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51 terms

flu

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Influenza
Orthomyxo Virus. Inflammation and infection of the major airways
Spread
Person to person, contaminated clothing
Infectious
first onset of symptoms within the first 24 hrs, and last up to the next 5 days.
most affected
Preschool and school age
H1N1
Swine flu, subtype or influenza A
Treatment
Oseltamivir(tamiflu) or Zanamir (Relenza)
Oseltamivir
Tamiflu- not recommended for children under 1. Take 2 times a day for 5 days and total of 10 doses, can be taken up to 6 weeks, has to be taken at the 1st onset of illness or within 48hrs.
Managment
Uncomplicated Influenza: Symptomatic tx: Acetominophen or ibuprofen for children. Fluids to maintain hydration.
Antivirals: Oseltamivir Tamiflu
Prevention
Annual flu shot: 6mos to 18 yrs.
TIV Trivalent influenza vaccine: any healthy children 6 mos and older. Do not give if egg allergy.
Bronchitis
Inflammed large airways: Trachea and Bronchi. Associated with upper respiratory infection usually will get bronchitis 1-2 days later.
Symptoms
Hacking dry cough, runny nose, dry thorat, fever tachypnea.
Assessment:
Auscultate: Rhonci and Crackle, rales.
Diagnostic test
Chest x-ray, will see diffuse aveolar hyperinflation and markins on the hilus lungs
Treatment for Bronchitis
Antibiotic, cough suppressant, analgesics,antipyretics, humidity.
Nursing
Medication administration, encourage fluid, parent teaching, prevent spreading, handwashing
Bronchiolitis/Respiratory syncytial virus
Accute inflammation and obstruction of the fine bronchioles and small bronchi.
Peak incidence
between 2 and 6 mos, winter and spring.
common cause
RSV: attacks resp mucosa, in 1st year of life can represent development of asthma.
pathiophysiology
RSW can affect epithelial cells of Resp tract. Ciliated cells:swell. Bronchiloar mucosa swells, lamina fills with mucus and exudate.
Transmission
predominately direct contact with respiratory secretions from hand to eye, nose droplets and inanimate objects.
Initial Manifectations of bronchiotis/rsv
Inital: Rhinorrhea and low grade temp, Pharyngtid, coughing sneezing, wheezing possible otis media and conjunctivitis.
Progression and Bronchiolitis/RSV
Increased cough, wheezing, fever, tachypnea, coastal retractions- sees ribcage on inspiration, refusal to bottle feed,copius secretions, crackles, dyspnea, dimished breathe sounds.
Clincal Manifestations
Severe: Tachypnea > 70 breaths/min, listlessness- no life, apneic spells, poor air exchange, cyanotic from hypoxia.
Diagnostics
CBC: luekocytosis; e-lyte.
ESR: elevated
CXR: Pulmonary infiltrate or atelactosis
ABG: in severe cases
NAsal or nasopharyndeal secretions: positive dx RSV
Management
oxygen, if infant fails to maintain consistant 02 saturation of at least 90% after nasal suctioning and repositions, antipyretic, adequate hydration PO or IV preferred 1st 1 or 2 days, Hospitaliization: need vent Vent Support, observe apnea,
Medical treatment
Ribavirin (virazole") Synthetic nucleoside antiviral agent:only tx for hospitalize child- reduce bronchiolitis as a result of rsv. Aerosol tx, teratogenic.
Therapuetic managment
Palivizumab(synagis)
Paliviumab(synagis)
Monoclonal antibody, Give IM injection (monthly) Candidates: are infants born weeks gestation and require medical treatments such as 02 and ventilation. Given at onset of RSV season and terminated at the end.
Therapy
Lyophillized powder, form of palivizumab, administered within 6 hours of reconstitution with streile water.
Outcomes: Bronchiolitis
Room air O2 >90%, Resp rate <60 breath/min, Adequate PO intake.
Nursing Management
Contact isolation, 2 children with RSV can be in same room. limit visitors, teach parents to instill nasal drops and suctioning.
Monitor o2 and pulse ox, admin med, monitor temp, provide support
Asthma
Immediate hypersensitivity(Type1) response. Reversible and chronic, Most common illess in children, occurs initially before age 5. inflammatory disorder of the airway, limitation or obsruction (reversible)
Stats of Asthma
more affected in boys than girls, 3rd cause for hospitlaization in children under 15, primary cause of school absence, 23.3 mill americans have asthma, Most common chronic disorder in childhood.
Risk factors for Asthma
Age, IgE: response to allergens, heredity, gender, mother < 20yrs, smoking, ethnicity africans increase risk, lack of medical care,
Causes of Asthma
Hyperrseponsiveness of lower airways, allergens, WEATHER CHANGES
Allergens/Triggers to Asthma
Seasona;: grass, tree week and pollen
Perennial: mold dust roaches animal dander
Triggers: smoke, pollution cold heat weather strong odors or perfumes, meds, stress, foods(chinese)
Pahtophysiology of Asthma
small airway affects: 3 processes, Bronchospasm, inflammed bronchial mucosa,increase secretiong and obstruction
Exacerbations of Asthma
When gets worse. Short of breath, wheezing or chest tightness, decreases in expiratory flow.
Classification of Asthma
In terms of severity.
Intermittent- sym less than 2 days/week
Mild persistant: more than 2 times/wk but less that one a day
Moderate persistant- daily
severe: throughout the day( if hear wheez on inhalation)
Clinical manifestations:
Cough- 1st attack usually 3-8 yrs old hacking and nonproductive.Dyspnea, Wheezing, sternal refractions, audible wheeze (if heard on inspiration= Severe*) malar, flush, lips dark red, sweating hypoxia. Older children may tripod. broken speach, unequal breathe sounds, crackles, barrell chest, club fingers, wide pulse(decrease strenght and sys pressure)
Assessment Dx: asthma
Pulse ox:o2 is decreased, ABG initially resp alk, than increase in PaCO2 (res acid) Complete H&P, CBC increase bands = rsp infection. Decrease airflow, decrease fev-1 and fvc (Force volume and foce vital capacity) Diminshed breathe sounds(not
good, indicates obstruction) Hyperresonance
Testing
CXR:show hyperinflation and infliltrates
Allergy testing- indicates allergens
Peak flow monitoring
measures the highest airflow during a forced expiration, daily for moderate of severe, measure before and after nebulizer.
Asthma Sone
Red <50% -med alert- narrowing,Give; beta 2 antagonist-arbuterol- contact pediatrician if not in green after adminstering.
Yellow 50-79% caution-may be beginning asthma attack not well controlled continue therapy.
Green 80-100%
Meter-dose inhaler
handheld device that delivers a measured dose of medication directly to the lungs. With spacer- provides med in accurately measured
Using MDI
open mouth, hold inhaler 1-2 inches away, use spacer attached to inhaler, hold inhaler to mouth. hold upright,shake,tilt head back and breathe out. press down med release med as you breathe in slowly. Breathe in slowly 3-5 seconds. Hold your breath for 10 sec, repeat as directed. wait 1 min between puffs
Therapuetic Management
avoid allergens, skin tests, relief of symptoms with meds
Medical management
Quick short acting meds (rescue drugs): acute exacerbations and excerise
Beta-2 adrenergic agonists(Arbuterol)
long acting meds
Controllers- Gluccocortosteroids- inhaled and systematic (acute Prednisone- IV-siumedrol
Leukotriene modifiers: montelkast (singular) not effective in acute attack.
Methylxanthine(Theophylline)- combine meds; measure blood levels
Interventions
assess respiratory and card status, monitor VS,modify environment avoid allergic reactions, rinse mouth after inhaled gluccoridicosteroid, exercise induced give prophylactic tx cromolyn-10-15min befreo, Encourage Hydration. avoid milk products,
Acute Attack
Child upright, RESCUE DRUGs,Oxygenation, monitor urine for glucose-bc of steroids blood sugar goes up, admin MDI