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40 terms

Drugs and Behavior Test 1, Ch2

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Neurons
Specialized cells involved in the rapid transmission of information.
Neurons
Sensory, motor, and inter-
Neurons
Can conduct bioelectric signals for long distances without any loss of signal strength.
They possess synapses.
They have plasticity.
Convergence
Each neuron can receive info from thousands of other neurons.
Divergence
Integrated information can be transmitted to thousands of other neurons.
Glial cells
Provide support and insulation for neurons. More than 10x the amount of neurons. Are both macro and micro.
Macroglia
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells are all considered:
Microglia
These are involved in immune function within the brain. Act as scavengers to remove dying cells at the site of damage.
Astrocytes
These provide support and insulation; also accumulate glucose and synthesize glycogen; take up excess neurochemicals.
Oligodendrocytes
Form myelin sheath around axons in the CNS.
Schwann Cells
Form myelin sheath around axons in the PNS.
Resting membrane potential
-70mV
Na and Cl
In higher concentrations outside the cell and cannot move freely through channels. (2)
K
Is higher inside the cell and can move freely inside the cell and through channels.
Diffusional Forces
Move Na into the cell and move K out.
Electrochemical forces
Move Na into the cell and forces K to stay in the cell.
Depolarization
Change in potential toward a less polarized state (toward zero).
Hyperpolarization
Change in potential toward a more polarized state (more negative state, or AWAY from zero).
Action potential
A change in membrane potential propagated down an axon that is the basis for rapid transmission of information.
Axon hillock
The wide portion of the axon adjacent the soma where action potential is initially generated.
Sacral
Parasympathetic nerves are located in cranial and _____ nerves.
Thoracic
Sympathetic nerves are located in ______ and lumbar nerves.
Autonomic
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic are part of what nervous system?
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) make up this.
Dura mater
"Tough mother"
Arachnoid
CSF to float brain/ lower brain weight/ and cushion.
Gray Matter
This includes cell bodies of sensory and motor neurons.
White Matter
This includes myelinated axons of sensory and motor neurons
Hindbrain
Location of vomiting and respiratory drive centers.
Myelencephalon
Includes the medulla, which is responsible for vital survival functions.
Metencephalon
Includes the cerebellum (movement/balance), pons (alerness, locus coeruleus, and raphe nuclei), and the reticular formation (arousal/attention/sleep).
hindbrain
Includes the myelencephalon and metencephalon.
Mesencephalon
Includes the tectum and tegmentum (periaquaductal gray, substantia nigra, VTA).
Forebrain
Made up of the diencephalon and telencephalon.
Diencephalon
Includes the thalamus (sensory/motor info) and the hypothalamus (SNS, motivated behavior).
Telencephalon
Includes the neocortex (cerebral cortex), basal ganglia (modulates movement), and limbic system (mood, emotions, learning, memory)
Frontal
Lobes important for decision making and personality.
Parietal
Lobes important for touch, temperature, and pain.
Temporal
Lobes important for hearing (primary auditory cortex).
Occipital
Lobes important for vision (V1).