitation that does not infiltrate the ground or return to the atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration.
thermocline
Zone of gradual temperature decrease between warm surface water and colder deep water in a lake, reservoir, or ocean.
transpiration
Process in which water is absorbed by the root systems of plants, moves up through the plants, passes through pores (stomata) in their leaves or other parts, and evaporates into the atmosphere as water vapor.
ultraplankton
Photosynthetic bacteria no more than 2 micrometers wide.
watershed
Land area that delivers water, sediment, and dissolved substances via small streams to a major stream (river). If a drop of rain falls anywhere within a watershed, it can flow out only through that same stream or river.
zooplankton
Animal plankton. Small floating herbivores that feed on plant plankton (phytoplankton). Image: (http://drake.marin.k12.ca.us/stuwork/rockwater/PLANKTON/zoodrawings.gif) [B.L]
old-growth forest
(13) an uncut or regenerated primary forest that has not been seriously disturbed by human activities or natural disasters for 200 years or more. Also called a virgin forest. Image:( http://ak.audubon.org /issues-action/tongass-national-forest)
second-growth forest
(13) a stand of trees resulting from secondary ecological succession. Image: http://upload. wikim edia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Christma s_tree_farm_IA.JPG
clear-cutting
(13) when loggers remove all trees from a stand at the same time. Associated with deforestation and ecosystem degradation. [ Ji.T.] Image:http://upload. wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Clearcutting-Oregon.jpg
selective cutting
(13) mature trees in an uneven-aged area are cut down separately. [IF] http://www.forestryimages.org/images/768x512/4800029.jpg
tree plantations
Chapter 13: a stand of trees typically planted in straight rows [IF]
http://www.loe.org/images/content/090529/tree_plantation_tuscany.gi
strip cutting
Chapter 13: narrow rows of forest are cut, leaving wooded corridors whose trees provide seeds [IF] http://finchpaper.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/FINCH-StripCutting-large-300x175.jpg
surface fires
good; usually burn only undergrowth and leaf litter on forest floor; spare most mature trees; help prevent worse fires, allow vegetation to flourish
crown fire
bad; extremely hot, leaps from treetop to treetop, destroy vegetation, kill wildlife, damage human structures http://www.nps.gov/romo/naturescience/images/fire_crown_burn_2-body_size.jpg [MG]
deforestation
the temporary or permanent removal of large expanses of forest for agriculture, settlements, or other uses http://www.plu.edu/~hoodbs/img/deforestation-2.jpg [MG]
kenaf
fast growing plant that can be harvested for pulp to make paper, sparing trees http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Hibiscus_cannabinus0.jpg/220px-Hibiscus_cannabinus0.jpg [MG]
prescribed fires
controlled fires that get rid of excess leaf litter and vegetation that would contribute to a larger, more destructive fire if left alone. See surface fires.
grasslands
Provide soil formation, erosion control, nutrient cycling, storage of atmospheric Co2 in biomass, and maintenance of biodiversity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Konza1.jpg - [Per. C - Ian S.]
Rangeland
Chapter 11: land that supplies food for grazing or browsing animals without the need for plowing or planting. Information Botkin-Keller. (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c5/Muddy_Water_Red_desert.jpg/800px-Muddy_Water_Red_desert.jpg) [J.T.]
pastures
managed grasslands or enclosed meadows usually planted with domesticated grasses or other forage http://wallno1.com/data/media/23/Greener%20Pastures,%20Moose%20Pass,%20Alaska.jpg [MG]
overgrazing
(12) plants are exposed to grazing for a long period of time http://sgp.undp.org/web/images/2735/overgrazing.html (MC)
undergrazing
absence of grazing for long periods can reduce the NPP of grassland vegetation
rotational grazing
cattle are confined by portable fencing to one area for a short time and then moved to a new location. Much like leaving land to fallow, allows land to regenerate and thus be used again at a later point in time. http://www.mo.nrcs.usda.gov/news/images/RotationalGrazing_paddock.jpg[MG]
riparian zones
especially thin strips of lush vegetation along streams or rivers http://ohiodnr.com/Portals/7/pubs/fs_gifs/stfs1fig3a.gif [MG]
conservation easements
deed restrictions that bar future owners from developing the land
land trust groups
private nonprofit groups in the US that protect large areas of land
buffer zone concept
protecting the inner core of a preserve by establishing 2 buffer zones in which local people can extract resources sustainably without harming the inner core
habitat corridors
protected areas between isolated reserves, help support more species and allow migration for vertebrates that need large ranges
wilderness
(13) an area undisturbed by people http://www.thesafetycenter.us/wilderness-first-aid/ (MC)
Wilderness Act
allows the government to protect undeveloped tracts of public land from development; Established in 1964 and created the legal definition of wilderness in the United States. It protected about 9 million acres of federal land. [D° S.C.] Information Wikipedia
Roadless rule
a federal regulation that put undeveloped areas of national forests off-limits to road building and logging while they were evaluated for wilderness protection
Ecological restoration
Chapter 10: Returning a particular degraded habitat to a condition as similar as possible to its natural state. Information: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restoration_ecology). Image URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wetland_restoration_in_Australia.jpg [C period - yy]
rehabilitation
turning a degraded ecosystem into a functional ecosystem without trying to restore it to its original state
replacement
replacing a degraded ecosystem with another type of ecosystem
reconciliation ecology
working together, compromising, finding ways to share land; inventing, establishing and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live, work, or play
native species
Species indigenous to an area. Able to live and thrive in a particular community, without causing ecological damage to other elements of the ecosystem.
nonnative species
Species that migrates to/is deliberately or accidentally introduced into a community. Can cause great ecological damage if it outcompetes native species for resources or has some other adverse environmental effect. See cane toads.
indicator species
A species that, if effected, means that something is changed in its environment; shows a disturbance [D-N.P]
mutualism
When 2 species interact in a way that they both benefit. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=mutualism&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&sa=N&biw=1920&bih=965&tbm=isch&tbnid=eI0xb98HjxgY_M:&imgrefurl=http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/9f.html&docid=eoYD5L--F0TQmM&w=640&h=484&ei=crBVTuytHPDUiAKdpaWeCQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=256&page=1&tbnh=119&tbnw=162&start=0&ndsp=66&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0&tx=28&ty=59 [Per.C - Ian S.]
commensalism
an interaction that benefits one species but has little/no effect on the other.
parasitism
when a parasite feeds on part of the host (usually by living on or inside of them). Promotes biodiversity and controls population by keeping one species from being too plentiful that they eliminate other species http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent525/close/parasitism.jpg [MG]
interspecific competition
the ability of one species to become most efficient in acquiring resources leading another species to 1)migrate and therefore change its feeding habits through natural selection or 2) population decline or 3) extinction in that area.
Ecological succession
Chapter 10: The biological change in communities over time to become more stable due to changing environmental conditions. Information: Wikipedia. Image URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Boreal_pine_forest_after_fire.JPG [C period - yy]
primary succession
The gradual establishment of various biotic communities in lifeless areas http://www.google.com/imgres?q=primary+succession&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&sa=N&biw=1920&bih=965&tbm=isch&tbnid=ViIXJDrfeSYD_M:&imgrefurl=http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/geography/ecosystems/revise-it/types-of-succession&docid=_YnflUSOik7t3M&w=425&h=354&ei=OrFVTtLICLLViAK_-_jOCQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=443&page=1&tbnh=117&tbnw=140&start=0&ndsp=62&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0&tx=89&ty=46 [Per.C - Ian S.]
secondary succession
The establishment of various communities in places that contain soil or bottom sediment, life was there before http://www.google.com/imgres?q=secondary+succession&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&sa=N&biw=1920&bih=965&tbm=isch&tbnid=ViIXJDrfeSYD_M:&imgrefurl=http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/geography/ecosystems/revise-it/types-of-succession&docid=_YnflUSOik7t3M&w=425&h=354&ei=prNVTsT-E6vTiALEs_mrCQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=200&page=1&tbnh=119&tbnw=144&start=0&ndsp=61&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:0&tx=41&ty=38 [Per.C - Ian S.]
facilitation
(10) species interactions that benefit at least one of the participants and cause harm to neither http://www.britishecologicalsociety.org/meetings/annual_symposium_archive/2009annualsymposium/ (MC)
disturbance
(16) a temporary change in average environmental conditions that causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem http://www.forestnetwork.net/Docs/clearf.htm (MC)
ecological sustainability
sustainable environments have greater biodiversity. the ability of the earth's various systems to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions.
ecological stability
when an ecosystem adapts/changes in order to survive changing environmental conditions
inertia
ability of a system to resist change
constancy
ability of a system to keep its number over time throughout change
resilience
ability to recover after a disturbance
CITES
agreement to ban/limit trade in endangered species
Abiotic factors
Chapter 7: Nonliving parts of an ecosystem i.e. rain Source: Wikipedia. Image URL: http://biologyprojectwiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/rain.gif/106161785/rain.gif [C period - yy]
adaptation
the process of becoming adapted to an environment; an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral change that improves a population's ability to survive.
adaptive trait
a trait that confers greater likelihood that an individual will reproduce.
age distribution
the relative numbers of organisms of each age within a population.
Biotic factors
Chapter 7: The living parts of an ecosystem i.e. horse Source: Wikipedia. Image URL: http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/005/cache/horse_578_600x450.jpg[C period - yy]
Biological diversity (biodiversity)
Chapter 7: The variety and complexity of species present and interacting in an ecosystem and the relative abundance of each. Source: textbook. Image URL: http://www.priu.gov.lk/news_update/Images/2002/biodiversity.jpg [C period - yy]
biosphere
the sum total of all the planet's living organisms and the abiotic portions of the environment with which they interact. http://images.tutorvista.com/content/environment/biosphere-illustration.jpeg [MG]
carrying capacity Ch. 14
the maximum number of individuals of any species that can be supported by a particular ecosystem for an indefinite amount of time with the resources available. (http://www.hunter-ed.com/az/az_specific_images/graphics/az_carrying_capacity.jpg) C.C.
communities
assemblages of populations of organisms that live in the same place at the same time.
community ecology
the study of the interactions among species, from one-to-one interactions to complex interrelationships involving entire communities.
death rate
the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area.
density-dependent factor
a limiting factor whose effects on a population increase or decrease depending on the population density.
density-independent factor
a limiting factor whose effects on a population are constant regardless of population density.
ecosystem ecology
the study of how the living and nonliving components of ecosystems interact.
ecosystems
all organisms and nonliving entities that occur and in particular areas at the same time. http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTibfTA8Y3WL0lpkw6HP92UdHlqnT9uBykpdFijItX6cMVxXaRf [MG]
endemic
native or restricted to a particular geographic region.
evolution
genetically based change in the appearance, functioning, and/or behavior of organisms across generations, often by the process of natural selection.http://blog.michaelmichelini.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/evolution-of-man.jpg [R.P.]
exponential growth
the increase of a population (or of anything) by fixed percentage each
year. http://images.tutorvista.com/content/feed/tvcs/39_05.gif [MG]
extinction
the disappearance of an entire species from the face of the Earth.
generalists
species that can survive in a wide array of habitats or use a wide array of resources; broad niches.
habitat
the specific environment in which an organism lives, including both biotic and abiotic factors.
habitat use
the process by which organisms use habitats from among the range of options they encounter.
Immigration
Chapter 7: The arrival of individuals from outside a population. Source: Wikipedia. Image URL: Chapter 7: The movement of members from a given population. Source: Wikipedia. Image URL: http://biology.nicerweb.com/med/Emigration-immigration.jpg [C period - yy]
K-selected
term denoting a species with low biotic potential whose members produce a small number of offspring and take a long time to gestate and raise each of their young.
limiting factors
physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the environment that restrain population growth.
logistic growth curve
a plot that shows how the initial exponential growth of a population is slowed and finally brought to a standstill by limiting factors.
mass extinction event
the extinction of a large proportion of the world's species in a very short time period due to some extreme and rapid change or catastrophic event.
mutation
an accidental change in DNA that may range in magnitude from the deletion, substitution, or addition of a single nucleotide to a change affecting entire sets of chromosomes.
natural selection
the process by which traits that enhance survival and reproduction are passed on more frequently to future generations of organisms than those that do not, thus altering the genetic makeup of populations through time.
niche
the functional role of a species in a community.
population
Ch 4. a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area. CH
population density
the number of individuals within a population per unit area.
population dispersion
general pattern in which the members of a population are arranged throughout its habitat.
population distribution
the spatial arrangement of organisms within a particular area.
population ecology
study of the quantitive dynamics of how individuals within a species interact with one another.
population size
the number of individual organisms present at a given time.
r-selected
term denoting a species with high biotic potential whose members produce a large number of offspring in a relatively short time but do not care for their young after birth.
selective breeding
method of breeding that allows only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation.
sex ratio
the proportion of males to females in a population. Image: Sex Ratio for different disorders. (http://understanding.infantilism.org/surveys/survey_figures/sex_ratios.gif) [B.L.]
specialists
a species that can survive only in a narrow range of habitats that contain very specific
speciation
the process by which new species are generated.
species
Ch 4. a population or group of populations of a particular type of organism whose members share certain characteristics and can breed freely with one another and produce fertile offspring. CH
survivorship curves
graphs that show how the likelihood of death for members of a population varies with age.
agricultural revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
control
a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment
controlled experiment
an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time. Image: (http://www2.nau.edu/~gaud/bio372/class/behavior/scimeth.gif) [KZ]
correlation
a statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other
ecological footprint
the environmental impact of a person or population
ecology
deals with distribution and abundance of organisms and their interactions
environmentalism
social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world
environmental science
how the natural world works; how it affects humans; pursuit of knowledge about the natural world; scientists remain objective
Hypothesis
Ch.2: a statement, that can be disproved and that is converted from an inference, that scientists make when they wish to test an inference.Image (http://www.debunking911.com/hypothesis.gif)
[D.Lai] [KZ]
Independent variable
Chapter 2: An experimental factor who's effects are being studied as the variable is being changed. Source: textbook. Image URL: http://www.experiment-resources.com/images/third-variable.jpg [C period - yy] [KZ]
industrial revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production; shift from renewable to nonrenewable resources
interdisciplinary
drawing from or characterized by participation of two or more fields of study
nonrenewable resources
Chapter 19: Resources that are used at rates faster than they can be regenerated; resources that cannot be replenished. Information: textbook. Image URL: http://tammi.tamu.edu/photos/Coal%20%20Stacks.JPG [C period -yy]
renewable resources
resources that can be replenished
scientific method
a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
sustainability
the concept of using the earth's resources in such they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing ability to provide for future generations
variables
the different factors that can change in an experiment
anthropocentrism
human centered
biocentrism
life centered
ecocentrism
entire ecological systems
boreal forest
Canada, Alaska, Russia, Scandinavia; variation in temperature and precipitation; cool and dry climate; long, cold winters; short, cool summers; poor and acidic soil; few evergreen tree species;
moose, wolves, bears, migratory birds
no definition--sucks
chaparral
Mediterranean Sea, California, Chile, and southern Australia; high seasonal; mild, wet winters; warm, dry summers; frequent fires; densely thicketed, evergreen shrubs
commensalism
a relationship between species in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
desert
minimal precipitation; some deserts are bare, with sand dunes (Sahara); some deserts are heavily vegetated (Sonoran); they are not always hot; temperatures vary widely; saline soils; nocturnal or nomadic animals; plants have thick skins or spines
Image: http://www.saharamet.com/desert/photos/Sahara01.jpg [J.T]
mutualism
a relationship in which all participating organisms benefit from their interaction
parasitism
a relationship in which one organism, the parasite, depends on another, the host, for nourishment while doing harm to the host http://path-of-power.com/i/parasite.jpg [R.P.]
primary succession
a stereotypical series of changes as an ecological community develops over time, beginning with a lifeless substrate
savannas
grassland interspersed with trees; Africa, South America, Australia, India; precipitation only during rainy season; water holes; Zebras, gazelles, giraffes, lions, hyenas http://www.irishweatheronline.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/savanna4_h.jpg [R.P.]
secondary succession
a stereotypical series of changes as an ecological community develops over time, beginning when some event disrupts or dramatically alters an existing community
symbiosis
a parasitic or mutualistic relationship between different species of organisms that live in close physical proximity
temperate deciduous forest
deciduous trees lose their leaves each fall and remain dormant during winter; mid-latitude forests in Europe, East China, Eastern North America; fertile soils; forests = oak, beech, maple
temperate grasslands
more extreme temperature difference between winter and summer; less precipitation; also called steppe or prairie; once widespread throughout parts of North and South America and much of central Asia; much was converted for agriculture; bison, prairie dogs, antelope, and ground-nesting birds
Temperate Rainforest
Coastal Pacific Northwest region; great deal of precipitation; coniferous trees: cedar, spruce, hemlock, fir; moisture-loving animals; Banana slug; the fertile soil is susceptible to erosion and landslides; provides lumber and paper. Image (http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/temperate-rainforest-5789-pictures.htm) [Dº - W.W.M.]
tropical dry forest
Tropical deciduous forest; India, Africa, South America, northern Australia; wet and dry seasons; warm, but less rainfall; converted to agriculture; erosion-prone soil
tropical rainforest
Central America, South America, southeast Asia, and west Africa; year-round rain and warm temperatures; dark and damp; lush vegetation; variety of animals and tree species, but in low numbers; very poor, acidic soils
tundra
Canada, Scandinavia, Russia; minimal precipitation; nearly as dry as a desert; seasonal variation in temperature; extremely cold winters; permafrost: permanently frozen soil; few animals: polar bears, musk oxen, caribou; lichens and low vegetation with few trees
carbon cycle
the circulation and reutilization of carbon atoms especially via the process of photosynthesis and respiration
denitrifying bacteria
bacteria in the soil that turn nitrates into nitrogen gas
gross primary production
Chapter 9: production of organic matter before use [IF]
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/44/Seawifs_global_biosphere.jpg/400px-Seawifs_global_biosphere.jpg
net primary productivity
Chapter 9: energy remaining after respiration, and is used to generate biomass [IF] http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/61350main_hanpp2.jpg
hydrologic cycle
The cycle through which water in the hydrosphere moves; includes such processes as evaporation, precipitation, and surface and groundwater runoff
nitrification
bacteria convert ammonium ions into nitrite ions then into nitrate ions
nitrogen cycle
Chapter 5: the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere [S.K.] http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/climate/images/nitrogencycle_sm.jpg [MG]
nitrogen fixation
Chapter 5: nitrogen gas is combined with hydrogen by nitrogen-fixing bacteria to become ammonium which can be used by plants [S.K.]
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
bacteria that combine nitrogen gas with hydrogen to become ammonium
phosphorous cycle
Chapter 5: the movement of phosphorous atoms from rocks through the biosphere and hydrosphere and back to rocks [S.K.]
transpiration
plants release water vapor into the airhttp://techalive.mtu.edu/meec/module01/images/transpiration.jpg (Wil Loveless photo)
centrally planned economy
an economy in which a nation's government determines how to allocate resources in a top-down manner
economics
the study of how we decide to use scarce resources to satisfy the demand for goods and services
economy
a social system that converts resources into goods and services
GDP
gross domestic product; the total monetary value of final goods and services produced in a country each year
subsistence economy
a survival economy, one in which people meet most or all of their daily needs directly from nature and do not purchase or trade for most of life's necessities
PPP
purchasing power parity; a comparison of the purchasing power between two countries
cost-benefit analysis
a method commonly used by neoclassical economists, in which estimated costs for a proposed action are totaled and then compared to the sum of benefits estimated to result from the action
permit-trading
the practice of buying and selling government-issued marketable emissions permits to conduct environmentally harmful activities
command and control
an approach to protecting the environment that sets strict legal limits and threatens punishment for violations of those limits
green tax
a levy on environmentally harmful activities and products aimed at providing a market-based incentive to correct for market failure
subsidy
a government incentive (a giveaway of cash or publicly owned resources, or a tax break) intended to encourage a particular activity
developed countries
countries that have higher average incomes, slower population growth, diverse industrial economies, and stronger social support systems; has a higher consumption of natural resources
developing countries
countries that have lower average incomes, simple and agriculture-based economies, and rapid population growth; has a lower consumption of natural resources
external cost
a negative externality; a cost borne by someone not involved in an economic transaction
Garrett Hardin
published "The Tragedy of the Commons" in the journal Science in 1968; argued that rational people will exploit shared resources (commons) Image: http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/images/pic_gh_1986_b.jpg [J.T]
Adam Smith
1723-1790. Pioneering economic theorist. Father of economics. Explained how rational self-interest and competition, operating in a social framework which ultimately depends on adherence to moral obligations, can lead to economic well-being and prosperity Image: http://www.newschool.edu/nssr/het/profiles/image/smith.jpg [J.T]
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production Image: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/images/malthus_thomas.jpg [J.T]
Paul Ehrlich
wrote "The Population Bomb" Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Paul_R_Ehrlich.png/800px-Paul_R_Ehrlich.png [J.T]
Wackernagel and Rees
ecological footprint; the environmental impact of a person or population
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882) http://www.crystalinks.com/darwin.jpg [D-M.Z.]
ecotourism
visitation of natural areas for tourism and recreation
sympatric speciation
species formation that occurs when populations become reproductively isolated within the same geographic area
Alfred Russell Wallace
English naturalist who proposed, independently of Charles Darwin, the concept of natural selection as a mechanism for evolution and as a way to explain the great variety of living things
benthic zone
the bottom layer of water body http://www.ecology.su.se/JN/TV/bilder/ocean_bilder/zonation.jpg (Wil Loveless photo)
confined aquifer
Chapter 21: a water-bearing, porous layer of rock, sand, or gravel that is trapped between an upper and lower layer of less permeable substrate, such as clay (http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/img_lrg/confined_unconfined_aquifer.jpg) [C° A.H.]
desalinization
Chapter 21: the removal of salt from seawater (http://www.sdcwa.org/sites/default/files/images/Desalination_chart.png) [C° A.H.]
limnetic zone
in a water body, the layer of open water through which sunlight penetrates http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/intro/lake.jpg (Wil Loveless photo)
littoral zone
the region ringing the edge of a water bodyhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/28/Littoral_Zones.jpg (Wil Loveless photo)
profundal zone
in a water body, the volume of open water that sunlight does not reachhttp://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/intro/lake.jpg (Wil Loveless photo)
sinkhole
an area where the ground has given way with little warning as a result of subsidence caused by depletion of water from an aquifer and may cause structural damage to buildings, Image: (http://www.nachi.org/images10/Guatemala-Sinkhole.jpg) [B.L.]
unconfined aquifer
Chapter 21: a water-bearing, porous layer of of rock, sand, or gravel that lies atop a less-permeable substrate (http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/img_lrg/confined_unconfined_aquifer.jpg) [C° A.H.]
wastewater
any water that is used in households, businesses, industries, or public facilities and is drained or flushed down pipes, as well as the polluted runoff from streets and storm drains
potable
safe to drink
gray water
all of the wastewater that drains from washing machines, sinks, dishwashers, tubs or showers and can be reused for non-sanitary purposes
benthic
of, relating to, or living on the bottom of a water body
by-catch
that portion of a commercial fishing catch consisting of animals caught unintentionally
downwelling
in the ocean, the flow of warm surface water toward the ocean floor
estuary
an area where a river flows into an ocean, mixing fresh water with salt water http://toxipedia.org/download/attachments/10374/estuary.jpg [MG]
factory fishing
a highly industrialized approach to commercial fishing, employing fossil fuels, huge vessels, and powerful new technologies to capture fish in immense volumes
http://www.voicesforourplanet.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/fish-farm-150x150.jpg [R.P.]
groundfish
a name given to benthic fish that live or eat along the bottom, such as cod, halibut, pollock, haddock, and flounder
intertidal
of, relating to, or living along shorelines between the highest reach of the highest tide and the lowest reach of the lowest tide
Mangrove
A tree with a unique type of roots that curve upward to obtain oxygen, which is lacking in the mud in which they grow, and that serve as stilts to support the tree in changing water levels. Image (http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/feb/01/endangeredhabitats.conservation) [Dº - W.W.M.]
pelagic
of, relating to, or living between the surface and floor of the ocean
red tide
a harmful algal bloom consisting of algae that produce reddish pigments that discolor surface waters. Image: (http://serc.carleton.edu/images/microbelife/topics/red_tide_for_ed.jpg) [B.L.]
salt marsh
flat land that is intermittently flooded by the ocean where the tide reaches inland http://www.eoearth.org/files/122501_122600/122534/300px-Nova_Scotia_salt_marsh.jpg [MG]
upwelling
(8) wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water
http://www.geo.arizona.edu/Antevs/nats104/upwelling.gif [I.S]
riparian
relating to a river or the area along a river
turbidity
muddiness created by stirring up sediment or having foreign particles suspended
mitigation
(23) Work to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases http://nthmp-history.pmel.noaa.gov/ (MC)
recharge zone
Chapter 21: the area of land from which the groundwater originates (http://mikeb203.tripod.com/water/images/recharge.gif) [C° A.H.]
salt water intrusion
near the coast, over-pumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into the aquifer
subsistence
(16) maintaining or supporting at a minimum level (MC)
consumptive use
Chapter 21: fresh water use in which water is removed from a particular aquifer or surface water body and is not returned to it [C° A.H.]
nonconsumptive use
Chapter 21: fresh water use in which the water from a particular aquifer or surface water body either is not removed or is removed only temporarily and then returned [C° A.H.]
demographic transition
a theoretical model of economic and cultural change that explains the declining death rates and birth rates that occurred in western nations as they became industrialized
demography
a social science that applies the principles of population ecology to the study of statistical change in human populations
industrial stage
the third stage of the demographic transition model, characterized by falling birth rates that close the gap with falling death rates and reduce the rate of population growth
IPAT model
a formula that represents how humans' total impact (I) on the environment results from the interaction among three factors: population (P), affluence (A), and technology (T)
life expectancy
the average number of years that individuals in particular age groups are likely to continue to live
post-industrial stage
the fourth and final stage of the demographic transition model, in which both birth and death rates have fallen to a low level and remain stable there, and populations may even decline slightly
pre-industrial stage
the first stage of the demographic transition model, characterized by conditions that defined most of human history
replacement fertility
the total fertility rate (TFR) that maintains a stable population size
total fertility rate
(TFR) the average number of children born per female member of a population during her lifetime
transitional stage
the second stage of the demographic transition model, which occurs during the transition from the pre-industrial stage to the industrial stage
infant mortality rate
rate of infant death within a population
carrying capacity
the maximum population size that a given environment can sustain http://www.algebralab.org/img/cb07ae0c-5106-416c-8407-38da526923c6.gif [MG]
exponential growth
the increase of a population by a fixed percentage each year
logistical growth
Ch 4. how the growth of population is brought to a standstill by limiting factors. CH
survivorship
the likelihood of life
doubling time
Chapter 3, the time it takes for a population to double [B.L]
rule of 70
used to calculate doubling time. The formula 70/R can be used to approximate the doubling time of a population, where the annual growth rate is R%.
background extinction
the average rate of extinction that occurred before the appearance of humans
biodiversity hotspots
areas that support an especially great diversity of species, particularly species that are endemic to the areas
captive breeding
the practice of capturing members of threatened and endangered species so that their young can be bred and raised in controlled environments and subsequently reintroduced into the wild
community-based conservation
the practice engaging local people to protect land and wildlife in their own region
convention on biodiversity
an international treaty that aims to conserve biodiversity, use biodiversity in a sustainable manner, and ensure the fair distribution of biodiversity's benefits
CITES
a 1973 treaty facilitated by the United Nations that protects endangered species by banning the international transport of their body parts
ESA
Endangered Species Act; the primary legislation, enacted in 1973, for protecting biodiversity in the United States
extirpation
the disappearance of a particular population from a given area, but not the entire species globally
genetic diversity
a measurement of the differences in DNA composition among individuals within a given species
mass extinction
the extinction of a large proportion of the world's species in a very short time period due to some extreme and rapid change or catastrophic event
Red list
an updated list of species facing unusually high risks of extinction
species diversity
the number and variety of species in the world or in a particular region
umbrella species
a species for which meeting its habitat needs automatically helps meet those of many other species
endangered
(14) Seriously at risk of extinction http://www.kidsplanet.org/factsheets/map.html (MC)
threatened
(14) species which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future. http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/threatened-species-1844-pictures.htm (MC)
habitat conservation plan
a cooperative agreement that allows landowners to harm threatened or endangered species in some ways if they voluntarily improve habitat for the species in others
intrinsic value
Value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth's biodiversity based on its existence, regardless of whether it has any usefulness to us.
Coriolis Effect
The Coriolis effect is an apparent deflection of moving objects when they are viewed from a rotating reference frame. This force causes moving objects on the surface of the Earth to appear to veer to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the left in the southern hemisphere. [C° - E.L.] Information Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coriolis_effect) Image (http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/astronomy/fix/student/images/08f06.jpg)
Barometer
A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure. It can measure the pressure exerted by the atmosphere by using water, air, or mercury. Pressure tendency can forecast short term changes in the weather. High pressure indicates "nice" weather and low pressure is associated with storms and "bad" weather. [D° - E.L] (Information http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barometer) Image (http://www.atmos.washington.edu/2005Q3/101/LINKS-html/MercuryBarometer.jpg)
Fujita Tornado Scale
The Fujita scale (F-Scale), or Fujita-Pearson scale, is a scale for rating tornado intensity, based on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures and vegetation. Values range from F0 to F5 (F12 originally) that represent wind speeds from less than 72 miles per hour to over 318 miles per hour. [E° - E.L] Information Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fujita_scale); Image (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/Fujita_scale_technical.PNG)
Gaia hypothesis
(3) This states (1) that life has greatly altered the environment globally for more than 3 billion years and continues to do so; and (2) that these changes benefit life (increase its persistence). Some extend this, non-scientifically, to assert that life did it on purpose. [D° S.C.] Information Botkin-Keller
Lag time
The delay between a cause and the appearance of its effect. (This is also referred to as the time between a stimulus and a response.) If the _________ is short, consequences are easier to identify. For example, the release of a highly toxic gas from a chemical plant has had rapid effects of the health of people living near the plant. [D° S.C.] Information Botkin-Keller
Negative feedback
Chapter 3, An increase in output leads to a later decrease. Is self regulating. [B.L] Information Botkin-Keller; Image (http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter16/graphics/neg_feed.free.gif)
Illustrates how temperature and clouds over the ocean are a negative feedback system
Nonlinear responses
(3) This can include exponential growth, which can occur over short periods, especially for species and populations, and a variety of other responses, including the rates of uptake of chemicals by living things, and the rate at which carbon dioxide in the atmosphere dissolves in lakes, rivers, and oceans. (See also exponential growth.) [D° S.C.] Information Botkin-Keller
Open system
Chapter 3, A type of system in which exchanges of mass or energy occur with other systems. Materials can move in or out of that system. [B.L.] Information Botkin-Keller
Positive feedback
A type of feedback that occurs when an increase in output leads to a further increase in output. Slippery slope in nature. [B.L] Information Botkin-Keller; Image (http://www.google.com/imgres?q=positive+feedback&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1364&bih=707&tbm=isch&tbnid=eK1Ld7ygTFDCKM:&imgrefurl=http://gerrymarten.com/human-ecology/chapter02.html&docid=DDW-nRhhoTcK_M&w=660&h=300&ei=eLhAToTSD6PciAKC__3IBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=409&vpy=333&dur=483&hovh=144&hovw=318&tx=191&ty=108&page=1&tbnh=109&tbnw=239&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0)

Simply put; More people means more births which means more people, and so on...
Steady state
Chapter 3, when input equals output in a system, there is no net change and the system is said to be in a steady state. A bathtub with water flowing in and out at the same rate maintains the same water level and is in a steady state. Compare with equilibrium. [B.L] Information Botkin-Keller
System
Chapter 3, A set of components that are linked and interact to produce a whole. For example, the river as a system is composed of sediment, water, bank, vegetation, fish, and other living things that all together produce the river. [B.L.] Information Botkin-Keller
Uniformitarianism
Chapter 3, The principle stating that processes that operate today operated in the past. Therefore, observations of processes today can explain events that occurred in the past and leave evidence, for example, in the fossil record or in geologic formations. Aka, the present is the key to the past. [B.L] Information Botkin-Keller
Earthquake
Chapter 16, Results when the rocks that are under stress from internal earth processes rupture, mostly at depths of 10 to 15 km along faults. Releases vast amounts of energy!! Images (http://www.dimensionsguide.com/what-is-the-biggest-earthquake/) [K.E]
Volcanic Eruption
Chapter 16, Volcanoes are the result of extrusion at the surfaces of molten rock (magma). Volcanic eruptions may be explosive and violent or they may be less energetic lava flows. Volcanoes generally occur at boundaries between tectonic plates, where active geologic processes favor the melting of rocks and the upward movement of magma. Some volcanoes also occur in more central parts of tectonic plates where hot spots deep below heat the rocks above i.e. Yellowstone or the Hawaiian Islands! [K.E]
Landslides
Chapter 16, Landslide is a general term for the down slope movement of soil and rock. Landslides occur when the driving forces that tend to movie soil, rock, vegetation, houses, and other materials down a slope exceed the resisting forces that hold the slope in place. The resisting forces are produced by the strength of the material on slopes and result of from interlocking rains of rock or soil, natural cementing material in rock and soil, or plant roots that bind the slip materials together and resist movement. Weak rocks on steep slopes provide for the combination of large driving forces and weak resisting forces that favors development of landslides. The dominant driving force of slopes is the weight of slope materials influenced by the force of gravity. The steeper the slope and the heavier the slope materials, the greater the driving forces. Human processes that add to or increase the slope angle (how steep it is) increase the drive forces. Resisting forces may be reduced by increasing the amount of water on or in a slope, or by removing vegetation that reduces the root strength of the soil or rock. [K.E]
Hurricane
Chapter 16, A hurricane is a tropical storm with circulating winds in excess of 120 km (74 mi) that move across warm ocean waters of the tropics. Hurricanes gather and release huge quantities of energy as water is transformed from liquid in the ocean to vapor in the storm. [K.E]
Tsunami
Chapter 16, A tsunami is a series of large ocean waves produced after the ocean water is suddenly disturbed vertically by processes such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, submarine landslides, or the impact of an asteroid or comet. Over 80% of all tsunamis are produced by earthquakes. [K.E]
Wildfire
Chapter 16, A wildfire is a rapid, self-sustaining, biochemical oxidation process that releases light, heat, carbon dioxide and other gases and particulates into the atmosphere. Fuel, plant material, is rapidly consumed during wildfires, helping maintain a balance between plant productivity and decomposition in ecosystems. The primary cause of periodic wildfire is vegetation. When microbes in the environment are not able to decompose plants fast enough to balance the carbon cycle, fire is necessary to achieve a long-term balance. [K.E]
Tornado
Chapter 16, A tornado is a funnel-shaped cloud of violently rotating wind that extends downward from large cells of thunderstorms to the surface of Earth. Severe thunderstorms may occur when a cold air mass collides with a warmer one. Water vapor in the warmer part of the atmosphere is forced upward where it cools and produces precipitation. As more warm air is drawing in, the storm clouds grow higher and thu7nderstorm activity increase in intensity, forming lines of storm activity (squall lines hundreds of kilometers long or large cells of updraft called super cells). Tornadoes in the U.S. are concentrated in the Plains states between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains, where severe thunderstorms generally are more common. Some parts of this region have been called "tornado alley." [K.E]
Biogeochemical cycle
Ch. 5 The complete path a chemical takes through the four major types of reservoirs. AB

http://www.colorado.edu/GeolSci/courses/GEOL1070/chap04/GR000000.JPG
Carbon cycle
Ch. 5 Carbon appears in the atmosphere mostly as CO2 and CH4, but also in some other gases. The uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthetic processes plants do is the primary flux from the atmosphere to the biosphere. The carbon compounds in the plants are spread throughout the biosphere through consumption. when an organism dies, the carbon enters the lithosphere through the decomposition of dead tissue. The sequestered carbon can, over an extremely long period of time, become a usable fossil fuel that is extracted and burned, releasing the carbon back into the atmosphere. Atmospheric carbon can also enter the hydrosphere by dissolving into the ocean, creating carbonic acid, carbonate, and bicarbonate. The carbon in the hydrosphere is used by marine organisms to create shells, bones, and tissue. When they die, they sink to the bottom of the sea where their tissues decompose and release carbon back into the hydrosphere and their bones and shells enter the lithosphere. AB

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/Carbon_cycle-cute_diagram.svg/502px-Carbon_cycle-cute_diagram.svg.png
Carbon-silicate cycle
Ch. 5 Atmospheric carbon dissolves in water making carbonic acid, which falls as rain. The acidic rainwater does the weathering of silicate-rich surface rock, which creates carbonate and bicarbonate ions. These ions are used by marine organisms to create shells that eventually sink to the bottom and re-enter the lithosphere. The sedimentary rock eventually enters a subduction zone where it becomes magma that releases CO2 into the atmosphere through volcanic activity. This creates a flux between the atmosphere and lithosphere. AB

http://lasp.colorado.edu/~bagenal/3720/CLASS21/CO2cycle.jpg
Chemical reaction
Ch. 5 A reaction between two or more reactants that results in chemically different products. AB

http://edu.glogster.com/media/3/9/42/60/9426025.jpg
Denitrification
Ch. 5 The process when nitrogen compounds are broken down and released back into the atmosphere as Nitrogen gas. AB

http://www.soils.umn.edu/academics/classes/soil2125/img/9wtncyc.jpg
Drainage basin
Ch. 5 The area that is the source of surface runoff for a stream or river AB

http://cgz.e2bn.net/e2bn/leas/c99/schools/cgz/accounts/staff/rchambers/GeoBytes/GCSE%20Revision/Hot%20Potatoes%20GCSE%20Quizzes/Rivers.quiz1/DrainageBasin.watershed.id.jpg
Geologic cycle
Ch. 5 The processes responsible for the formation and change of Earth materials, like the tectonic, hydrologic, rock, and biogeochemical cycles. AB

http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/SCT112/rock_cycle.gif
Hydrologic cycle
Ch. 5 Driven by the heat from the sun. It is the transfer of water from the oceans to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean. Water evaporates from the ocean into the atmosphere, forming clouds. When the clouds become dense enough, it rains onto the land, where it enters lakes, rivers, streams, and groundwater. Groundwater can be used by plants, and surface water can be drunk by animals and humans. Water transpires out of plant leaves into the atmosphere, and surface water then returns to the ocean. AB

http://www.eoearth.org/files/159101_159200/159153/hydrocycle-hires.jpg
Limiting factor
Ch. 5 A chemical that is not available at the right time, amount, or concentration. AB

http://extension.usu.edu/smac/images/uploads/most_limiting_factor_nutrients.jpg
Flood
Ch. 5 A flood is the inundation of an area by water. Floods are produced by intense rainstorms, melting of snow, storm surge from a hurricane, tsunami, and rupture of flood protection structures. Flooding occurs as water is transported across the surface of land or inundates a particular location. These floods can cause erosion among riverbeds. AB

http://www.dosomething.org/files/pictures/Flood.jpg
Heat Wave
days or weeks in which temperature rises a lot (Some think that recent ones have been caused by global warming) AB

http://www.gnurf.net/v3/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/034-heat-wave.png
Drought
A period of months, or more commonly years, of unusually dry weather constitutes a drought. This phenomenon is related to natural cycles of wet years that alternate with series of dry years. The reasons for the cycles of drought are not well understood, but are thought to be related to the heating of ocean waters and the moving of major air masses. Droughts in California, for example, are thought to be due to the decadal shift in high-pressure zones that form in the central Pacific Ocean and to the jet stream that allows winter storms to extend south or remain further. Dry years in southern California occur when storm tracks remain north of central California for several years. Prolonged droughts in the Midwestern states, such as the Dust Bowl that developed that developed in the 1930s in Kansas and other nearby regions, are associated with gigantic dust storms that commonly occur is desert regions. Droughts in central Africa have been devastating to human populations.
Natural Hazard
Chapter 16, Any natural process that is a potential threat to human life and property (the process and events themselves are not a hazard but become so because of human use of the land). [K.E]
Disaster
Chapter 16, A hazardous event that occurs over a limited time span in defined geographic area. [K.E]
Biosphere
(3) Part of a planet where life exists and is sustained. This also includes all the components of life's persistence. [ Ji.T.] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/97/The_Earth_seen_from_Apollo_17.jpg/599px-The_Earth_seen_from_Apollo_17.jpg (image from [IF])
Biota
(3) All the organisms of all species living in an area or region up to and including the biosphere [D° - T.G]
Closed system
Chapter 3, A system in which the exchange of energy and mass with other systems does not occur [B.L.]
Doubling time
The time necessary for a quantity of whatever is being measured to double [D° - T.G]
Ecosystem
An ecological community and its local nonbiological community is called _____ [D° - T.G]
Environmental unity
Chapter 3, A principle that says everything affects everything else, impossible to change only one thing. [B.L]
Exponential growth
Growth in which the rate of increase is a constant percentage of the current size [D° - T.G]
Feedback
Chapter 3, When 1 part of a system changes and then those changes in turn affect another part of the system. [B.L]
Natural Disaster Criteria
Chapter 16, 10 or more people killed, 100 affected, state of emergency declared, and international assistance requested. [K.E]
Catastrophe
Chapter 16, A massive disaster that requires significant expenditure of money and time for recovery to take place, i.e. Hurricane Katrina. [K.E]
Why are the economic costs of natural disasters in the U.S. increasing?
Chapter 16, Because the population is increasingly moving from the interior toward the coasts where hazards tend to occur. As a result, losses of life and property damage are likely to increase significantly in coming decades. [K.E]
Concepts to help understand how to prevent hazards
Chapter 16, Natural processes have service functions, hazards are predictable, linkages exist between hazards, hazards that previously produced mostly disasters are now producing catastrophes, risk from hazards can be estimated, adverse effects of hazards can be minimized. [K.E]
What good things do earthquakes do?
Chapter 16, Make mountains (scenery, move sediments) and create springs. [K.E]
Direct effects
Chapter 16, involve the people killed, injured, dislocated, made homeless, or otherwise damaged by the event. [K.E]
Indirect effects
Chapter 16, Follow the disaster i.e. donations of money and goods, shelter, taxes to help financial recovery, emotional distress. [K.E]
What good things do volcanoes do?
Chapter 16, Produce new land i.e. the Hawaiian Islands, and volcanic ash can make good soil. [K.E]
What good things do dust storms do?
Chapter 16, Dust travels far to enrich soil elsewhere on the plane, keeps soils fertile. [K.E]
What good things do landslides do?
Chapter 16, Can block or dam a valley, forming a lake in mountains where otherwise a lake would be rare. [K.E]
Where is the most likely location for a large earthquake?
Chapter 16, One where one has recently happened- earthquakes are often clustered in time. [K.E]
What are signs of a future volcanic eruption?
Chapter 16, Earthquake activity, release of gases, heat that melts surface snow and ice, and swelling or growth of the mountain. [K.E]
Discuss the La Conchita Landslide of 2005
In 2005, in La Conchita California, a landslide killed ten people and destroyed 30 homes. This was a partial reactivation of a landslide that occurred in 1995. There was high rainfall in 2005, but no one recognized the risk for a landslide. They should have realized that not only was there a risk that year, but there was always a risk and no one should've been living there. La Conchita had been having landslides for 100 years, and was built on 15m of older landslide departments. It was later discovered that all these landslides were part of a major prehistoric landslide.
Noise pollution
Chapter 15: Unwanted sound that disrupts everyday activities. Information: Textbook. Image URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Qantas_b747_over_houses_arp.jpg [C period - yy]
organic compounds
These are compounded carbon produced naturally by living organisms or Also made synthetically by humans. AB

http://www.sciencecontrol.com/organic-compounds-examples.html
Particulates
Chapter 24: Small particles of solid material suspended in gas. PM in the atmosphere is the result of natural processes and human activities. Also known as particulate matter (PM) Information: Wikipedia. Image URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cloud_3.JPG [C period - yy]
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
synthetic compounds, carbon based structure, manufactured by humans, don't break down easily, polluting and toxic, soluble in fat, able to be transported long distances. AB

http://www.treehugger.com/SnowCycle.jpg
risk assessment
Chapter 16, the process of determining potential adverse environmental health effects on purpose exposed to pollutants and potentially toxic materials. [K.E]
synergism
the interaction of different substances resulting in a total effect greater than the sum of the effects of individual subs. AB

http://www.yedarnd.com/admin/ImageGallery/Products%20read%20more%20images/erbitux.jpg
synthetic organic compounds
used in industrial processes, pest control, pharmaceuticals, and food additives. AB

http://pubs.acs.org/cen/images/8141/8141cover3_open!.JPG
TD-50
the dose that is toxic to 50% of the population AB

http://cdn.pharmacologycorner.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/td50.gif
Thermal pollution
heat pollution, heating released to water or air creates undersirable effects AB

http://withfriendship.com/images/i/43742/Thermal-pollution-picture.jpg
threshold
its a level below which no effect occurs and above which effects begin to occur AB

http://www.imagemet.com/WebHelp/images/pnp_threshold1ddemo.gif
Tolerance
The ability to resist or withstand stress resulting from exposure to a pollutant or harmful condition. AB

http://www.boiler-tubes.com/pic/Seamless-Stainless-Steel-tubing.jpg
Toxic
Materials (pollutants) that are poisonous to people and other living things. Image (http://www.google.com/imgres?q=toxic&hl=en&client=safari&rls=en&biw=1280&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=eldIYZVAFoKw9M:&imgrefurl=http://ptcl.chem.ox.ac.uk/~hmc/hsci/chemicals/iodine.html&docid=N2SZ-ngGHo_JFM&w=249&h=253&ei=vDhQTtWmHbLLsQKxnNzIBg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=385&page=1&tbnh=140&tbnw=138&start=0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:0&tx=84&ty=93) [Dº - W.W.M.]
toxicology
the science that studies chemicals that are known to be or could be toxic, toxicologists are scientists in the field. AB

http://www.all-about-forensic-science.com/images/forensic-toxicology-phd-topic-21286237.jpg
Meltdown
Refers to a nuclear accident in which the nuclear fuel becomes so hot that it forms a molten [D - D.K.]
Nuclear energy
Energy of the atomic nucleus- ways to release energy: fission and fusion [D - D.K.]
Nuclear fuel cycle
Process involved in producing nuclear power from the mining and processing of uranium to conrtoradioactive waste [D - D.K.]
Nuclear reactors
Devices that produce controlled nuclear fission [D - D.K.] http://kidzcoolzone.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/nuclear-power-plant.jpg [MG]
Radioactive decay
The radioisotope changes from one isotope to another and emits one or more forms of radiation (D- D.K.)
Radioisotope
ways 1. By emitting radiation that affects other materials
2. Entering the normal pathways of mineral cycling and ecological chains [D - D.K.]
Transuranic waste
Composed of human-made radioactive elements heavier than uranium-- it is produced in part by neutron bombardment of uranium in reactors and includes plutonium, americium, and einsteinium [D - D.K.] http://www.hanford.gov/images.cfm/TRU-179df_large.jpg [MG]
Allowance Trading
(18) In this system, the EPA grants utility companies tradable allowances for polluting. (E-KSW). [D.B]. Image: <http://nextnature.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/carbon_trading.jpg>.
Urban Runoff
Surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization. Hard, non-permeable surfaces, such as concrete and asphalt, replace soil, preventing water from entering aquifers. Rainwater instead flows over the hard surfaces, gathering pollutants and chemicals until it eventually rejoins a water source. AB

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/09/Storm_Drain.JPG/250px-Storm_Drain.JPG
Primary Treatment
Removal of large particles and organic materials from wastewater through screening AB

http://members.shaw.ca/gp.lagasse/800x600/Primary.jpg
Secondary Treatment
Use of biological processes to degrade wastewater in a treatment facility AB

http://www.thewatertreatments.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/secondary-treatment.gif
Advanced Wastewater Treatment
AB

http://cadnews.opendesignproject.org/files/2010/07/Advanced_Water_Treatment_Technologies.jpg
Wastewater Renovation and Conservation Cycle
The practice of applying wastewater to the land; in some systems, treated wastewater is applied to agricultural crops and as the water infiltrates through the soil layer, it is naturally purified;
reuse of the water is by pumping it out of the ground for municipal or agricultural uses AB

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/pictures/wastewaterplant.jpg
Water Reuse
The use of wastewater following some sort of treatment; water reuse may be inadvertent, indirect, or direct
Inadvertent Water Reuse
Results when water is withdrawn, treated, used, treated, and returned to the environment, followed by further withdrawals and use
Direct Water Use
Refers to the use of treated wastewater that is piped directly from a treatment plant to the next user
Environmental Law
A field of law concerning the conservation and use of natural resources and the control of pollution
1899 Refuse Act
Protects navigable water from pollution
1956 Federal Water and Pollution Control Act
Enhances the quality of water resources and prevents, controls, and abates water pollution
1958 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
Mandates the coordination of water resources projects such as dams, power plants, and flood control must coordinate with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to enact wildlife conservation measures
1969 National Environmental Policy Act
Requires environmental impact statement prior to federal actions (development) that significantly affect the quality of the environment; included are dams and reservoirs, channelization, power plants, bridges, and so on
1970 Water Quality Improvement Act
Expands power of 1956 act through control of oil pollution and hazardous pollutants and provides for research and development to eliminate pollution in Great Lakes and acid mine drainage
1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act)
Seeks to clean up nation's water; provides billions of dollars in federal grants for sewage treatment plants; encourages innovative technology, including alternative water treatment methods and aquifer recharge of wastewater
1974 Federal Safe Drinking Water Act
Aims to provide all Americans with safe drinking water; sets contaminant levels for dangerous substances and pathogens
1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
Established revolving fund (Superfund) to clean up hazardous waste disposal sites, reducing groundwater pollution
1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Regulates underground gasoline storage tanks; reduces potential for gasoline to pollute groundwater
1987 Water Quality Act
Established national policy to control nonpoint sources of water pollution; important in development of state management plants to control nonpoint water pollution sources
pollution zone
high BOD, oxygen used by microorganisms as waste decomposition occurs, dissolved oxygen content ofwater decreases water decreases
active decomposition zone
dissolved oxygen content reaches its maximum, rapid biochemical decomposition by microorganisms as waste transported downstream
recovery zone
dissolved oxygen increases, BOD reduced, because oxygen-demanding organic waste from input of sewage has decomposed
deductive reasoning
reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect) Image: (http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/Assets/images/deduct.gif) [KZ]
dependent variable
A variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value depends in the independent variable. Also known as the responding variable. Image: (http://www.williamsclass.com/Variables/PlantGrowth.gif) [KZ]
disprovability
The ability to be disproven, refutability, the possibility that something is wrong. [KZ]
experimental controls
condition that insures the manipulated variable actually caused an observed change in the responding variable. Image: ( http://www.google.com/imgres?q=experimental+control&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1034&bih=531&tbm=isch&tbnid=yNiQhybHbvQRbM:&imgrefurl=http://www.down-syndrome.org/reports/42/&docid=ZJ9ypQ02EwwJAM&w=523&h=279&ei=D99VTtyBBpTXiAKukfmyCQ&zoom=1 ) [KZ]
explanations
The way of giving or providing reasoning for something that needs to be backed up [KZ]
Fact
Chapter 2: An observation of some sort that is absolutely true. Source: textbook. Image URL: http://www.autobulktraffic.com/images/fact.jpg [ Period C - yy] [KZ]
hypothesis
a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence
inductive reasoning
Reasoning from a specific case or cases and deriving a general rule. It draws inferences from observations in order to make generalizations. [KZ]
inference
An educated guess made from prior known knowledge about something that people aren't sure about.
Manipulated Variable
a factor that a scientist purposely controls, changes, or manipulates; it is also called the independent variable. Image (http://images.google.com/imgres?q=manipulated+variable&hl=en&biw=1034&bih=531&gbv=2&tbm=isch&tbnid=7l1VljmEATiCdM:&imgrefurl=http://www.globalspec.com/reference/10937/179909/chapter-2-process-control-loops&docid=4ENUWsIV5iCRLM&w=587&h=289&ei=YuNVTpDWNO3QiAL2_rStCQ&zoom=1 )
[D.Lai] [KZ]
controlled experiment
a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same
area sources
Diffuse sources of pollution such as urban runoff or automobile exhaust.
asbestos
a term for several minerals that have the form of small elongated particles. Some types of particles are believed to be carcinogenic or to carry with them carcinogenic materials
biomagnification
the tendency for some substances to concentrate with each trophic level (c-mc)
carcinogen
any material that is known to produce cancer in humans or other animals (c-mc)
Contamination
The presence of undesirable material that makes something unfit for a particular use. Image )http://www.google.com/imgres?q=bp+oil+spill&hl=en&client=safari&rls=en&biw=1280&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=UGfC5PmQbSgHOM:&imgrefurl=http://www.bnet.com/blog/clean-energy/all-things-bnet-on-bps-gulf-of-mexico-oil-spill/2090&docid=1XYzROQgHsQd1M&w=3975&h=3327&ei=p0JQTvfCEa_KsQKZ6ZTqBg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=610&vpy=301&dur=280&hovh=183&hovw=228&tx=148&ty=179&page=2&tbnh=136&tbnw=192&start=15&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:15) (c-mc) [Dº - W.W.M.]
disease
an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism [D-N.P.]
dose response
the principle that that the effect of a certain chemical on an individual depends on the dose or concentration of that chemical (c-mc)
ecological gradient
a change in the relative abundance of a species or group of speciies along a line or over an area (c-mc)
observations
information that is collected from the senses or tools
operational definitions
what one would have to do in order to duplicate an experiments results
premises
the statements that set forth the reasons or evidence
probability
a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
pseudoscientific
based on theories and methods erroneously regarded as scientific
Biogeography
large-scale, global patterns- beginning with the concepts of the biotic province and the biome
(E- LM).
Biome
a kind of ecosystem- based on niches and habitats
(E- LM)
Biotic Province
- a region inhabited by a characteristic set of taxa (species, families, orders), bounded by barriers that prevent the spread of those distinctive kinds of life to other regions and the immigration on foreign species.
( E- LM)
Chaparral
dry climates, temperate shrublands
( E-LM)
Convergent Evolution
Similar shapes result from evolution in similar desert climates
( E-LM)
Divergent Evolution
a population is divided into two separate ones and each evolves separately but the two groups retain some characteristics in common.
(E- LM)
Cogeneration (Ch. 17)
a number of processes designed to capture and use waste heat rather than simply release it into the atmosphere, water, or other parts of the environment as thermal pollutant [E°, BK]
Conservation (Ch. 17)
getting by with less demand for energy [E°, BK]
Energy Efficiency (Ch. 17)
involves designing equipment to yield more energy output from a given amount of input energy (1st law of efficiency) or better matches between energy source and end use (2nd law of efficiency) [E°, BK]
1st Law of Efficiency
deals with the amount of energy without any consideration of the quality or availability of the energy; ratio of the actual amount of energy delivered where it is needed to the amount of energy supplied to meet that need [E°, BK]
First Law of Thermodynamics (Ch. 17)
says that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be transferred and transformed.
Hard Path (Ch. 17)
involves finding greater amounts of fossil fuels and building larger power plants; means continuing the past emphasis on the quantity of energy we use; requires no new thinking [E°, BK]
Integrated Energy Management (Ch. 17)
recognizes that no single energy source can provide all the energy required by the various countries of the world; a range of options necessary [E°, BK]
Micro Power (Ch. 17)
smaller, distributed systems for production of electricity [E°, BK]
2nd Law of Efficiency (Ch. 17)
refers to how well matched the energy end use is with the quality of the energy source [E°, BK]
Second Law of Thermodynamics (Ch. 17)
when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)
Soft Path (Ch. 17)
involves energy alternatives that emphasize energy quality, renewable [E°, BK]
Sustainable Energy Development (Ch. 17)
basic goal of integrated energy management; would provide reliable sources of energy, not cause destruction to our global and local environments, would help ensure that future generations inherit a quality environment [E°, BK]
Work (Ch. 17)
the product of a force times a distance [E°, BK]
potential energy
energy stored in a body or in a system; example: gravitational, chemical, etc. [E°, BK]
kinetic energy
energy of motion; ex: thermal, electric [E°, BK] Image (http://www.petervaldivia.com/technology/energy/image/potencial-and-kinetic.bmp)
BTU
british thermal units [E°, BK]
Model
Ch.2: a deliberately simplified construct of nature. The model can be a physical working model, a pictorial model, a set of mathematical equations, or a computer simulation.
[D.Lai]
Qualitative Data
Ch.2: Information describing color, odor, shape, or some other physical characteristic. It is a nonnumerical recorded quality.
[D.Lai]
Quantitative Data
Ch.2: numerical information describing the scientist's input and output values.
[D.Lai]
responding variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable; also known as a dependent variable
scientific method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
Scientific Theory
Ch.2: a grand scheme that relates and explains many observations and is supported by a great deal of evidence.
[D.Lai]
Theories
Ch.2: a widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence. It can also be models that offer broad, fundamental explanations of many observations.
[D.Lai]
variables
factors that can change in an experiment
biomass
the total mass of living matter in a given unit area
Biomass
biological material from living or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, gas, and alcohol fuels
(D˚, EY)
Biomass (Chapter9)
the total amount of organic matter on Earth or in any ecosystem or area. [SY] Image: (http://solar.calfinder.com/blog/solar-politics/biomass-power-renewable-or-
rotten/)
biological production (Chapter9)
the capture of usable energy from the environment to produce organic compounds in which that energy is stored. [SY] image:(http://web.mit.edu/~pweigele/www/being/content/how.html)
Autotrophs
organisms that make their own organic matter from a source of energy and inorganic compounds. [SY] Image: (http://www.sarracenia.com/faq/faq1100.html)
primary production (Chapter9)
production that is carried out by autotrophs. [SY]
Image: (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/9l.html)
Primary Production (Chapter9)
simply pumping oil from wells. This method can recover only about 25% of the petroleum in a reservoir. [C - A.Y.]
http://www.civilizationsfuture.com/pics/hanpp2.jpg
Photosynthesis (Chapter9)
process in which autotrophs make sugar from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water. [SY]
Image: (http://www.renewablepowernews.com/archives/1091)
Chemoautotrophs (Chapter9)
autotrophic bacteria that can derive energy from inorganic sulfur compounds. [SY]
Image: (http://www.biologyjunction.com/bacteria_notes_b1.htm)
heterotrophs (Chapter9)
organisms that cannot make their own organic compounds from inorganic ones and must feed on other living things. [SY]
Image: (http://creationwiki.org/Trophic_level)
secondary production (Chapter9)
this is production by heterotrophs. [SY]
Image: (http://www.cornucopia.org/horizon-factory-farm-photo-gallery/auroras-surrogate-heifer-ranch/)
Cultural Eutrophication
(22) When eutrophication is accelerated by human processes that add nutrients to a body of water http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/eutrophication.html (MC)
Ecosystem Effect
(22) Effects that result from interactions among different species, effects of species on chemical elements in their environment, and the condition of the environmenthttp://blog.nus.edu.sg/lsm3251/2008/08/26/top-down-ecosystem-effect-of-predator-hunting-modes/ (MC)
Sediment Pollution
By volume and mass, sediment is our greatest water pollutant. It can choke streams, fill reservoirs, bury vegetation. A nuisance.
Acid mine drainage
(22) water with high concentration of sulfuric acid that drains from mines http://www.fondriest.com/news/acid-mine-drainage.htm (MC)
Point Sources
(22) Sources of pollution that are distinct and confined. They are generally controlled through on-site treatment
http://connecticutwatertrails.com/CWTA%20-%20Connecticut%20Water%20Trails%20and%20Water%20Pollution%20-%20Point%20And%20Nonpoint%20Sources.htm (MC)
Nonpoint Sources
Pollution sources that are diffused and intermitten and are influenced by factors such as land use, hydrology, topography, climate, native vegetation, and geology.
Nanotechnology
(22) The use of extremely small material particles (10^-9m size) http://www.google.com /imgres?q=nanotechnology&um=1&hl=en&client=firefox-a&sa=N&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1252&bih=582&tbm=isch&tbnid=Fq_uVprTXdA--M:&imgrefurl=http://bccresearch.wordpress.com/tag/nanotechnology/&docid=pwenMIfHfrL4QM&imgurl=http://bccresearch.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/two-a.jpg&w=350&h=325&ei=j_ykTq-JH4KViALy0MDPDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=192&vpy=252&dur=1429&hovh=216&hovw=233&tx=139&ty=161&sig=115825060279823312839&page=1&tbnh=167&tbnw=176&start=0&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0 (MC)
Urban Runoff- Naturalization
(22) technology to treat urban runoff before it reaches large bodies of waters like streams, lakes, or the ocean
http://www.abbey-associates.com/splash-splash/picture_gallery.html (MC)
Wastewater renovation and conservation cycle
The practice of applying wastewater to the land.
Oligotrophic lake
Lake with relatively low concentration of chemical elements required by life, clear water, low/SWCS/WATERSHEDS/FISHERIES/FISHES/PIC/eutrophication.jpg
Eutrophic lake
Lake w/ high concentration of chemical elements, often with mats of algae and murky water, abundance of life
http://www.scienceclarified.com/images/uesc_05_img0239.jpg
Breeder Reactors
Reactors that are designed to produce new nuclear fuel. Achieved through a process in whic
Low-Level Radioactive Waste
Contains sufficiently low concentrations or quantities of radioactivity that it doesn't present a significant environmental hazard if properly handled.
Drawbacks of tidal power
Corrosive, hard to find a perfect area, expensive, affects marine life [D° - T.G]
Drawbacks of solar power
Expensive to produce, production of solar panels involves toxic chemicals [D° - T.G]
Drawbacks of Nuclear power
Risk of meltdowns, waste disposal, extremely expensive to build plants, thermal polluhttp://a.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.Sar9.giftion [D° - T.G]
Drawbacks of hydroelectric power
Disrupts fish migration cycles, sediment trapped, limited number of rivers, danger of dams breaking [D° - T.G]
Percentage of freshwater on earth
3% [D° - T.G]http://a.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.Sar9.gif
What do anaerobic organisms produce?
CO2 [D° - T.G]
Who wrote "Tragedy of the Commons"
Garrett Hardin [D° - T.G]
In which cycle is lightning involved?
The nitrogen cycle [D° - T.G]
The most common distribution in animal populations
Clumped [D° - T.G]
Good farming methods:
terracing, strip cropping, no-till, drip irrigation, integrated pest management [D° - T.G]
What two elements is the inner core made of for the most part
Nickel and Iron [D° - T.G]
The main element in the crust is _____
oxygen [D° - T.G]
Why are CFCs harmful?
They deplete stratospheric ozone [D° - T.G]
There are ___ stages in the demographic transition.
4 [D° - T.G]
The approximate US population is ___
300 million [D° - T.G]
Noise pollution is regulated by ____
the EPA [D° - T.G]
Ecological Island
A small habitat separated from a larger habitat of the same kind (E period, R.F.)
Exotic Species
A species introduced into a new geographic area (E period, R.F)
Realms
Six biogeographic regions of the world separated on the basis of fundamental features of the native animals (E period, R.F)
The Neotropical Realm is found in...
Central and South America (E period, R.F)
Alfred Russel Wallace
A co-founder of the theory of biological evolution with Charles Darwin and the creator of the idea of Realms (E period, R.F.) Image (http://www.libraries.uc.edu/libraries/arb/exhibits/darwin/images/alfredrusselwallace_000.jpg)
groundwater
Chapter 21: water found beneath the Earth's surface within the zone of saturation, below the water table (http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/gw_ruralhomeowner/images/fig6.gif) [C° A.H.]
heavy metals
refers to a number of metals, including lead, mercury, arsenic, and silver; have a relativelly high atomic number and are often toxic even at relatively low concentrations [E°, BK]
integrated waste management
set of management alternatives including reuse, source reduction, recycling, composting, landfill, and incineration [E°, BK]
Liebig's Law of the Minimum
Chapter 11: the concept that the growth or survival of a population is directly related to the single life requirement that is in least supply, rather than due to a combination of factors AKA - "Yield is proportional to the amount of the most limiting nutrient" Information Botkin-Keller and http://www.soils.wisc.edu/~barak/soilscience326/lawofmin.htm [J.T]
methane hydrate
a white icelike compound made up of molecules of methane gas trapped in "cages" of frozen water in the sediments of the deep seafloor [E°, BK]
missing carbon sink
Chapter 5: the unknown location of substantial amounts of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere but apparently not reabsorbed and thus remaining unaccounted for [E°, BK] [S.K.]
overdraft
Chapter 21: groundwater withdrawal when the amount pumped from wells exceeds the natural rate of replenishment [C° A.H.]
polar stratospheric clouds
clouds that form in the stratosphere during the polar winter [E°, BK]
El Nino
natural perturbation of the physical earth system that affects global climate; characterized by development of warm oceanic waters in the eastern part of the tropical Pacific Ocean, a weakening or reversal of the trade winds, and a weakening or even reversal of the equatorial ocean currents [E°, BK]
Environmental Justice
the principle of dealing with environmental problems in such a way as to not discriminate against people based upon socioeconomic status, race, or ethnic group [E°, BK]
geothermal energy
the useful conversion of natural heat from the interior of the earth [E°, BK]
global dimming
the reduction of incoming solar radiation by reflection from suspended particles in the atmosphere and their interaction with water vapor [E°, BK]
Hydropower
the use of water movement and pressure to spin a turbine in order to generate electricity (D˚, EY) Image (http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/images/technical/hydro-power.jpg)
Windmill
a machine that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy
(D˚, EY)
http://osha.europa.eu/en/blog/windmill.jpg
Photovoltaic cells
form of energy derived from the photovoltaic effect to generate electrical energy using the potential difference that arises between materials when the surface of the cell is exposed to electromagnetic radiation
(D˚, EY)
http://www.daviddarling.info/images/thin-film_photovoltaic_cell.gif
Kilowatt hour
A measure of electrical energy equivalent to a power consumption of 1,000 watts for 1 hour (used to measure electrical energy)
(D˚, EY)
Electricity
A form of energy resulting from the existence of charged particles (such as electrons or protons), either statically as an accumulation of charge or dynamically as a current
(D˚, EY)
Respiration
9: breathing which is the process of inhaling and exhaling gases from and external environment
[IF] http://www.beltina.org/pics/breathing.jpg
Clean Air Act
the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer; the last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, was enacted by Congress in 1990; legislation passed since then has made several minor changes
(D˚, EY)
Clean Water Act
the law that gives the EPA the authority to set effluent limits on an industry-wide (technology-based) basis and on a water-quality basis that ensure protection of the receiving water
(D˚, EY)
Mechanical energy
a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs; "energy can take a wide variety of forms"
(D˚, EY)
Chemical energy
that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction
(D˚, EY)
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
the law provides a Federal "Superfund" to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous-waste sites as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment
(D˚, EY)
Troposhpere
The lowest region of the atmosphere, extending from the earth's surface to a height of about 6-10 km (the lower boundary of the stratosphere)
(D˚, EY)
Mesosphere
The region of the earth's atmosphere above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere
(D˚, EY)
Ozone
A colorless unstable toxic gas with a pungent odor and powerful oxidizing properties, formed from oxygen by electrical discharges or ultraviolet light. It differs from normal oxygen (O2) in having three atoms in its molecule (O3)
(D˚, EY) http://aura.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/features/ground_ozone.jpg
Photochemical smog
from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide
(D˚, EY, AY) http://apesnature.homestead.com/files/fg22_04b.jpgvfrom large
Primary pollution
pollution with pollutants directly emitted from a source (D˚, EY) Image (http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-Delhi/Environmental%20Air%20Pollution/air%20pollution%20(Civil)/Module-1/images1/35.gif)
Secondary pollution
pollution that results from a chemical reaction between a primary pollutant and sunlight (D˚, EY) Image (http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-Delhi/Environmental%20Air%20Pollution/air%20pollution%20(Civil)/Module-1/images1/35.gif)
Environmental Protection Agency
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
(D˚, EY)
Types of coals
Peat, Lignite, Bituminous, Anthracite (from youngest to oldest). [D° S.C.]
R-strategist characteristics
Large number of offspring, short(er) lifespan, and faster maturity [D° S.C.]
K-strategist characteristics
Small number of offspring, longer lifespan, and slower maturity [D° S.C.]
Types of Renewable Resources
Solar, Water, Wind [D° S.C.]
Types of Nonrenewable Resources
Geothermal, Nuclear, Oil, Natural gas, Biomass [D° S.C.]
What is an energy source whose energy is not ultimately derived from the sun?
Geothermal energy [D° S.C.]
What two main elements cause eutrophication?
Phosphorus, Nitrogen [D° S.C.]
What is the distribution of water on Earth?
Earth is 70% water. Of this 97% is seawater, 3% is freshwater (2% in ice, 1% in lakes, rivers, and atmosphere). Information Env. Science Quick Study [D° S.C.]
What is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere?
78% nitrogen; 21% oxygen; <1% carbon dioxide; <1% water vapor (although near surface, may vary 1-4%) (and other trace elements). Information Env. Science Quick Study [D° S.C.]
When a population has reached its maximum limit, what type of curve does it display?
Logistic/ S curve [D° S.C.]
Time Series Ch. 14
the set of estimates of some variable over a number of years.(http://www.theresilientearth.com/files/images/co2_time-series-graph.gif) C.C.
Historical Range of Variation
The known range of abundances of a population [E, CM]
Catch Per Unit Effort
Harvest, or catch, per unit of time or effort [E, CM]
Local Extinction
When a species disappears locally but remains globally [E, CM]
Global Extinction
When a species can no longer be found anywhere (globally) [E, CM]
Logistic Carrying Capacity
Ch 4. A carrying capacity as defined by the logistical growth curve. CH http://www.uwyo.edu/dbmcd/popecol/janlects/Fig5.1Logistic.gif
Carry Capacity
A abundance at which a population can sustain itself [E, CM] Image (http://www.algebralab.org/img/cb07ae0c-5106-416c-8407-38da526923c6.gif)
Optimum Sustainable Population
Maximum population that can be sustained indefinitely without harming the species or ecosystem [E, CM]
United States Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972
Primary goal is to conserve the health and stability of marine ecosystems [E, CM]
Free Radical
Cancer causing agent, often originates from radiation [E, CM]
Cenozoic Era
Era of mammals [E, CM] http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cenozoic/tertiary.gif (Wil Loveless photo)
Mesozoic Era
Era of flying reptiles, birds, and dinosaurs [E, CM]http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mesozoic/mesozoic.gif (Wil Loveless photo)
Paleozoic Era
Era of reptiles, insects, amphibians, land plants, and fish [E, CM]http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/paleozoic/paleozoic.gif (Wil Loveless photo)
Precambrian Era
Era of one and multi-celled organisms [E, CM] http://www.kinderscience.com/Precambrian%20Era%201.GIF (Wil Loveless photo)
Rare Earth Theory
Bacteria is common in universe, but many successive steps were necessary in order to occur [E, CM]
Theia
Earths twin, ended up colliding with Earth and adding mass to Earth, allowing it to have a gravitational pull strong enough to hold in an atmosphere [E, CM] Image (http://www.foxnews.com/images/527437/0_21_earth_theia_impact.jpg)
What do the Aurora Lights prove?
The Aurora Lights prove that the Earth has a core that helps in the deflecting of sun's light/rays [E, CM]
What advantages does the Moon give us?
-gravity helps provide tides, which regulate the Earths surface temperature and prevents extreme fluctuation
[E, CM]
Why was the Ice Age essential to human's eventual development?
The Ice Age assisted in killing off many types of bacteria that would have otherwise populated the planet and in a sense taken over [E, CM]
What ended the Ice Age and made our Earth once again animal inhabitable?
Many volcano eruptions that released CO2 gas which warmed the atmosphere, melted the ice, and began to cycle through the ecosystems promoting plant life [E, CM]
Radiation
Energy is carried by a photon from one place to another [E, CM] Image (http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cxtdm/met/radiation_pres.jpg)
Conduction
Energy is transfered from one particle to another through collision [E, CM] Image (http://www.aos.wisc.edu/~aalopez/aos101/wk5/heatrans.jpg)
Convection
Energy is moved by energy containing particles from one place to another [E, CM] Image (http://thecomplementarynature.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/chap01_convection.gif)
Sea Floor Spreading
Caused by lava spewing from the upper mantle that then pushes older rock to the side and creates new sea-floor rock [E, CM] Image (http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/platetectonics/seafloor.jpg)
Paleomagnatism
Every 740,000 years the Earth's poles "switch" due to the magnetic field created by the Iron and Nickel coming up from the core [E, CM]
Alfred Wegner
Proposed idea of continental drift and idea that earths continents had moved. To support his idea he looked at maps and stated that continents should fit together like puzzle pieces, which was bolstered by modern fossil evidence and analysis [E, CM] image: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=%2bAlfred+Wegner+Pangea&view=detail&id=44480FB8935F6B050D1E734F94130293AB061774&first=0&qpvt=%2bAlfred+Wegner+Pangea&FORM=IDFRIR [CH]
Where does the majority of the world's Oxygen come from?
Marine phytoplankton! Dismiss the common misconception that trees produce our oxygen, 70% of our oxygen is produced by phytoplankton [E, CM]
Species Richness
The total number of species present in a sample - does not take into account the amount of each [E, CM] Image (http://www.cof.orst.edu/rangecontractions/images/fig4a+b+c_lowres.jpg)
Community-level interactions
indirect interaction between species, either by a species affecting a species that interacts with another, or affecting the environment effects other species. [D-N.P.]
Example of a Keystone Species
Sea otter is a Keystone species [D-N.P.]
Ecosystems
the minimal entity that has the properties required to sustain life. [D-N.P.] Image (http://www.andysalo.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/ecosystem.jpg)
Grassland Ecosystem
pic [D-N.P]
Watershed
Chapter 21: the area where any water put into the soil flows into the same stream. (http://www.earthgauge.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Watershed_ky.gov_.gif) [C° A.H.]
Watershed
pic [D-N.P.] Image: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=watershed&view=detail&id=EFE925F208BB036FD57264CCB0868880FB25EF6F&first=0&FORM=IDFRIR [CH]
Commonalities of ecosystems
energy flow, cycling of chemicals [D-N.P.]
Phosphate cycle in ecosystem
pic [D-N.P.]
What are some examples of an artificial ecosystem?
A pond that is part of a waste-treatment plant; Zoos, animal reserves [D-N.P.]
Ecosystem Management
managing and conserving life by considering chemical cycling, energy flow, community-level interactions, natural and natural changes within ecosystems [D-N.P.]
Examples of ecosystem management
agriculture, managing forests for timber production, zoos [D-N.P.]
How do you manage an ecosystem of a zoo?
Must provide food, water, and remove the waste that natural processes cannot do in the confinement of the zoo[D-N.P.]
Holistic view
a perception that an ecosystem is more than its parts[D-N.P.]
Food Web of a Harp seal
1st trophic level—phytoplankton; 2nd—euphausiids; 3rd—sand lances; 4th—flatfish; 5th—harp seal. Harp seal eats on multiple levels, as well (2nd, 3rd, 4th) [D-N.P.]
What are some examples of a common?
Air, water, fisheries, forests [D-N.P]
Why are upwellings important to fisheries?
because the cold water bring many nutrients to the surface, which increases fish populations in that area [D-N.P]
In soil, which is biggest? clay, sand, or silt?
sand [D-N.P]
What are some examples of endangered animals?
Polar bears, pandas, tigers, rhinos, turtles, whales, dolphin, elephants [D-N.P]
Minimum viable population Ch.14
the minimum number of individuals that have a reasonable change of persisting for a specified time period (http://www.eoearth.org/files/120501_120600/120524/250px-TBB_MVP_Fig2.jpg)C.C
Maximum sustainable yield Ch.14
the largest yield/catch that can be taken from a species' stock over an indefinite period. (C.C.) Image (http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y3427e/y3427e0l.gif)
New forestry
the name for a new variety of timber harvesting practices to increase the likelihood of sustainability, including recognition of the dynamic characteristics of forests and of the need for management within an ecosystem context [C - WW]
Nonmarine evaporates
with respect to mineral resources, refers to useful deposits of materials such as sodium and calcium bicarbonate, sulfate, borate, or nitrate produced by evaporation of surficial waters on the land, as differentiated from marine waters in the oceans {C - WW]
Obligate symbionts
symbiotic relationship between two organisms in which neither by themselves can exist without the other [C - WW] Image (http://www.fasebj.org/content/21/4/1058/F2.small.gif)
Marine evaporates
with respect to mineral resources, refers to materials such as potassium and sodium salts resulting from the evaporation of marine waters [C - WW]
Microclimate
climate of a very small local area [C - WW]
Net growth efficiency
Net production efficiency (P/A), or the ratio of the material produced (P) to the material assimilated (A) by an organism; material is assimilated is less than the material consumed because some food taken in is egested as waste (discharged) and never used by an organism [C - WW]
Herbivore
an organism that feeds on an autotroph [C - WW] image: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=herbivore&view=detail&id=656D208C8EA60F22BD480D6866965C8B923CAE6D&first=0&FORM=IDFRIR [CH]
Hazardous waste
waste that is classified as definitely or potentioally hazardous to the health of people (toxic/flammable liquids, heavy metals, pesticides, solvents) [C - WW]
Heat island
usually a large city that is warmer air of a city than surrounding areas as a result of increased heat production and decreased heat loss because building and paving materials act as solar collectors [C - WW]
Heat island effect
urban areas are several degrees warmer than their surrounding areas; during relatively calm periods there is an upward flow of air over heavily developed areas accompanied by a downward flow over nearby greenbelts; this produces an air-temperature profile that delineates the heat island [C - WW]
undernourishment
lack of sufficient calories in available food. Image: Undernourishment in certain regions, (http://msrb.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/fao-hunger-2.jpg?w=490&h=469) [B.L.]
malnourishment
lack of specific chemical components of food (such as proteins, vitamins, or other chemical elements) image: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=malnourishment&view=detail&id=11C743D72831FE95BE231128768A9453874B713C&first=0&FORM=IDFRIR [CH]
affects undernourishment has on the body
person has little or no ability to move or work
affects malnourishment has on the body
marasmus (progressive emaciation caused by lack of protein and calories) & kwashiorkor (leads to neural development failure in infants and eventual learning disabilities) Image: Effects of malnourishment on a child: (http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3352/3575736075_0e8aef2948.jpg) [B.L.]
Three reasons why food distribution fail in developing countries
1) poor people cannot buy food/pay for its delivery
2) transportation is lacking/too expensive so food cannot get to general population
3) food is withheld for military or political reasons
Food Aid
common solution to food shortages, few industrialized nations provide food aid to developing nations via surplus food
Forage (+examples of)
food grown directly as food for domestic animals ; alfalfa, sorghum and grasses (or hay)
Pasture
Chapter 11: Land that is plowed, planted, and harvested in order to provide forage for animals. Information Botkin-Keller. (http://moonindigofarm.com/images/pasture.jpg) [J.T]
Aquaculture
Chapter 11: The farming of food in aquatic habitats, including both marine and freshwater. Information Botkin-Keller. (http://www.nosb.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/aquaculture.jpg) [J.T]
Popular Aquacultural products
carp, tilapia, oysters, shrimp
Mariculture
Chapter 11: The farming of ocean fish and creatures. Information Botkin-Keller. (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Aquakultur-Vestmanna.jpg) [J.T]
Agroecosystem
Chapter 11: ecosystem created by agriculture ; includes all living and non living components as well as their interactions. Information Botkin-Keller and Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agroecosystem) (http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/04/2/7/9/95335123358275885.jpg) [J.T]
Monoculture
Chapter 11: large areas planted with a single species or even a single strain or subspecies (Example: Single hybrid of corn) Information Botkin-Keller (http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/seminar/2004/Grp4/Monoculture.jpg) [J.T]
Disadvantages of Monoculture
Chapter 11: Vulnerability of entire crop, more susceptible to attack from a single disease or a single change in environmental conditions, reduces soil content of essential elements. Information Botkin-Keller [J.T]
Crop Rotation
Chapter 11: A series of different crops planted successively in the same field, with the field occasionally left fallow, or grown with a cover crop that is not harvested for at least one season. Information Botkin-Keller [J.T]
Farming is in a(n)
a) early successional state
b) late successional state
a) early successional state
Damages to the soiil from plowing
exposes soil to erosion, damages physical structure (both of which lead to decline in organic matter and loss of chemical elements)
Role of clay in soil (small particles)
help retain moisture and chemical elements
Role of sand/pebbles (larger particles)
help with flow of water
Limiting Factor
Chapter 11: A factor whose availability is the least in comparison to the needs of a plant. [M.S.]
Macronutrient
Chapter 11: A chemical element required by all living things in relatively large amounts. Examples: sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, potassium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen. [M.S]
Micronutrient
Chapter 11: A chemical element required in small amounts - either in extremely small amounts by all forms of life or in moderate to small amounts for some forms of life. Examples: Molybdenum, copper, zinc manganese and iron. [M.S.]
Synergistic Effect
Chapter 11: In the synergistic effect, a change in availability of one resource affects the response of an organism to some other resource. [M.S.] Image (http://www.rumen-health.com/images/rumen_fiber_diagram.gif)
Green Revolution
Chapter 11: The green revolution is the name attached to post WWII programs that have led to the development of new strains of crops with higher yields, better resistance to disease, or better ability to grow under poor conditions. [M.S.]
Organic Farming
Chapter 11: The green revolution is the name attached to post WWII programs that have led to the development of new strains of crops with higher yields, better resistance to disease, or better ability to grow under poor conditions. [M.S.]
Genetically Modified Crops
Chapter 11: GMCs are crops that have been genetically modified in order to increase agricultural production [M.S.]
Four stages of the history of agriculture
1) resource based (organic) agriculture; introduced 10,000+ years ago
2) shift to mechanized, demand based agriculture ; occurred during Industrial Revolution (c. 18-19th century)
3) return to resource based agriculture with new and improved technologies; 20th century
4) growing interest in organic agricultures as well as potentially large scale use of genetically engineered crops
Geothermal Energy
Natural heat from the interior of the Earth.
Geothermal Systems
Areas of high-heat flow near tectonic boundaries.
Windmills
Tool used to collect wind power. image: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=windmills&view=detail&id=7922EB2955FBDF58807E59DB9A383873F007450C&first=0&FORM=IDFRIR [CH]
Northern Coachella Valley
Southern Californian site that is ideal for wind power collection. Image (http://www.cnsm.csulb.edu/departments/geology/people/bperry//GrantPhotos/InlandFlightOct05/245CoachellaValleyInt10SanAndreasFaultOct05L.jpg)
Active solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors, more commonly known as "solar pannels." - http://ignoringfriction.blogspot.com/2008/12/sunchips-are-really-sun-chips-benefits.html [Per. C - Ian S.]
Solar cell technology
Use of photovoltaics to collect energy.
Passive Solar Energy
a method of converting solar energy into heat without pumps or fans. (E-LS)
Decade
a period of 10 years.
Monsanto
Chemical and biotechnology firm
http://www.monsanto.com/Style%20Library/Images/logo.png {MT}
Cow
mature female of mammals of which the male is called 'bull'
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-CXFfl9luHPM/TV-Os6opQfI/AAAAAAAAA2E/oCgrgvWqzrY/s1600/cow.jpg{MT}
Ozone Shield
The ozone layer in the stratosphere and it absorbs most of the potentially hazardous ultraviolet radiation that enters Earth's atmosphere from the sun [E, BH]
http://www.metrolic.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Ozone-Layer.gif {MT}
Dobson Unit (DU)
Still commonly used to measure the concentration of ozone [E, BH] Image (http://www.eoearth.org/files/113901_114000/113942/300px-Coin_thickness_DU.jpg)
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
The hypothesis that ozone in the stratosphere is being depleted by the presence [E, BH] Image (http://www.environment.gov.au/atmosphere/ozone/legislation/images/montreal-cfcs.gif)
Polar Stratospheric clouds
have been observed for at least the past hundred years at altitudes of approximately 20 km above the polar regions [E, BH] Image (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Aura/Images/StratosphericChemical_HiRes.jpg)
Polar Vortex
During the polar winter, the Antarctic air mass is isolated from the rest of the atmosphere and circulates about the pole in what is known as the Antarctic polar vortex. [E, BH]
Peak Oil
the time when one-half of Earth's oil has be exploited. When the peak production occurs, and if demand increases, then a gap between production and demand will result. If demand exceeds supply, cost will increase. [C - A.Y.]
http://www.drmillslmu.com/peakoi16.jpg
Biofuel
fuel derived from living or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, plant (e.g. sugar cane, corn), and alcohol. Biofuel includes ethanol (often made from corn in the United States and sugarcane in Brazil), biodiesel (vegetable oils and liquid animal fats), green diesel (derived from algae and other plant sources) and biogas (methane derived from animal manure and other digested organic material). It is considered a viable alternative to fossil fuels. [C - A.Y.]
http://img.qj.net/uploads/articles_module/67498/BiofuelStats.jpg
Fossil Fuel
formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms over hundreds of millions of years. Major fossil fuels include crude oil, natural gas, and coal. Asia uses lots of coal. The U.S. uses oil and natural gas. Middle East uses oil and gas. [C - A.Y.] http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_cwrSE63jF7Y/Sr-X1YlbpEI/AAAAAAAAAxk/N--0SuXkOwQ/s400/fossil_fuel.jpeg
Oil Shale
an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock, contains significant amounts of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons called shale oil can be produced. Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact [C - A.Y.]
http://www.solcomhouse.com/images/oil_shale-600.jpg
Tar Sand
(18) A type of unconventional petroleum deposit. The sands contain naturally occurring mixtures of sand, clay, water, and a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum. [D.B]. Image:
<http://www.blog.thesietch.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/oil_sands_open_pit_mining.jpg>.
Crude Oil (petroleum)
(18) Derived from organic materials (mostly plants) that were buried with marine or lake sediments in what are known as depositional basins. [C - A.Y.]
<http://www.free-photos.biz/images/industry/petroleum_industry/imported_crude_oil_as_a_percent_of_us_consumption_1950-2003.jpg>
Natural Gas
It is considered a clean fuel; burning it produces fewer pollutants than does burning oil or coal, so it causes fewer environmental problems than do other fossil fuels. New discoveries and construction of pipelines make natural gas more available for use but only in the near future as its supply is also limited. [C - A.Y.]
http://www.mapsofworld.com/thematic-maps/maps/natural-gas-exports.jpg
Active solar energy system
Chapter 19 [Ian S.] A solar energy system in which the energy is generated by using mechanical devices such as solar panels and photovoltaic cells. The energy is transformed from solar to (usually) electrical in solar panels, which later can be used to power regular household appliances and devices, such as refrigerators and microwave ovens. [Per.C - Ian S]
Alternative energy
Chapter 19 [Ian S.]Sources of energy that do not include fossil fuels, such as power plants that release massive amounts of CO2 into the air. Renewable energy comes in the form of windmills, solar panels, and electricity(used in cars such as Tesla). [Per.C - Ian S]
http://www.sachem-uncas.com/alternativeenergy.jpg {MT}
Biofuel
Chapter 19 [Ian S.] Energy procured through biological carbon fixation. [Per.C - Ian S] Image (http://www.infobarrel.com/Biofuels) [Dº - W.W.M.]
Fuel cell
Chapter 19 [Ian S.]This is a cell that takes chemical energy and turns it into electricity through a chemical reaction involving oxygen or an oxidizing agent. [Per.C - Ian S]

http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050615/a810_3110.jpg
Geothermal energy
Chapter 19 [Ian S.]energy that comes from heat extracted from drilling into Earth's crust. Image (http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/images/ce/geopower3.gif)
Nonrenewable Energy
Chapter 19 [Ian S.]Energy that is not reusable. Image (http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_VMKh4KwGRQs/S0-GBBKNTeI/AAAAAAAABBk/weSCNCiFMts/s320/nonrenewable+energy.gif)
Passive solar energy system
Chapter 19 [Ian S.]a system that uses energy from the sun to regulate temperatures (active technology is not uses); architectural designs are used the enhance the absorption of solar energy
Photovoltaics
Chapter 19; Convert sunlight directly into electricity. Image (http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/Courseware/Class-16110/Images/pv1.jpg) [I.S]
Renewable energy
Chapter 19; sources of energy that can never be depleted; this includes the sun, water, wind, and biomass
(D˚, EY) http://www.thegreenbubble.org/images/renewable-energy.gif [I.S]
Solar Collectors
Chapter 19; Provide space heating or hot water. Image (http://www.solar-for-energy.com/images/solar-collectors.gif) [I.S]
Tidal Power
Chapter 19; Water power derived from ocean tides. Image (http://orbitalvector.com/Power/Tidal%20Power/TIDAL%20POWER.htm) [I.S]
Water Power
Chapter 19 ; Form of stored solar energy that has been successfully harnessed. Image (http://greenenergyplanet.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/hydroelectric_system1.jpg)
[I.S]
Wind Power
Chapter 19; Energy collected from the wind. Image (http://inhabitat.com/texas-breaks-u-s-wind-power-generation-record/) [I.S]
Source Rock
The source material for oil and gas is fine-grained, organic-rich sediment buried to a depth of at least 500m where it is subjected to increased heat and pressure. [C - A.Y.]
http://www.pgesafetyeducation.com/school/sseng/images/gas/4-4ai.gif>.
Reservoir Rock
During the chemical transformation of organic material in the sediment into oil and gas (in elevated pressure and temperature) oil and gas upward migrated to a lower-pressure environment called reservoir rock. [C - A.Y.]
http://labspace.open.ac.uk/file.php/6333/s278_1_003i.jpg
Cap Rock
The rock that helps form a trap that interrupts or blocks the upward migration of oil and gas. It is usually a very fine-grained sedimentary rock, such as shale, which is composed of silt and clay-sized particles. [C - A.Y.]
http://www.energyinst.org.uk/education/ypg/images/yimage6.gif
Enhanced Production
Steam, water, or chemicals, such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas, are injected into the oil reservoir to push the oil toward the wells, where it can be more easily recovered by pumping, helping production to about 60%. [C - A.Y.]
Peak Production
The point at which less oil will be available, leading to shortages and price shocks. [C - A.Y.]
http://www.hydrowaterpower.com/PeakGraph.jpg
Coal-bed Methane
The process of plant decomposition to form coal produces a byproduct, methane (natural gas), which is stored inside coal. [C - A.Y.] http://www.cookinletoilandgas.org/Shallow%20Coal%20Bed%20Methane/Images/wellbore.jpg
Methane Hydrate (marsh gas)
a white ice-like compound made up of molecules of methane gas at depths of about 1000m beneath the seafloor. The methane has formed as a result of microbial digestion of organic matter in the sediments of seafloor and has become trapped there. [C - A.Y.]
http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/Energy/graphics/Energy_from_ice.jpg
ANWR
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on the North Slope of Alaska is one of the few pristine wilderness areas remaining in the world. It is the center of controversy of drilling or not drilling for oil housed in the region. [C - A.Y.]
http://www.anwr.org/gallery/images/01-ANWR%20land%20use%20map.jpg
indirect costs
an effect not normally accounted for in the cost-revenue analysis of producers and often not recognized by them as part of their costs and benefits [E - M.Y.]
direct costs
those borne by the producer and passed directly on to the user or purchaser [E - M.Y.]
marginal costs
the cost to reduce one additional unit of pollutant [E - M.Y.]
policy instruments
means to implement a society's policies [E - M.Y.]
risk-benefit analysis
the riskiness of a present action in terms of its possible outcomes is weighed against the benefit, or value, of the action [E - M.Y.]
externality
an effect not normally accounted for in the cost-revenue analysis of producers and often not recognized bas part of their costs and benefits [E - M.Y.]
commons
land (or another resource) owned publicly with public access for private uses [E - M.Y.]
environmental economics
develop methods for evaluating intangibles that provide good guidelines [E - M.Y.]
site
Chapter 28, the summation of all the environmental features of that location [E - M.Y.][S.J.O.]
situation
the placement of the city with respect to other areas [E - M.Y.]
city planning
formal, conscious planning for new cities [E - M.Y.]
fall line
the point on a river where there is an abrupt drop in elevation of the land and where numerous waterfalls occur. The line in the eastern US is located where streams pass from harder to softer rocks.[E - M.Y.]
garden city
land planning that considers a city and countryside together [E - M.Y.]
greenbelt
a belt of recreational parks, farmland, or uncultivated land surrounding or connecting urban communities, forming a system of countryside and urban landscapes [E - M.Y.]
made lands
Chapter 28: Man-made areas created artificially with fill, sometimes as waste dumps of all kinds and sometimes to make more land available for construction [E - M.Y.] [S.J.O.]
Composting
Chapter 29: Biochemical process in which organic materials, such as lawn clippings and kitchen scraps, are decomposed to a rich, soil-like material [Eº - M.Y.] [Dº-W.W.M.]
Deep-well Disposal
Chapter 29: Method of disposal of hazardous liquid waste that involves pumping the waste deep into the ground below and completely isolated form all freshwater aquifers. A controversial method of waste disposal that is being carefully evaluated. Image (http://www.crmwa.com/LMSCP.htm) [E - M.Y.] [Dº-W.W.M.]
E-waste
Chapter 29: Loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken electrical or electronic devices. Informal processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems [E - M.Y.] [Dº - W.W.M.]
Environmental Audit
Chapter 29: A process of determining the past history of a particular site, with special reference to the existence of toxic materials or waste. [E - M.Y.] [Dº - W.W.M.]
Environmental Justice
Chapter 29: The principle of dealing with environmental problems in such a way as to not discriminate against people based open socioeconomic status, race, or ethnic group [E - M.Y.] [Dº - W.W.M.]
Hazardous Waste
Chapter 29: Waste that is classified as definitely or potentially hazardous to the health of people. Examples include toxic or flammable liquids and a variety of heavy metals, pesticides, and solvents [E - M.Y.] [Dº - W.W.M.]
Incineration
Chapter 29: Combustion of waste at high temperature, consuming materials and leaving only ash and noncombustibles to dispose of in a landfill. Image (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/jrc/index.cfm?id=2820&dt_code=HLN&obj_id=172&lang=en) [E - M.Y.] [Dº - W.W.M.]
Industrial Ecology
Chapter 29: The process of designing industrial systems to behave more like ecosystems where waste form one part of the system is a resource for another part. Image (http://www.is4ie.org/) [E - M.Y.] [Dº - W.W.M.]
Integrated Waste Management (IWM)
Chapter 29: Set of management alternatives including reuse, source reduction, recycling, composting, landfill, and incineration. Image (http://www.rethinkyourwaste.com/waste-management.asp) [E - M.Y.] [Dº - W.W.M.]
Land Application
Chapter 29: Method of disposal of hazardous waste that involved intentional application of waste material to surface soil. Useful for certain biodegradable industrial waste, such as oil and petroleum waste, and some organic chemical waste. Image (https://portal.navfac.navy.mil/portal/page/portal/NAVFAC/NAVFAC_WW_PP/NAVFAC_NFESC_PP/ENVIRONMENTAL/ERB/LANDFARM) [E - M.Y.] [Dº - W.W.M.]
Igneous rocks
rocks made of solidified magma; they are extrusive if they crystallize on the surface of Earth and intrusive if they crystallize beneath the surface [C - WW] Image: http://geology.com/rocks/pictures/granite-coarse-grained.jpg [J.T]
Isotope
atoms of an element that have the same atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom) but vary in atomic mass number (the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom) [C - WW]
Kwashiorkor
lack of sufficient protein in the diet, which leads to a failure of neural development in infants and therefore to learning disabilities [C - WW]
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Kwashiorkor_6180.jpg [T.Y.]
Entropy
a measure in a system of the amount of energy that is unavailable for useful work; as the disorder of a system increases, the entropy in a system also increases [C - WW]
Fugitive sources
type of stationary air pollution sources that generate pollutants from open areas exposed to wind processes [C - WW]
http://www.conversiontechnology.com/aq2.jpg [T.Y.]
Decomposers
organisms that feed on dead organic matter [C - WW] http://www.scetv.org/web/web_of_water/images/uploads/Decomposers_in_lying_in_a_large_tree.jpg {MT}
Clay
may refer to a mineral family or to a very fine-grained sediment; it is associated with many environmental problems, such as shrinking and swelling of soils and sediment pollution [C - WW]
http://images.wikia.com/ceramica/images/2/2c/Clay-ss-2005.jpg [T.Y.]
Biomass energy
energy that may be recovered from biomass, which is organic material such as plants and animal waste [C - WW]
http://ecenter-old.colorado.edu/files/29dc7edab1fd478369e58043a95d89fc635ee8b2.jpg [T.Y]
Subsidence
sinking, settling, or otherwise lowering of parts of crust [C - WW]
http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/GRD/GPS/Projects/CB/SUBSIDENCE/subsidence.gif [T.Y.]
Silt
sediment between 1/16 and 1/256 mm in diameter [C - WW]
http://generalhorticulture.tamu.edu/h202/labs/lab7/mineral-particles/silt-a.jpg [T.Y.]
Synfuel
synthetic fuels, which may be liquid or gaseous, derived from solid fuels, such as oil from kerogen in oil shale, or oil and gas from coal [C - WW]
http://image.absoluteastronomy.com/images/encyclopediaimages/n/nr/nrel_ft_diesel_vs_conventional_diesel_photo.jpg [T.Y.]
Micropower
the production of electricity using smaller distributed systems rather than relying on large central power plants [C - WW]
ore deposits
Chapter 26: formed when metals are concentrated in anomalously high amounts (http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/gips/images/halolrg.gif) [C° A.H.]
divergent plate boundaries
(ch 5) when plates are moving away from each other and new lithosphere is produced ex. seafloor spreading (sv) http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/maps-data-pub/publications/geobits/graphics/plates.png
convergent plate boundaries
(ch 5) when plates collide (ex. mountain ranges) (sv) http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/usgsnps/pltec/contvsocn288x157.gif
igneous processes
(26) melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition http://www.outreach.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/geology/page6.shtml (MC)
Weather
Chapter 23: Weather consists of the temperature, pressure, cloudiness, precipitation, and winds. Image (http://wtpotus.wordpress.com/2010/07/15/hows-the-weather-above-ground-these-days/) [Dº - W.W.M.]
sedimentary processes
(ch 26) when sediments are moved by either wind, water or glaciers. http://www.beyondbooks.com/ear82/images/00080545.gif
evaporites
Chapter 26: deposits originating by evaporation (http://courses.missouristate.edu/emantei/creative/SedMetAge/evaporites.jpg) [C° A.H.]
biological processes
(ch 26) when certain mineral deposits that have been changed by life go under the biosphere ( ex. iron ore deposits and phosphates)
weathering processes
(ch 26) when the weathering of insoluble ore deposits that gather in the soil unless removed by erosion (sv) http://www.edusolution.com/edusolution2/earthsci/june2002/ques26.gif
secondary enrichment process
(ch 26 )when weathering forms sulfide ore deposits from primary ore (sv) http://www.mineralsocal.org/bulletin/2006/2006_dec_files/image006.jpg
mineral resources
Chapter 26: elements, chemical compounds, minerals, or rocks concentrated in a form that can be extracted to obtain a usable commodity (so it can be bought and sold) (http://library.thinkquest.org/26026/Science/MineralResources.jpg) [C° A.H.]
reserve
Chapter 26: the portion of a resource that is identified and from which usable materials can be legally and economically extracted (http://www.brasil.gov.br/images/sobre/geography/mining/mining/image_12) [C° A.H.]
subsurface mines
mines that are much smaller than open-pit mines; less visible because less land at the surface is disturbed (E-LS)
surface mining
much cheaper than subsurface mining, but has more direct environmental effects (E-LS)
Bingham Canyon copper mine
one of the world's largest largest human-made excavations in Utah, covers a depth of 800m (2,600 ft) Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/Bingham_Canyon_April_2005.jpg/800px-Bingham_Canyon_April_2005.jpg [J.T]
trace elements
(ch 26) for good planth growth these elements are required in small amounts, examples are cadmium, cobalt, copper (Sv) http://www.daviddarling.info/images/trace_elements.gif
Three R's of Waste Management
Chapter 29: Reduce, reuse, recycle. Source: textbook. Image URL: http://enviroshare.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/reuse_reduce_recycle.jpg [C period - yy]
reclaiming
(ch 18) the act of restoring water, land, etc (Sv) http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/districts/Photos/reclamation1.jpg
R- to- C ratio
a measure of the time available for finding the solutions to depletion of nonrenewable reserves
(E-LS)
Butchart Gardens
A former limestone quarry on Vancouver Island that was restored and turned into a beautiful garden that is open to the public for relaxation purposes. - http://attractions.uptake.com/blog/files/2008/11/butchart_gardens2.jpg [Per. C- Ian S.]
brines
(ch 26) an evaporate where liquid is obtained from wells, thermal springs & salt lakes (sv)
Alpha Particles
One of the major types of nuclear radiation, consists of two protons and two neutrons (E-LS) Image [S.J.O.]
Anaerobic
living or active in the absence of free oxygen (E-LS)
Black Lung Disease (Ch. 25)
lung disease caused by inhaling coal dusthttp://modernmedicalguide.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Black-Lung-Disease.jpg (Wil Loveless)
chimney effect (Ch. 25)
occurs when there is a temperature differential between the indoor and outdoor environmentshttp://www.daviddarling.info/images/chimney_effect.jpg (Wil Loveless)
environmental tobacco smoke (Ch. 25)
(ETS) Also known as secondhand smoke, comes from two sources: smoke exhaled by smokers, and smoke emitted from burning tobacco in cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. http://www.hometreemedia.org/images/folder%2011/What%20is%20in%20it.jpeg (Wil Loveless)
green building (Ch. 25)
objectives include: improving the indoor environmental quality through designing, constructing, and maintaining buildings that minimize indoor air pollutants, ensuring that fresh air is supplied and circulated, and managing moisture content to remove the threat of moisture related problems such as mold.http://www.newenglandmetalroof.com/construction_directory/green-building.gif (Wil Loveless)
radon (Ch. 25)
a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is colorless, odorless, and tasteless.http://www.consrv.ca.gov/cgs/minerals/PublishingImages/Radon_Element_d2x.gif (Wil Loveless)
sick building syndrome (SBS) (Ch. 25)
a condition associated with an indoor environment that appears to be unhealthy.http://www.socalgreenrealestateblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/sick-building-syndrome1.jpg (Wil Loveless)
buffers
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH (E-LS)
Chronic disease
a disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time (E-LS)
Climax Stage
The final stage of succession, viewed as a stable end point that experiences little change. (E-LS)
contamination
the presence of undesirable material that makes something unfit for a particular use. (E-LS)
Cohort
All the individuals in a population born during the same time period (E-LS)
Cosmopolitan Species
A species with a broad distribution, occuring wherever in the world the environment is appropriate (E-LS)
Dioxin
An organic compound composed of oxygen, hydrogen,carbon, and chlorine. It is a by-product from materials such as herbicides. It is extremely toxic to mammals. (E-LS)
Drought
a long period without rain (E-LS)
http://www.asianews.it/files/img/INDIA_-_Drought.jpg {MT}
fallow
a farm fields left un-planted or allowed to grow with a cover crop without harvesting for at least one season. (E-LS)
greenbelt
Chapter 28, a strip or ring of countryside or untouched land near an urban environment (Dº MB) [S.J.O.]
made lands
lands created from landfill (Dº MB)
site
all of the environmental features of the location
situation
Chapter 28,how the city is situated with respect to adjacent areas [S.J.O.]
what makes a good building site?
firm rock base, soils with good drainage above water table, nearby water for drinking, good agricultural lands
ecological islands
(ch8) a relatively small habitat disconnected from a larger, major habitat (sv) http://www.101worldtravel.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/robben-island-1.jpg
who killed the electric car?
consumers, car companies, the government, hydrogen fuel, and oil companies, but not battery technology.
the heat island effect
an effect where built up areas are significantly hotter than close by rural areas http://www.weatherquestions.com/urban_heat_island.jpg
what is the average recycling rate of glass containers?
25%
influent stream
Chapter 21: an________lies above the water table and flows when precipitation provides enough water. (http://www2.nau.edu/~doetqp-p/courses/env302/lec5/Image26.gif) [C° A.H.]
effluent stream
Chapter 21: an_______ is situated below the water table and is sustained by seepage from groundwater. (http://www2.nau.edu/~doetqp-p/courses/env302/lec5/Image20.gif) [C° A.H.]
South America
this continent gets the most precipitation in mm/yr.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:South_America_(orthographic_projection).svg {C-M.T.}
Antarctica
this continent gets the least precipitation in mm/yr.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Location_Antarctica.svg {C-M.T.} Image
water power
there is little possibility to further develop ______ because most sources have already been tapped
canals are detrimental to the environment because
(ch 21) they are "deceptively" fast as well as too shallow to provide many organisms shelter. in the past the canals have helped spread disease (sv)http://www.indybay.org/uploads/2009/07/01/panama_canal_03.jpg
what are the benefits of wetlands?
Chapter 21: they provide many niches for birds, shellfish, plants, amphibians, and reptiles. Also, they generally improve water quality. [C° A.H.]
are natural disasters becoming more frequent?
no, people are living in areas more prone to disaster and in greater density.
crude birth rate
(ch4) the number of births per 100 individuals per year (sv) http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/russianheartland/DemographicMaps/images/FertilityMaps/4CrudeBirthRates1990.jpg
rate of natural increase
(Ch4) birth rate - death rate http://courses.moodleshare.com/file.php/98/Natural_Increase_Rate.jpeg
doubling time
(ch3) the time required for the population at a certain time period to double. (sv) http://www.trialsightmedia.com/exhibit_store/images/doubling-time.jpg
Gross national product per capita
(ch9) a measure of the national income per person. (sv) http://www.hist.umn.edu/hist1015/Stuff/Challenges%20of%20Global%20Integration/GH%20Economic%20Institutions%20GNP%20Per%20Capita%20map%20copy.jpg
life expectancy at birth
(ch4) the average amount of years an individual is predicted to live based on the individual's current age. (sv) http://www.mapsofworld.com/thematic-maps/life-expectancy-at-birth.jpg
death rates fall due to an external factor, but birth rate hasn't fallen yet
(ch 4) because there is nothing controlling the rate at which humans reproduce even though our environment may not be able to sustain all these births. (Sv) http://filipspagnoli.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/world_net_birth_rate_2007.png
often cultural reasons or the lack of new education
why don't birth rates fall with death rates?
Sulfurous Smog
"Gray smog", "London smog"; from burning coal or oil at large power plants [D ND] Image (http://www.green-planet-solar-energy.com/smog-air-pollution.html) [Dº - W.W.M.]
hydrogen sulfide
H2S; smells like rotten eggs, corrosive, can cause damage to plants and is toxic to animals; produced at geysers and swamps and bogs, also a byproduct of petroleum production and smelting [D ND]
hydrogen fluoride
toxic even at concentrations of 1ppb; released in coal burning, coal gasification, and aluminum production [D ND]
methyl isocyanate
extremely toxic; killed more than 2000 people in an hour when leaked in India; used in liquid form in pesticides, dangerous at ~10ppm (major lung problems->death) [D ND]
Volatile organic compounds
VOCs; include hydrocarbons (methane, butane, propane, etc);
in the United States, half of hydrocarbons are from human sources. VOCs are largely emitted through automobile pollution, and like other such pollutants, have decreased since the 1970s [D ND]
Sulfur dioxide
colorless and odorless; released in industrial processing like burning fossil fuels. It is a major contributor to acid rain. Emissions have been reduced since the 1970s [D ND] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sulfur-dioxide-3D-vdW.png {MT}
nitrogen oxides
mostly NO and NO2. They are produced mainly from automobile pollution and power plants; can affect the lungs and eyes and infection; they may hurt plant growth. [D ND]
Vocabulary Word
Chapter X: Complete, yet concise definition of word or concept. [Initials of Student]
Carbon monoxide
CO; taken up in the blood 250 times faster than oxygen, so high exposure can easily lead to death. It can cause birth defects and mental retardation. 90% is from natural sources; it can come from automobile exhaust [D ND] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carbon-monoxide-3D-vdW.png {C-M.T.}
Lead
toxic, but important. It is used in many batteries and is still in gasoline in some countries. It can be taken up by plants and can enter the food chain [D ND] http://ecohealthwellness.com/weight-loss-blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/lead.jpg [MG]
polar amplification
Chapter 3, This is the effect of the positive feedback from the decrease in ice from warming [B.L]
cryptosporidium
(22) Organism most commonly isolated in HIV positive patients http://www.avianbiotech.com/diseases/Cryptosporidium.htm (MC)
water budget
Chapter 21: Shows the average yield (precipitation-evaporation=runoff) per year. About 2/3 of precipitation evaporates [C° A.H.]
Sustainability
Our future goal for resource management should be _________.
Sustainable resource harvest
(ch 1)after a certain quantity of a resource is used annually, the ecosystem is capable of maintaining the production.(Sv)
Sustainable ecosystem
(ch 1) an ecosystem that is is capable of having us use one of its resources while still being able to perform the ecosystem's functions. (Sv)
Precautionary principle
(ch 1) people should take precautionary steps when there is a possibility of a problem occurring instead of waiting until a threat emerges. (Sv) http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/stellent/groups/corporatesite/@msh_publishing_group/documents/image/wtd015849.jpg
Attributes of a sustainable economy
(ch 1) humans living in peace with air, water, and land systems; energy management that doesn't harm the planet or use up all the resources; a social/legal/political system that is focused on sustainability. (Sv) http://media.photobucket.com/image/sustainable%20economy/SamCarana/19283476.jpg
To achieve a sustainable ecosystem:
(ch1) to acheive a sustainable ecosytem we must invent a way to control the population; fix energy problems; create a smaller economic difference in poor and rich countries. (sv)
Carrying capacity
(ch 1) the total number of individuals in a species that can be supported by an environment without lowering the environment's ability to maintain the same amount in the future. (sv) http://www.bowhunter-ed.com/images/graphics/ch2_carrying_capacity_chart.gif
Gaia Hypothesis
(Ch 3) a hypothesis by James Lovelock stating that life alters the environment for the maintenance of life. (SV)
Megacities
Urban areas with at least 10 million people.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:New-York-Jan2005.jpg {C-M.T.}
silviculture
(13) The professional controlling of the growth and health of trees. [ Ji.T.] http://www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my/forweb/research/frc/faciliti/libthin1.jpg (image from [IF])
Public Service Functions
(13) Services that indirectly benefit something else. For example, trees provide communities a public service function by blocking powerful winds. Image: (http://www.google.com/imgres?q=trees+ block+wind&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&rls=en&biw=1041&bih=769&tbm=isch&tbnid=Vz-VdCS y_ksDM:&imgrefurl= http://www .ladstudios.com/LADsites/Sustainability/Strategies/Strategies_WindbreakVegetation.shtml&docid=IE0BnvE5Tc6cJM&w=575&h=274&ei=PrdKToTRNNTUiAL86vSPBw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=355&page=3&tbnh=86&tbnw=180&start=33&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:33&tx=130&ty=51)
stand
(13) A group of trees that are the same species. An even-aged stand is a stand consisting of trees that all grew from seeds at the same time. An uneven-aged stand is a stand in which at least three age classes exist. [ Ji.T.] Image: (http://www.desktops-wallpapers.com/Exports%20from%20Aperture/Trees/1280_1024/row_of_pine_trees.jpg)
Dominants
(13) The tallest and most numerous and vigorous trees in a forest community. (E-LS) Image:http://upl oad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Canopy.jpg
Codominants
(13) Fairly common trees that share the canopy of the forest with dominants. [ Ji.T.]
Intermediates
(13) Trees that form a layer of growth below the canopy and dominants of the forest. [ Ji.T.]
suppressed
(13) Trees that grow in the understory of the forest and experience a low growth rate due to competition with the dominant and codominant trees. [ Ji.T.]
site quality
(13) The maximum timber able to be produced by an area in a given time, or, its productivity. [ Ji.T.]
Shelterwood cutting
(13) Cutting dead trees first, then the mature ones. This enables the constant growth of a young tree population and is better ecologically for the site. [ Ji.T.] http://sevenislands.com/images/swd_shltrwd.jpg [IF]
seed-tree cutting
(13) The removal of all trees except those of good genetic qualities and high productivity (referred to as 'seed trees'). [ Ji.T.] http://www.forestryimages.org/images/768x512/4800029.jpg [IF]
thinning
(13) The selective removal of smaller, weaker trees from a population to improve the health and growth of others. [ Ji.T.] http://www.usawoodlands.com/gallery/photos/post-thinning.jpg [IF]
Utilitarian justification to placing a value on our environment
certain aspects of the environment are valuable because it benefits individuals economically or is directly necessary to human survival.
Ecological justification to placing a value on our environment
An ecosystem is necessary for the survival of some species of interest to us, or else the system itself provides some benefit.
Aesthetic justification to placing a value on our environment
nature is inherently beautiful, and should be preserved for the sake of beauty.
Moral justification to placing a value on our environment
various aspects of the environment have a right to exist. Some would argue just for living organisms; others would argue that even non-living organisms have a right to exist.
Biological Control
the use of biological predators and parasites to control pests http://www.jasonslawn.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/pest-control2.gif {MT}
Carrying Capacity
(1) maximum number of individuals of a species that can be sustained by an environment without decreasing the capacity of the environent to sustain that same amount in the future http://dieoff.org/page13.htm (MC)
Contour Plowing
Chapter 12: Plowing land along topographic contours, as much in a horizontal plane as possible, thereby decreasing the erosion rate. Information: textbook. Image URL: http://dnr.wi.gov/wnrmag/html/images/photo/2003/jun03/8.jpg [Period C - yy]
Desertification
deterioration of land in arid, semi arid, and dry sub humid climates due to natural changes http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/dry_desert.jpg {MT}
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Chapter 12: Control of pests using a combination of several methods including biological and chemical methods to minimize the use of artificial chemicals and to prevent resistance by organisms to pesticides. Information: textbook. Image URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IPMtrap4854.JPG [Period C - yy]
No-Till Agriculture
Chapter 12: A combination of farming practices that includes not plowing the land and using herbicides to keep down weeds. Effective at reducing erosion. Information: textbook. Image URL: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_ipjLMBtIw44/TA8kvDucwzI/AAAAAAAAAmQ/PUJE9CcM8FY/s1600/corn-no-till.jpg [C period- yy]
Overgrazing
When the carrying capacity is exceeded the land becomes overgrazed. This leads to less vegetation.
http://grasslands-b.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/overgrazing.jpg {MT}
Terminator Gene
Chapter 12: A genetically modified gene in crops that makes them sterile after the first year. This poses a variety of social and political concerns relating to the worlds food supply. Information: textbook. Image URL: http://www.gmo-safety.eu/data/media/591/454x276.png [C period - yy]
Plate tectonics
Chapter 5: The slow movement of plates in the lithosphere [S.K.]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/40/Tectonic_plate_boundaries.png/500px-Tectonic_plate_boundaries.png [C- S.Y]
Tectonic Cycle
Chapter 5: Involves creation and destruction of the solid outer layer of Earth, the lithosphere. [S.K.]

http://msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/pt/volcanoes/6/images/pt5v01__.gif [C- S.Y]
Rock Cycle
Chapter 5: Consists of numerous processes that produce rocks and soils. [S.K]

http://www.cotf.edu/ete/images/modules/msese/earthsysflr/EFCycleP2.gif [C- S.Y]
Rotation time
(13) The time needed before a stand of trees is cut. [ Ji.T.]
acid rain (Ch. 24)
Sulfur dioxide is capable of causing severe damage to the lungs of human and other animals particularly in the sulfate form--similar to acid rain. (Hannah Riley) effects: http://www.solcomhouse.com/images/800px-Acid_rain_woods1.jpg [MG]
air quality standards (Ch. 24)
are important because they are tied to emission standards that attempt to control air pollution. (Hannah Riley)

http://www.baq2008.org/system/files/imce/standards.jpg
[C- S.Y]
air toxics (Ch. 24)
most other air pollutants that cause problems other than the "criteria pollutants." (Hannah Riley)

http://www.exponent.com/files/Uploads/Images/Energy/nuclear%20plant.jpg [C- S.Y]
atmospheric inversion (Ch. 24)
occurs when warmer air is found above cooler air, and it poses a particular problem when there is a stagnant air mass. (Hannah Riley)
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (Ch. 24)
ozone depleting chemicals used as refrigerants and propellants in aerosol cans. (Hannah Riley)
http://tinyurl.com/3dhs3sy [S.J.O.]
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Ch. 24)
comprehensive regulations enacted by the U.S. Congress that address acid rain, toxic emissions, ozone depletion, and automobile exhaust. (Hannah Riley)
coal gasification (Ch. 24)
option of pollution control which converts coal that is relatively high in sulfur to a gas in order to remove the sulfur. (Hannah Riley)

http://fossil.energy.gov/images/programs/powersystems/gasification_schematic.jpg [C- S.Y]
criteria pollutants (Ch. 24)
6 of the most common air pollutants that are responsible for most of our air pollution problems. They inlcude: Ozone (O3), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen oxides (NO3), Carbon monoxide (CO), Particulate matter (PM 2.5, PM 10), Lead (Pb). (Hannah Riley)

http://www.mapcruzin.com/images/criteria-pollutants-380x184.jpg [C- S.Y]
dobson unit (DU) (Ch. 24)
commonly used to measure the concentration of ozone. (Hannah Riley)
http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/imglib1/dobson.gif [C- S.Y]
global dimming (Ch. 24)
cools the atmosphere and has lessened the global warming that has been predicted. (Hannah Riley)

http://www.roperld.com/science/graphics/TempGlobalDimming.jpg [C- S.Y]
hydroclorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) (Ch. 24)
one of the two substitutes for CFCs. (Hannah Riley)

http://0.tqn.com/d/chemistry/1/G/J/D/1/Chlorodifluoromethane.jpg [C- S.Y]
hydrofluorocarbons (Ch. 24)
another of the two substitutes for CFCs. (Hannah Riley)
mobile sources (Ch. 24)
include: automobiles, trucks, buses, aircraft, ships, and trains. They enable air pollutants to move from place to place. (Hannah Riley)

http://www.epa.gov/oms/invntory/overview/images/charts/nox_by_source_onroad.gif [C- S.Y]
ozone (Ch. 24)
a triatomic form of oxygen in which three atoms of oxygen are bonded. It's a strong oxidant and chemically reacts with many materials in the atmosphere. (Hannah Riley)

http://www.thfire.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/hole-in-ozone-layer.jpg [C- S.Y]
ozone shield (Ch. 24)
because it absorbs most of the potentially hazardous UV rays that enter Earth's atmosphere from the sun, the ozone layer in the stratosphere is called this. (Hannah Riley)

http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~russ/ozonehole.gif [C- S.Y]
photochemical smog (Ch. 24)
1 of the 2 major types of smog, sometimes called L.A-type smog or brown air. (Hannah Riley) http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/images/voc_pollution_sm.jpg [MG]
polar stratospheric clouds (Ch. 24)
have been observed for the past hundred years at altitudes of 12 miles above polar regions. They have an eerie beauty and iridescent glow. (Hannah Riley)

http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/0/622/PSCbest.jpg [C- S.Y]
polar vortex (Ch. 24)
when the Antarctic air mass is isolated from the rest of the atmosphere and circulates about the pole during the polar winter. (Hannah Riley) http://www.jhu.edu/~dwaugh1/gallery/ozone_1091.gif [MG]
primary pollutants (Ch. 24)
air pollutants that are emitted directly into the air. (Hannah Riley)

http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter18/graphics/primary.gif [C- S.Y]
scrubbing (Ch. 24)
most highly developed technology for the cleaning of gases in tall stacks. (Hannah Riley)

http://www.chemicalscrubbers.co.za/images/Chemical%20Scrubbers.jpg [C- S.Y]
secondary pollutants (Ch. 24)
air pollutants that are produced through reactions between primary pollutants and normal atmospheric compounds. (Hannah Riley)

http://flatplanet.wikispaces.com/file/view/acid_rain.jpg/30556826/acid_rain.jpg [C- S.Y]
smog (Ch. 24)
general term first used in 1905 for a mixture of smoke and fog. (Hannah Riley) http://www.sustainabilityninja.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/smog.jpg [MG]
stationary sources (Ch. 24)
sources of pollution that have a relatively fixed location. (Hannah Riley)

http://need-media.smugmug.com/Graphics/Graphics/i-DTJNfkf/1/L/CO2-Stationary-Source-L.jpg [C- S.Y]
sulfurous smog (Ch. 24)
another of the 2 types of smog, sometimes referred to as London-type smog, gray air, or industrial smog.(Hannah Riley) http://img.ehowcdn.com/article-page-main/ehow/images/a06/a2/oj/sulfurous-smog_-800x800.jpg (image from [IF])
ultrafine particles (Ch. 24)
cannot be filtered and are so small that they can enter the bloodstream (Hannah Riley)
ultraviolet (UV) Index (Ch. 24)
developed by the Nationalhttp://a.quizlet.com/a/i/spacer.Sar9.gif Weather Service and Environmental Protection Agency that predicts UV intensity levels on a scale of 1-11+ (Hannah Riley)
ultraviolet A (UVA) (Ch. 24)
has the longest wavelength and the least energy of the three types of UV radiation. Can cause damage to living cells and is not affected by stratospheric ozone and is transmitted to the surface of earth. (Hannah Riley)
ultraviolet B (UVB) (Ch. 24)
radiation that's energetic and strongly absorbed by stratospheric ozone. Ozone is the only known gas that absorbs UVB rays. (Hannah Riley)
ultraviolet C (UVC) (Ch. 24)
has the shortest wavelength and is the most energetic of the types of UV rays. (Hannah Riley)
R-to-C ratio
Chapter 26: a measure of the time available for finding the solutions to depletion of nonrenewable reserves, where R is the known reserves and C is the rate of consumption [C° A.H.]
Water table
Chapter 21: upper surface of groundwater (http://watersystemsblkh.wikispaces.com/file/view/water_table.gif) [C° A.H.]
Perennial stream
Chapter 21: a stream that flows all year; most are constantly receiving groundwater to sustain flow [C° A.H.] http://www.dnr.state.il.us/wetlands/images/lowerperennial19.jpg (image from [IF])
Channelization
Chapter 21: _______ of streams consists of straightening, deepening, widening, clearing, or lining existing stream channels [C° A.H.] http://www.ct.gov/dep/lib/dep/fishing/restoration/summarypic2.jpg (image from [IF])
Off-stream use
Chapter 21: water removed from its source (such as a river or reservoir) for use [C° A.H.]
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2384/5760006318_60bfeec1aa.jp (image from [IF])
Consumptive use
Chapter 21: off-stream use in which water is consumed by plants and animals or used in industrial processes [C° A.H.] http://www.hgslaw.com/assets/images/practice/irrigation.jpg (image from [IF])
In-stream use
Chapter 21: includes use of rivers for navigation, hydroelectric power generation, fish and wildlife habitats, and recreation [C° A.H.] http://ecoble.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/hydroelectric-_-ontario-power-generation.jpg (image from [IF])
environmental unity
(3) The idea that all things in the environment are interconnected and everything affects everything else. [ Ji.T.]
Leachate
Chapter 29: Noxious, mineralized liquid capable of transporting bacterial pollutants. Produced when water infiltrates though waste material and becomes contaminated and polluted [E - M.Y.]http://lib.bioinfo.pl/app/webroot/img/UserFiles/65944/Image/Figure%201.%20Generation%20of%20Landfill%20Leachate.JPG [MG]
Materials Management
Chapter 29: In waste management, methods consistent with the ideal of industrial ecology, making better use of materials and leading to more sustainable use of resources [E - M.Y.]
Monitoring
Ch 29: Process of collecting data on a regular basis at specific sites to provide a database form which to evaluate change. For example, collection of water samples form beneath a landfill to provide early warning should a pollution problem arise [E - M.Y.]
Pollution Prevention
Chapter 29: Identifying ways to avoid the generation of waste rather than finding ways to dispose of it.

http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/p2/Documents/8ed04e8dbe0d46d59d73db166a762e42P2EPA.jpg [C- S.Y]
Recycle
Chapter 29: To collect and reuse resources in the waste stream.

http://www.innovativelyorganized.com/sites/default/files/images/res-hall-recycle-logo.jpg [C- S.Y]
Reduce
Chapter 29: With respect to waste management, refers to practices that will reduce the amount of waste we produce.http://www.hunter-ed.com/az/az_specific_images/graphics/az_carrying_capacity.jpg (Wil Loveless photo)
Reuse
Chapter 29: With respect to waste management, refers to finding ways to reuse products and materials so they need not be disposed of.http://usedpoles.com/images/reuse-reduce-recycle.jpg (Wil Loveless photo)
Surface Impoundment
Chapter 29: Method of disposal of some liquid hazardous waste. This method is controversial, and many sites have been closed.
Biome
Chapter 8: A naturally occurring habitat of flora and fauna occupying a large area of land. [C- S.Y]
Biogeography
Chapter 8: A Large-scale geographic pattern in the distribution of species, and the causes and history of this distribution. [C- S.Y]
Biotic Province
Chapter 8: A geographic region containing organisms of common ancestry. [C- S.Y]
Convergent Evolution
Chapter 8: Process by which species evolve from different places but eventually join in biological features/traits. [C- S.Y]
Divergent Evolution
Chapter 8: Process by which species evolve from the same places but eventually become separate in biological features/traits. [C- S.Y]
Deductive Reasoning
Chapter 2: reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect) [D-M.Z.]
Dependent Variable
the variable that is measured in an experiment [D-M.Z.]
Disprovability
The idea that a statement can be said to be scientific if someone can clearly state a method or test by which it might be disproved [D-M.Z.]
Fact
a concept whose truth can be proven [D-M.Z.]
Hypothesis
a tentative theory about the natural world [D-M.Z.]
Independent Variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied [D-M.Z.]
Inductive Reasoning
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles [D-M.Z.]
Inference
the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation [D-M.Z.]
Manipulated Variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as independent variable [D-M.Z.]
Observations
information that is collected from the senses or tools [D-M.Z.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Magnifying_glass2.jpg {C-M.T.}
Premises
the statements that set forth the reasons or evidence [D-M.Z.]
Probability
a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur [D-M.Z.]
ecosystem energy flow
Chapter 9: the movement of energy through an ecosystem from the external environment through a series of organisms and back to the external environment [IF] http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/energy_flow.gif
thermodynamic system
Chapter 9: what the energy source, ecosystem and energy sinks together to form [IF]
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/System_boundary.svg/200px-System_boundary.svg.png
trophic level efficiency
Chapter 9: the ratio of production of one trophic level to the production of the next lower trophic level [IF]
http://click4biology.info/c4b/5/images/5.1/pyrenergy.gif
certification of forestry
Chapter 13: comparing the actual practices of specific corporations or government agencies with practices that are believed to be consistent with sustainability [IF]
http://www.fountainforestry.com/images/forest-certification.jpg
national park
Chapter 13: its purpose is to protect nature as well as public access [IF] http://www.rockymountainmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Glacier-National-Park-British-Columbia-Canada.jpg
nature preserve
Chapter 13: it may used by people, but its primary purpose is conservation of some resource, typically a biological one [IF]
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/View_from_Arastradero_Preserve_in_Palo_Alto_California.JPG/220px-View_from_Arastradero_Preserve_in_Palo_Alto_California.JP
park
Chapter 13: an area set aside for use by people [IF]
http://www.bestourism.com/img/items/big/773/Hyde-Park_Park-view_3045.jpg
sustainable forest
Chapter 13: one from which a resource can be harvested at a rate that does not decrease the ability of the forest ecosystem to continue to provide the same rate of harvest indefinitely [IF] http://www.thedailygreen.com/cm/thedailygreen/images/pM/sustainable-forest-md.jpg
catch per unit effort Ch.14
the number of animals caught per unit of effort. It is used to estimate the population abundance of a species. C.C.
global extinction Ch.14
the sharp decrease in the diversity and abundance of life on earth. C.C.
historical range of variation Ch.14
the known range of an environmental variable, such as the abundance of a species, over some past time interval. C.C.
local extinction Ch.14
the disappearance of a species from a part of its range but continued persistence elsewhere. C.C.
logistic carrying capacity Ch.14
the population size in which births equal deaths and there is no net change in the population. C.C.
optimum sustainable population Ch.14
the size of a population that is in some way best for its environment. C.C.
Abortion rate
The estimated number of abortions per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 in a given year. J.M.
LD-50
A crude approximation of a chemical toxicity defined as the dose at which 50% of the population dies of exposure. J.M.
Hutchinsonian niche
The idea of a measured niche, the set of environmental conditions within which a species is able to persist. J.M.
Homeostasis
The ability of a call or organism to maintain a constant environment. J.M.
http://www.lionden.com/graphics/AP/feeback-loop-body.gif (D-D.S.)
Inspirational justification for the conservation of nature
An argument for the conservation of nature on the grounds that direct experience of nature is an aid to spiritual or mental well-being. J.M.
Late-successional species
Species tend to grow slower and live longer. They have evolved and adapted to environmental conditions in the late stages of succession. J.M.
Ecological Community
Chp 6: Set of Species Interacting within an organism. {C-M.T.}
Succession
Chp 6: Process that occurs in an ecosystem that is necessary for life. {C-M.T.}
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/succession.gif (D-D.S.)
Food Chains
Chp 6: Linkage of who feeds on whom. {C-M.T.}
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/foodchain/trophiclevels.GIF (D-D.S.)
Food Webs
Chp 6: Complex linkages of who feeds on whom. {C-M.T.}
http://tinyurl.com/3zmr5e4 [S.J.O.]
Trophic Level
Chp 6: Consists of organisms in a food web that are the same number of feeding levels away from the original source of energy. {C-M.T.}
http://www.bcb.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/ecology/images/pyra5.gif (D-D.S.)
Autotrophs
Chp 6: Organisms in the first trophic level which make their own food and inorganic chemicals and a source of energy. {C-M.T.}
http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100H/images/41ecosys.gif (D-D.S.)
Decomposers
Chp 6: Feed on wastes and dead organism of all trophic levels. {C-M.T.}
http://www.rspb.org.uk/images/cache/fc5_352_tcm9-96736_v1.gif (D-D.S.)
Community-Level Interactions
Chp 6: Changes in one group that affect another. Indirect and complicated interactions. {C-M.T.}
Keystone Species
Chp 6: Species that have a large effect on its community or ecosystem. {C-M.T.}
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_v1HFKHjiq9c/THqPKzvprLI/AAAAAAAAAGs/RirLrKWnizE/s400/krill+-+keystone+species.gif (D-D.S.)
Watershed
Chp 6: A commonly used practical delineation of the boundary of an ecosystem on land. {C-M.T.}
http://www.sanduskyriver.org/uploads/watershed.jpg (D-D.S.)
Eutrophication
Ch 22: Increase in concentration of chemical elements required for living things (ex=phosphorus). [D-Z.X.]
Nuclear Energy
Chapter 20: The energy of the atomic nucleus. [D - H.M] Image: http://industrials-heater.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/nuclear-energy.jpg [M.S.]
Fission
Chapter 20: The splitting of atomic nuclei. Enormous amounts of energy are released. [D - H.M]
http://tinyurl.com/3c7gflj [S.J.O]
Fusion
Chapter 20: The fusing, or combining, of nuclei. Enormous amounts of energy are released. [D - H.M]
http://tinyurl.com/4yo5pfj [S.J.O]
Nuclear Reactors
Chapter 20: Devices that produce controlled nuclear fission. [D - H.M] Image: http://www.oncor.com/images/knowledgecollege/h20.jpg [M.S.]
Burner Reactors
Chapter 20: Reactors that consume more fissionable material than they produce. [D - H.M] Image: http://www.taikisha-group.com/technologies/voc/images/2-3-4-4_a.gif [M.S.]
Meltdown
Chapter 20: A nuclear accident in which the nuclear fuel becomes so hot that it forms a molten mass that breaches the containment of the reactor and contaminates the outside environment with radioactivity. [D - H.M] Image: http://www.2dayblog.com/images/2011/march/550x-nuclear-reactor-meltdown-infographic-1.jpg [M.S.]
Breeder Reactors
Chapter 20: Produce new nuclear fuel by transforming waste or lower-grade uranium into fissionable material. [D - H.M] Image: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-k_lC7Jdp5Rw/TXt8q0_rvII/AAAAAAAAJ-I/UdJ-erLffp8/s1600/nuclear_power_diagram.jpg [M.S.]
Low-Level Radioactive Waste
Chapter 20: Contains sufficiently low concentrations or quantities of radioactivity and does not present a significant environmental hazard if properly handled. [D - H.M] Image: http://www.nsc.go.jp/NSCenglish/topics/img/radwaste02.gif [M.S.]
Transuric Waste
Chapter 20: Composed of human-made radioactive elements heavier than uranium. It's produced partly by neutron bombardment of uranium in reactors and includes plutonium, americium, and einsteineum. [D - H.M]
High-Level Radioactive Waste
Chapter 20: Consists of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, uranium and plutonium derived from military reprocessing, and other radioactive nuclear weapons materials. It's extremely toxic. [D - H.M]
Atmosphere
Ch. 23: is the thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth. These gases are almost always in motion, sometimes rising, sometimes falling, most of the time moving across the earth's surface.
Image: http://room162y.edublogs.org/2010/12/05/the-4-spheres/
[D.Lai]
Climate
Ch.23: is the average weather, and usually refers to average weather conditions over long time periods, at least seasons, but more often years or decades.
Image: http://www.meteorologyclimate.com/Climate.htm
[D.Lai]
Climate Forcing
Ch.23: an imposed perturbation on the energy balance on Earth.
Image: http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2007/02/aerosols-the-last-frontier/
[D.Lai]
Earth System Science
Ch.23: tries to integrate various fields of academic study to understand the Earth as a system. It looks at interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.
Image: http://serc.carleton.edu/ess_vocab/
[D.Lai]
General Circulation Models (GCMs)
Ch.23: are a kind of mathematical models formed by analytical theory and computer simulations; they attempt to reproduce and predict global atmospheric changes.
Image: http://www.aos.wisc.edu/~dvimont/Research/
[D.Lai]
Global Warming
Ch.23: the increase in the average measured temperature of the near surface air and oceans.
http://www.greenscroll.org/images/global-warming.jpg
[D.Lai]
Greenhouse Effect
Ch.23: is a process in which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gasses, the thermal radiation is re-radiated in all directions. Some of the heat is re-radiated at the planetary surface which is how the heat is trapped.
Image: http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_3_1.htm
[D.Lai]
Polar Amplification
Ch.23: a process where surface air temperature increase in polar regions because of snow and ice melting revealing ground and vegetation, which reflects much less solar energy. This positive feedback loop results in enhanced warming.
Image: http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_lynch.html
[D.Lai]
Weather
Ch.23: is what's happening now or over some short time period - in the atmosphere near the ground. Weather includes temperature, pressure, cloudiness, precipitation, and winds.
Image: http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_lynch.html
[D.Lai]
Greenhouse Gases
Ch.23: include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, some oxides of nitrogen, and chlorofluorocarbons. These gases are responsible for the absorption and re-emission of thermal radiation and the trapping of heat.
Image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Greenhouse_Gas_by_Sector.png
[D.Lai]
Global Scale
Chapter 16, Scale that shows where most earthquakes and volcanoes are likely to occur. [K.E] Image: http://comp.uark.edu/~sboss/tectonic14.gif [M.S.]
Tsunami Warning System
Chapter 16, Includes a buoy and bottom sensor. Travel time-each band equals one hour. [K.E] Image: http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40956000/jpg/_40956703_tsunami_detection2_inf416.jpg [M.S.]
Risk
Chapter 16, the product of the probability of an event occurring and the consequences should that event occur. [K.E] Image: http://globaltrendtraders.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Risk-Management.jpg [M.S.]
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Chapter 22: Occur natuindicator of disease potential for a water source. [T.Y.] Image: http://www.water-research.net/images/coliformcolony.jpg [M.S.]
Nonpoint Sources
Chapter 22: Pollution sources that are diffused and intermittent and are influenced by factors such as land use, climate, hydrology, topography, native vegetation, and geology. [T.Y.] Image: http://www.eoearth.org/files/120901_121000/120958/350px-Nonpoint_Sources_NOAA.jpg [M.S.]
Outbreaks
Chapter 22: Sudden occurrences of disease. [T.Y.] Image: http://deq.mt.gov/wqinfo/pws/docs/U_S_%20Waterborne%20Disease%20Statistics%201991-2000_files/charts_pie.gif [M.S.]
Point Sources
Chapter 22: Sources of pollution such as smokestacks, pipes, or accidental spills that are readily identified and stationary. [T.Y.] Image: http://connecticutwatertrails.com/point%20source%20pollution%20photo.jpg [M.S.]
Primary Treatment
Chapter 22: Removal of large particles and organic materials from wastewater through screening. [T.Y.] Image: http://www.thewatertreatments.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/primary-treatment-sewage.gif [M.S.]
Secondary Treatment
Chapter 22: Use of biological processes to degrade wastewater in a treatment facility. [T.Y.] Image: http://www.thewatertreatments.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/primary-treatment-sewage.gif [M.S.]
Wastewater Renovation and Conservation
Chapter 22: The practice of applying wastewater to the land. [T.Y.] Image: http://hays.outcrop.org/images/keller3e/12_16.jpg [M.S.]
Wastewater Treatment
Chapter 22: The process of removing contaminants from wastewater. [T.Y.] Image: http://coolingtower-design.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/wastewater-treatment.jpg [M.S.]
Water Reuse
Chapter 22: The use of wastewater following some sort of treatment. [T.Y.] Image: http://www.wastewatermadeclear.ca/environment/images/wwdiagram-water-resource_000.gif [M.S.]
Pollution
Chapter 15: an unwanted change in the environment caused by the introduction of harmful materials or the production of harmful conditions (heat, cold, sound). [MYK]
Contamination
Chapter 15: implies making something unfit for a particular use through the introduction of undesirable materials. Example: the contamination of water by hazardous waste. [MYK]
Toxic
Chapter 15: materials (pollutants) that are poisonous to people and other living things. [MYK]
Toxicology
Chapter 15: science that studies chemicals that are known to be or cold be toxic, and toxicologists are scientists in this field. [MYK]
Carcinogen
Chapter 15: particular kind of toxin that increases the risk of cancer. [MYK]
Synergism
Chapter 15: the interaction of different substances resulting in a total effect greater than the sum of the effects of the separate substances. Example: both sulfur dioxide and coal dust particulates are air pollutants. [MYK]
Area sources
Chapter 15: also called nonpoint sources, more diffused over the land and include urban runoff and mobile sources, such as automobile exhaust. [MYK]
Heavy metals
Chapter 15: metals with relatively high atomic weight. Pose health hazards to people and ecosystems include mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel, gold, platinum, silver, bismuth, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, chromium, and thallium. [MYK]
Biomagnification
Chapter 15: the accumulation or increase in concentration of a substance in living tissue as it moves through a food web. Also known as bioaccumulation. [MYK]
What happens if the mercury is in the surface water?
Chapter 15: Once the mercury is in surface water, it enters into complex biogeochemical cycles and a process known as methylation may occur. Methylation changes inorganic mercury to methyl mercury which is much more harmful. [MYK]
Organic compounds
Chapter 15: compounds of carbon produced naturally by living organisms or synthetically by human industrial processes. [MYK]
Synthetic organic compounds
Chapter 15: used in industrial processes, pest control, pharmaceuticals, and food additives. [MYK]
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP)
Chapter 15: synthetic carbon-based compounds, often containing chlorine, that do not easily break down in the environment. [MYK]
Hormonally active agents (HAAs)
Chapter 15: chemicals in the environment able to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in animals, including humans. [MYK]
Thermal pollution
Chapter 15: also called heat pollution. It occurs when heat released into water or air produces undesirable effects. [MYK]
Particulates
Chapter 15: small particles of dust (including soot and asbestos fibers) released into the atmosphere by many natural processes and human activities. [MYK]
Asbestos
Chapter 15: several minerals that take the form of small, elongated particles, or fibers. [MYK]
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs)
Chapter 15: part of everyday urban life. Magnetic and electrical fields produced naturally by our planet and also by appliances such as toasters, electric blankets, and computers. [MYK]
Noise Pollution
Chapter 15: unwanted sound. [MYK]
Body burden
Chapter 15: the content of heavy metals in our bodies. [MYK]
Disease
Chapter 15: due to an imbalance resulting from poor adjustment between the individual and the environment. It occurs on a continuum from a state of health to a state of disease. [MYK]
Point Sources
Chapter 15: sources of pollution such as smokestacks, popes, or accidental spills that are readily identified and stationary. [MYK]
Gray Zone
Chapter 15: state of imbalance. [MYK]
Isobars
Lines joining places on a map that have the same air pressure. [D Period DK]
Convection Cell
A circular pattern of air rising, air sinking, and wind. [D Period DK]
Stratosphere
The atmospheric layer between the troposphere and the mesosphere [D Period DK]
Marine Climate
Weather pattern characterized by rainy and mild winters and cool summers. [D Period DK]
UV Radiation
Energy from the sun that damages DNA structure, increases mutation rate, and causes skin cancer. [D Period DK]
Anthropogenic
Caused or produced by humans. [D Period DK]
Dissemination
The act of dispersing or diffusing something. [D Period DK]
Trophic Levels
The hierarchical levels of the food chain through which energy flows up the food chain. [D Period DK]
Niches
The role of an organism in its habitat, or how it makes its living. [D Period DK]
Evergreen
A plant having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year. [D Period DK]
Groundwater
Water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers. [D Period DK]
Karst
An area of irregular limestone in which erosion has produced fissures, sinkholes, underground streams, and caverns. [D Period DK]
Desalinization
The removal of salt from ocean water. [D Period DK]
Barometric Pressure
Atmospheric pressure indicated by a barometer. [D Period DK]
Aqueduct
A structure that carries water over long distances. [D Period DK]
Distillation
The process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors. [D Period DK]
Underutilized
To utilize less than fully or below the potential use. [D Period DK]
Thermodynamics
The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. [D Period DK]
Synfuels
Liquid or gas fuels derived from solid fossil fuels. [D Period DK]
Incinerator
A furnace for burning garbage and other waste. [D Period DK]
Mutagens
Factors in the environment that cause mutations. [D Period DK]
Hemoglobin
Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells. [D Period DK]
Siltation
The buildup of sand and clay in a natural or artificial waterway. [D Period DK]
Channelization
Altering a stream channel to speed the flow of water to prevent it from reaching flood height. [D Period DK]
Caprock
Top layer of impermeable rock in an artisan formation. [D Period DK]
Hydrocarbons
Organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen. [D Period DK]
Biofuel
energy recovered from biomass-organic matter. It can be divided into three groups: firewood, organic wastes, and crops grown to be converted into liquid fuels. [SY]
Image:(http://www.odec.ca/projects/2007/ardi7m2/what_are_biofuels.html)
Wind Power
alternative energy source that has been used by people for centuries. It is commonly used to generate electricity. [SY]
Image: (http://windenergysolutions.info/)
Tidal Power
Energy generated by ocean tides in places where favorable topography allows for construction of a power plant. [SY]
Image: (http:// www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/hydro/tidal-power/)
Water Power
an alternative form of energy source derived from flowing water. It is one of the oldest and most common energy sources. Sources vary in size from microhydropower systems to large reservoirs and dams. [SY]
Image:(http://beaverdamsss.com/2011/08/20/hydroelectric-power-dams/)
Biological Production
the variety of life-forms, commonly expressed as the number of species in an area or the number of genetic types in an area. [SY]
Image: (http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookDivers_class.html)
Species
a group of individuals that can reproduce with each other. [SY]
Image: (http://www.federicogemma.it/chinamammals.html)
Macronutrients
elements required in large amounts by all life. [SY]
Image: (http://nutr911.wordpress.com/macronutrients/)
Micronutrients
elements required either in small amounts by all life or in moderate amounts by some forms of life and not at all by others. [SY]
Image: (http://www.grocery.com/micronutrient-vitamin-a/)
Maximum Lifetime
genetically determined maximum possible age to which an individual of a species can live. [SY]
Image: (http://www.benbest.com/lifeext/aging.html)
Life Expectancy
the average number of years an individual can expect to live given the individual's present age. [SY]
Image: (http://filipspagnoli.wordpress.com/stats-onhuman-rights/statistics-on-health/statistics-on-life-expectancy/)
Carrying Capacity
maximum number of individual of a species that can be sustained by an environment without decreasing the capacity of the environment to sustain the same in the future. [SY]
Image: (http://www.paulchefurka.ca/Population.html)
Hazardous Waste
waste that is classified as definitely or potentially hazardous to the health of people. [SY]
Image:(http://www.co.greene.oh.us/saneng/envserv/Hazardous_Waste.htm)
Desertification
the process of creating a desert where there was not one before. [SY]
Image: (http://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2011/06/19/cida-world-bank-vote-17-million-to-combat-desertification-in-ghana/)
Secondary Pollutants
Air pollutants produced through reactions between primary pollutants and normal atmospheric compounds. [SY]
Image: (http://aidhyl.wordpress.com/category/air-pollution/)
Tundra
the treeless land area in alpine and arctic areas characterized by plants of low stature and including bare areas without any plants and areas covered with lichens, mosses, grasses, sedges, and small flowering plants. [SY]
Image:(http://arcticstudies.pbworks.com/w/page/13623330/Tundra)
Synergism
cooperative action of different substances such that combined effect is greater than the sum of the effects taken separately. [SY]
Image: (http://publish.uwo.ca/~lzanette/)
Sediment Pollution
by volume and mass, sediment is the greatest water pollutant. It may choke a nuisance that is difficult to remove. [SY]
Image: (http://www.sabah.gov.my/jpas/centre/Picture/pic1.asp?picname=forestry/log_rd2&page=forestry/pic_forestry_index)

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