chapter 9 H

emerging europe and the byzantine empire
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Terms in this set (...)

visogoths
germanic peoples who occupied spain and italy
ostrogoths
germanic tribe that took control of italy in the fifth century
anglo-saxons
group of people formed when the roman armies abandoned britain at the beginning of the fifth century and the angles and saxons (germanic tribes from denmark and northern germany) settled there
clobis
a strong military leader who around 500 became the first germanic ruler to convert to christianity, established the frankish kingdom
wergild
the amount paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed, means "money for a man"
ordeal
based on the idea of divine intervention, involved a physical trial of some sort to determine guilt in germanic law
bishopric
diocese, the bishoprics of the roman provinces were joined together under the direction of an archbishop
pope
the bishop of rome and head of the catholic church
monk
a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to pursue a life of total dedication to god
monasticism
the practice of living the life of a monk
missionaries
people sent out to carry a religious message
nuns
women who began to withdraw from the world to dedicate themselves to god
abbesses
the leaders of convents in which nuns lived
mayors of the palace
chief officers of the kings household
pepin
took the kingship of the frankish state for himself and his family, son of charles martel
charlemagne
son of pepin, dynamic and powerful ruler known to history as "charles the great", created the caroliginian empire
carolingian empire
Charlemagne's Empire from about 768 to 814
scriptoria
writing rooms
charlemagnes coronation as roman emperor
his coronation demonstrated the strength of the idea of an enduring roman empire. the coronation also symbolized the coming together of roman, christian, and germanic elements
magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
vikings
germanic warriors, superb shipbuilders and sailors. made a part of european civilization by converting to christianity
feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
vassal
a man who served a lord in a military capacity
knights
heavily armored cavalry
fief
the grant of land made to a vassal
feudal contract
a set of unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal
tournaments
contests where knights could show their fighting skills
chivalry
a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold
eleanor of aquitaine
heiress to the duchy of aquitaine in southwestern france
the invasions that besieged the carolingian empire in the ninth and tenth centuries
the muslims attacked the southern coasts of europe and sent raiding parties into southern france. the magyars moved into central europe and settled on the plains of hungary. the vikings sacked villages and towns, destroyed churches, and easily defeated small local armies
william of normandy
defeated king harold and was then crowned as the king of england
battle of hastings
battle in which william of normandy landed on the coast of england and soundly defeated king harold and his foot soldiers
henry II
1154-1189. during his reign, the power of the english monarchy was enlarged. he increased the number of criminal cases tried in the king's court and also devised means for taking property cases from local courts to the royal courts
common law
law that was common to the whole kingdom
thomas a becket
archbishop of canterbury and the highest ranking english cleric. claimed that only roman catholic church courts could try clerics. murdered by four knights.
magna carta
the great carta. a feudal document that gave written recognition to the fact that feudal custom had always been the relationship between king and vassals based on mutual rights and obligations. later used to strengthen the idea that a monarch's power was limited, not absolute
edward I
during his reign in the thirteenth century, an important institution in the development of representative government (the english parliament) emerged.
capetian dynasty
a Frankish dynasty founded by Hugh Capet that ruled from 987 to 1328
king philip II agustus
ruled from 1180-1223. waged war against the rulers of england. expanded the income of the french monarchy and greatly increased its power
estates
classes - clergy was the first estate, nobles the second estate, and the townspeople and peasants the third estate
otto I
the best known saxon king of germany. crowned emperor of the romans in 962 in return for protecting the pope
frederick I
tried to create a new kind of empire instead of building a strong german kingdom. planned to get his chief revenues from italy. his attempt to conquer northern italy lead to severe problems
oleg
a viking leader who settled in kiev at the beginning of the tenth century and created the rus state known as the principality of kiev
mongols
group that occupied russian lands and required russian princes to pay tribute to them
alexander nevsky
prince of novgorod, defeated a german invading army in northwestern russia in 1242
justinian
emperor of the eastern roman empire in 527. determined to reestablish the roman empire in the entire mediterranean world
byzantine empire
a civilization with its own unique character that lasted until 1453. a greek and christian state. greek replaced latin as the official language of the empire
patriarch
the head of the eastern orthodox church
schism
separation between the two great branches of christianity that has not been completely healed to this day
crusades
a series of military expeditions to regain the holy land from the muslims lead by the christians
infidels
unbelievers (muslims)
1st crusade
european knights (mostly french) moved east. many went because of relgiious fervor, search for adventure, riches and to pursue a good fight. crusaders conquered palestine and massacred the city of jerusalem in 1099
2nd crusade
the new christian lands in palestine were surrounded by muslim kingdoms. italian port cities got rich from selling supplies. the muslims would take the land back and saint bernard of clairvaux would call for a second crusade. in 1147 louis VII of france and conrad II of germany led the second crusade. complete failure
3rd crusade
1187 - saladin conquers jerusalem. frederick barbosa of germany, richard the lionhearted of england and philip II augustus of france lead the 3rd crusade. the french and english had success on the coast but struggled as they moved inland
effects of the crusades
the crusades had little effect on the middle east. italian cities got wealthy off supplying the crusaders. european's began persecuting the jews.
saint bernard of clairvaux
manastic leader who managed to enlist two powerful leaders in a second crusade
saladin
The leader of the Muslims in the third crusade and captured Jerusalem in 1187.
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