Holt Biology Chapter 10 Test Prep
Terms in this set (24)
instead of the base thymine found in DNA, RNA has a base called
Transcription begins when an enzyme called .... binds to the beginning of a gene on a region of DNA called a promoter.
The Instructions for building a protein are written as a series of three-nucleotide sequences called
Because of its position on the operon the .... is able to control RNA polymerase's access to the structural genes.
The lac operon is switched off when a protein called a .... is bound to the operator.
In eukaryotic gene regulation proteins called .... help arrange TNA polymerases in the correct position on the promoter.
In eukaryotes long segments of nucleotides with no coding information are called
In eukaryotes the portions of a gene that are actually translated into proteins are called
Insertions deletions and point mutations are types of
In what kinds of cells do mutations occur?
body cells, gametes, reproductive cells, all of the above
A mutation that moves a gene to a new location is called an
Which of the following represents the codons that correspond to this segment of DNA: TATCAGGAT
Because of the genetic code is the same in all organisms it appears that....
all life-forms have a common ancestor.
Explain how RNA differs from DNA
RNA= Ribonucleic sugar, 5 carbon sugar ribose, one strand of nucleotides, nitrogen containing base
DNA= Deoxyribose sugar, two strands, double helix, thymine base
What is the lac operon
lactose proteins Cluster of genes that enable a bacterium to build the proteins needed for lactose metabolism only when lactose is present. Some genes determin whether or not other genes will be expressed. Other genes code for enzymes that break down lactose.
Explain why gene regulation in eukaryotic cells is more complex than in prokaryotic cells.
Use many more proteins than pro and the interactions are more complex
have genes with related functions scattered on different chromosomes
Why do scientists think that the introns and exons contribute to evolutionary flexibility?
Because of introns and exons, cells can shuffle exons between genes, which can create new genes.
Which of the following are the anticodons that correspond to the mRNA codons CAG-ACU-UUU
The process of information from DNA into proteins is referred to as
Stage A from DNA to RNA is called
Stage B from RNA to protein is called
Summarize the process of translation
1 - mRNA binds to a ribosome 2 - tRNAs carry amino acids to the ribosome according to the three base codons on the mRNA 3 - The amino acids are joined together to form a protein chain.
Describe the functions of RNA
mRNA is an RNA copy of a gene used as a blueprint for a protein. During translation mRNA serves as a template for the assembly of amino acids. tRNA molecules carry amino acids to the ribosome and act as interpreter molecules translating mRNA sequences into amino acid sequences. rRNA plays a structural role in ribosomes
Describe 3 ways that mutation can alter genetic material
1 - one nucleotide in a gene is replaced with a different cucleiotide 2 - insertion is the addition of one or more nucleotides into gene 3 when a deletion occurs one or more nucleotides are deleted from a gene.