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WGU BioChem OA Review
Terms in this set (141)
Males and Females are equally affected
The process of copying DNA in the lab.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Template DNA, Nucleotides (dNTPS), DNA Polymerase, and DNA Primers.
What is needed for Polymerase Chain Reaction?
Denaturing, Annealing, Elongating
What are the three steps of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)?
Denaturing (DNA is heated up to separate it)
What is the first step of a Polymerase Chain Reaction?
Cooling the Polymerase Chain Reaction. Primers stick to the DNA that you want to copy and ADD DNA Polymerase
What is Annealing?
The Polymerase Chain Reaction is heated and DNA Polymerase adds nucleotides to build a new DNA strand.
What is elongating?
What is NOT involved in PCR?
It is used to repair damage to bases caused by harmful molecules by removing the base that is damaged and replacing it. #1 GLYCOSYLASES see the damaged DNA. #2 DNA Polymerase puts the right one back #3 DNA Ligase seals it.
What is base excision repair (BER)?
DNA Glycolysase sees the damage and removes it, DNA polymerase puts the tight base back, DNA ligase seals it back up.
What are the 3 steps in base excision repair?
How many nucleotides does base excision repair remove?
Mismatch Repair (MMR). It is the only one to occur during REPLICATION - DURING THE PROOFREADING
What is it called when a large section of the nucleotide is removed from the DNA so that DNA polymerase can try again? (This corrects DNA damage)
Mismatch Repair (MMR) repairs errors such as G with T instead of G with C. DNA Polymerase fixes it. This happens during replication and MMR removes a large section of the nucleotide from the DNA and DNA Polymerase tries again.
What repairs a base mismatch?
When DNA polymerase takes an individual nucleotide and matches them to the parental sequences to ensure a correct pair. (it must bind with RNA primer to work). ie: DNA Polymerase binds to DNA to make RNA
What is DNA Transcription?
CLEANS damage caused by things such as UV rays and repairs it. A large section of nucleotides are removed, including the damaged portion, along with a few on each side. It is then replaced by DNA polymerase.
What is NecleoTIDE repair
It repairs double stranded breaks (last effort) by copying another strand of DNA and replacing it completely.
What is Homologous Recombination?
Another last effort to repair a double strand break by putting the ends back together before making sure they are correctly copied. This can lead to deletions/insertions (frameshift mutations).
What is Non-Homologous Recombintaion?
It must bind to RNA primer
What does DNA Polymerase bind to in order to make RNA TRANSCRIPTION DNA take the individual nucleotide and match them to the PARENTAL sequences to ensure a correct pair.
introns (non-coding region) are removed and exons (coding region) joined to form a contiguous coding sequence.
What happens during RNA splicing to generate a mature RNA molecule?
The ability to turn genes on and off
What is Gene Expression?
The study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression NOT alternation of the gene code.
What is epigenetics?
Where a DNA molecule wraps around histone proteins to form tight loops called nucleosomes. These nucleosomes coil and stack together to form fibers called chromatin. (genes are ON if the nucleosomes are wide spread and OFF if the genes are tightly packed)
What is packaging of DNA?
What is needed for DNA replication?
A point mutation in a sequence of DNA (change in one nucleotide) that results in a premature STOP codon
What is NonSense Mutation
A mutations in DNA that do not have an observable effect on the organism's phenotype. (1 neucleotide changes but it codes for the same amino acid)
What is a Silent Mutation?
A point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a DIFFERENT amino acid.
What is a Missense Mutation?
It is typically not seen in every generation of an affected family. X-linked dominant disorders are caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes in each cell. (males and females are equally affected)
What is Autosomal Dominate?
It becomes Ionized Alanine. (Alanine is HYDROPHOBIC and has CH3 as its weak interaction. Ionized means it has a + or -.
Alanine is an amino acid with an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a methyl group (side chain). What happens if it looses an electron.
Amino Acids whose side chains prefer water. (NH, OH, SH)
What is a Polar Amino Acid?
Amino Acids that Can't Have (CH) water (hydrophobic)
What is a Non Polar Amino Acid?
There is a charge (+/-) attached to the amino acid
What is Ionized Amino Acid?
It is caused by tangles inside the cell and plaques outside the cell (senile plaques) caused by abnormal protein aggregation (APA).
What is the misfolding of protein structure in Alzhiemers disease?
It is a fibrous, toxic material inside of cells. When its connections are lost, it becomes defective and forms filaments in the neuron. Its accumulation is triggered by a buildup of Amyloid protein, which disrupts the functioning of brain cells.
What roll does the protein TAU play in Alzhiemers disease?
It is a buildup of excess Amyloid protein between nerve cells. It starts in the hippocampus and moves up, creating senile plaques in the brain.
How is Amyloid-beta protein linked to Alzhiemers Disease?
Protein aggregates usually consist of fibers containing misfolded protein with a β-sheet conformation, termed amyloid. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and prion diseases have these protein aggregations. Neurodegeneration and memory loss can be detected before Amyloid fibers accumulate in the brain.
What is Neurodegenerative protein aggregation?
Proteins that bind to denatured proteins and assist in the PROPER folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of molecular structures. (they can help newly formed proteins and help misfolded proteins)
What is a molecular chaperone?
Primary, (formed by peptid bonds)
Secondary, (held together by hydrogen bonds, formed from two polar amino acids)
Tertiary, (side chain interaction)
Quaternary (more than one polypeptide)
What are the levels of a protein structure?
The folding and intramolecular bonding of the linear amino acid chain. Folded proteins are stabilized by thousands of noncovalent bonds between amino acids. THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE OF A PROTEIN DETERMINES ITS 3D SHAPE.
What determines the 3D shape of a protein?
Folded structures that form within a polypeptide. Stabilized by HYDROGEN BONDS between atoms in the polypeptide backbone.
How the chains on amino acids interact with each other to form BETA SHEETS and ALPHA HELIXES.
What is the Secondary level of protein structure?
AcetylCoA starts the citric acid cycle. It produces NADH and FADH2
What starts the citric acid cycle and what does it produce?
When this misfolds, it creates a HYDROPHOBIC interaction?
What type of fat is liquid at room temperature?
It allows the cell to continue glycolysis when oxygen is scarce (Anaerobic conditions)...like in skeletal muscles during strenuous exercise.
What is Fermentation?
A chemical reactant that binds with an enzyme to generate a product.
What is a substrate?
lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is metabolized
Where is lactate metabolized?
Carbohydrate loading is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles. What process does this stimulate?
A condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during periods without food (fasting).
What is MCAD Deficiency? (Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase)
This type of bond is formed from 2 polar amino acids?
The protein is heated up and breaks apart. PRIMARY STRUCTURES ARE UNAFFECTED BY DENATURING.
What happens in Denaturing a Bond?
It blocks an enzyme process in cancer cells so that they can not grow.
How does Methotrexate treat cancer?
It is HYDROPHOBIC and can be disrupted by denaturing (heating up)
What is unique about a tertiary structure?
Molecule that is formed when an enzyme comes into perfect contact with its substrate.
What is a substrate enzyme complex?
It serves as the binding platform for a specific substrate and is the site of the chemical reaction.
What is an Enzymes active site?
Any site other than the Enzyme active side where a substrate binds.
What is an Allosteric site?
A molecule SIMILAR to a substrate that can bind to the enzymes active site, but the molecule is unable to react.
What is an enzymes competitive inhibitor?
Molecules that attach to the enzyme in the allosteric site (site other than the active site)
What is a non-competitive inhibitor?
When an end product builds up and binds to an Allosteric site (site other than active site) and stops the pathway. It binds to the enzyme and slows it down.
What is feedback inhibition?
What part of a phospholipid is hydrophobic?
They contain carbon bonds and hydrogens (HC, CH2, CH3). They are weak and affected by temperature changes.
How do you determined a non-polar amino acid?
What disease is protein aggregation associated with?
AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE pattern, which means that both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations . The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
What type of inheritance is sickle cell anemia?
The RNA in a sickle hemoglobin changes from GAG to GUG
What happens to hemoglobin in sickle cell?
oxygen binding increases the affinity of hemoglobin for more oxygen. (when one molecule of O2 leaves, the other 3 leave...when one hgb picks of O2, the others pick up O2). So, O2 will bind quicker when there is another O2 molecule already there (Bohr)
What is Cooperative Binding?
Carbon Monoxide binds stroner than O2. Carbon Monoxide picks up O2 but doesn't drop it off.
Describe Carbon monoxide Poisoning.
Her affinity (stickiness) for oxygen is lower, so the mother becomes deoxygenated and the fetus has a higher affinity to get it from its mother.
What does it mean if a mothers 2, 3 BPG is higher than her fetus?
The structure is tense, heme is DOMED SHAPE and Ph is lower. (LOW Ph in tissue and muscles)
What happens to the structure of hemoglobin in the absence of oxygen?
Hemoglobin has a low affinity for Oxygen and transports it. Myglobin has a high affinity for oxygen and stores it (not affected by Ph)
What is the difference in the affinity (stickiness) of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin?
Higher Ph/low CO2, or Left shift, increases the affinity (stickiness) for Oxygen and Lower Ph/high CO2, or Right shift, decreases the affinity for Oxygen. (Hemoglobin is saturated sooner and reaches 100% earlier with a left shift)
How does Ph influence O2 saturation of Hgb at the same partial pressure?
What makes LDL?
Myoglobolin is contained in the muscle, but released into the blood stream if muscle is damaged (Troponins)
What protein can show an Myocardial Infarction?
It requires energy to synthesize larger molecules (ends in -GENESIS) This is where there is no O2
What is an Anabolic Pathway?
Generates energy by breaking down larger molecules (ends in -LYSIS)
What is a Catabolic Pathway?
Glucose (in the liver, gluconeogenesis converts 2 molecules of lactate into glucose)
What does the Cori Cycle supply for Red Blood Cells?
What molecule starts the citric acid cycle?
To continue with aerobic metabolism
Why are NADH and FADH2 needed in the Citric Acid Cycle?
The formation of Glycogen from sugar
What is Glycogenesis?
Glucagon stimulates breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver, stimulating an increase in blood concentration of glucose.
How does glucagon affect carbohydrate metabolism?
It is the only way to make ATP without Oxygen present
What is substrate level phosphorylation?
Is an Insulin regulated glucose transporter that allows glucose into the cell. (found in skeletal muscle and fat tissue)
What is GluT4?
It inhibits liver glucose output by using Gluconeolysis and Gluconeogenesis.
How does Metformin work?
Stimulates glycogenolysis to release glucose for the liver to export to the blood stream. (active when blood sugar is low). It releases glucose from storage (glycogen) to increase blood sugar.
What is Glucagon?
Gluco (Gulcose) Neo (new) Genesis (make). Turns amino acids into glucose)
What is Gluconeogenesis?
Gluco (Glucose) Genesis (make). Happens in liver or muscle)
What is Glucogenesis?
Glcyo (Glucose) Lysis (break) The breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
What is Glygolysis?
The irreversible binding of glucose with proteins and lipids. (contributes to atherosclerosis)
What is Glycation?
A 6 carbon sugar that fuels our tissues
What is Glucose?
A storage form of Glucose that stores carbohydrates
What is Glycogen?
Breaks down glycogen to release glucose (caused by fasting)
What is Glycogenolysis?
Tap into their glycogen stores and stimulate glycolysis
If a person is running and loosing, what do they need to do?
In the Mitochondria (occurs in a fasting state)
Where does Beta Oxidation occur?
Where fatty acids are broken down and CoA is added to make fatty Acyl CoA
What is Beta Oxidation?
ATP, NADH, FADH2
What molecules are produced by Beta Oxidation?
Seven ( # 6 count Carbons/2) and Six (answer -1_)
Beta Oxidation of C18 fatty acid will make _______ Acetyl Coa units after _______ rounds of beta oxidation?
The body cannot fully break down fat to release energy quickly. So avoid long periods of fasting. Eat complex carbs and avoid fats.
What diet should a pt with MCADD be on?
Between the sixth and seventh carbons. (Omega 3 is between the thrid and fourth carbons)
Where is the first double bound on an Omega 6 fatty acid?
Liquid at room temp, don't stack well, Lower melting point (olive oil)
What are the characteristics of Unsaturated bonds?
Where are fatty acids catabolized?
Fatty acid synthesis begins with acetyl CoA, which must first be transported to the CYTPLASM. In the CYTOSOL, a series of steps link the carbons from acetyl CoA molecules into a new fatty acid chain.
Which of the following accurately describes the steps involved in fatty acid synthesis? (where does it occur)
When both hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond.. It takes less heat to melt (because it is not packed tightly), it forces a kink in the carbon chain.
What is CIS configuration?
When the hydrogen is on opposite sides of the double bond. It takes more heat to melt (because they are packed tightly).
What is TRANS configuration?
tryglicerides (a person wanting to limit fats)
This is a picture of the greatest reserve of energy (Glycerol backbone with 3 fatty acid chains)
Compound that comes from Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid. It aids with inflammation, fever, immunity, and blood coagulation. THEY ARE SIGNALING MOLECULES
What is an Eicosanoid?
Where Fatty Acids and Triglycerides have a leaky membrane and Phospholipids are packed tight. The tails are hydrophobic and the polar heads are hydopholic (like water).
What is the Fluid Mosaic Model?
How many fatty acid tails do Phospholipids have?
One parent has type A, and the other parent has type B; one parent has type A or B and the other parent has type AB; Both parents have type AB.
If a child has AB blood, what blood type is it's parents?
Hgb carries oxygen in its relaxed state and has a higher affinity (more stickiness).
What are the characteristics of Hemoglobin in its R (relaxed) state, as opposed to its T (tense) state.
Mainly in the liver and muscle tissues
Where is glycogen stored?
Glycogen stores Glucose in the liver when there is excess. Then it can be broken down back to Glucose to be released into the muscle tissue.
What is the difference in function of Glucose and Glycogen?
Which process is an example of anaerobic metabolism and uses Glycolysis, Lactate Fermentation, and Gluconeogenesis (GLG)
What converts pyruvate into oxygen?
Glycolysis will stop
What will happen if NAD+ is too low?
It has hexagons and pentagons
How do you identify a Cholesterol Fatty Acid Chain?
Shaped like a Bobby pin
How do you identify a eicosanoid fatty acid?
How do you identify an unsaturated fatty acid chain?
It has 8-12 carbons
How do you identify a medium chain fatty acid?
EACH parent has a dominate gene and a recessive gene (Xx and Xy)
What is heterozygous?
EACH parent 2 of the same gene (XX or xx)
What is homozygous?
What determines the structure of secondary protein?
Peptide composer of two amino acids
What is a dipeptide?
NADH to NAD+
What does pyruvate recycle in fermentation?
Where are fatty acids catabolized?
What helps denatured proteins in folding?
An increase in NAD+
What stimulates beta oxidation of fatty acids?
Acetone is produced in the blood
What happens with a low carb high fat diet?
Maintains membrane fluidity
What role does cholesterol play in the cell
Triglycerides, ketones, fatty acids
What is used for ATP when sugar isn't present?
A father with only daughters affected (anywhere in the tree)
Changing the 3 dimensional shape
How does increasing temperature inactivate enzymes?
Reversible, non competitive inhibition (control catalytic activity)
When a drug binds to a allosteric site and changes the structure
Non competitive inhibition
Carbon dioxide decreases
What happens to tissue when oxygen saturated hemoglobin increases?
Carbon dioxide increases and oxygen decreases. (an increase in CO2 results in a decrease in blood pH, resulting in hemoglobin proteins releasing their load of oxygen. Conversely, a decrease in carbon dioxide provokes an increase in pH, which results in hemoglobin picking up more oxygen)
What happens to carbon dioxide and oxygen when pH decreases?
True (Increased affinity is caused by a conformational change, or a structural change in the hemoglobin molecule)
T or F the binding of oxygen to a gene changes the structure?
Monosaccharides attaches to a lipid
____________ decreases when glycagon is released in the blood
It's the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain
What is oxygens role in aerobic metabolism?
What molecule is used in gluconeogenesis?
It STIMULATES the uptake of glucose from the blood
How does insulin impact carbohydrate metabolism?
What causes plaque formation?
When pH is low Carbon is high, Hydrogen is high, Acidic, Right shift, Tense state.
What does CHART stand for
PROTEIN and AMINO ACID disruption affects which structure?
Recommended textbook explanations
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Biocalculus: Calculus, Probability, and Statistics for the Life Sciences
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