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chapter 16 vocab
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Terms in this set (14)
Bar code
A code that employs bars and spaces to represent information.
Check digit
A digit included in an identification number for the purpose of error detection.
Decoding
Translating code into data.
Error-detecting code
A code in which certain types of errors can be detected.
Binary code
A coding scheme that uses two symbols, usually 0 and 1.
Codabar
An error-detection method used by all major creditcard companies, many libraries, blood banks, and others.
Encoding
Translating data into code.
International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
A 10-digit identification number used on books throughout the world that contains a check digit for error detection.
Postnet code
The bar code used by the U.S. Postal Service for ZIP codes.
Universal Product Code (UPC)
A bar code and identification number that are used on most retail items. It detects 100% of all single-digit errors and most other types of errors.
ZIP code
A five-digit code used by the U.S. Postal Service to divide the country into geographic units to speed sorting of the mail.
Soundex Coding System
An encoding scheme for surnames based on sound.
Weights
Numbers used in the calculation of check digits.
ZIP + 4 code
The nine-digit code used by the U.S. Postal Service to refine ZIP codes into smaller units.
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Verified questions
computer science
Demonstrate what happens when we insert the keys 5, 28, 19, 15, 20, 33, 12, 17, 10 into a hash table with collisions resolved by chaining. Let the table have 9 slots, and let the hash function be h(k) = k mod 9.
computer science
DES, is an encryption algorithm that is an example of a block cipher, where a block of bits is encoded into a block of bits. Matrices can be used to create a simple block cipher. Consider a $2 \times 2$ matrix with integer entries, for example, $$ \mathbf{A}=\left[\begin{array}{ll} 2 & 7 \\ 1 & 4 \end{array}\right] $$ A is an invertible matrix with $$ \mathbf{A}^{-1}=\left[\begin{array}{rr} 4 & -7 \\ -1 & 2 \end{array}\right] $$ because $$ \left[\begin{array}{ll} 2 & 7 \\ 1 & 4 \end{array}\right] \cdot\left[\begin{array}{rr} 4 & -7 \\ -1 & 2 \end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{rr} 4 & -7 \\ -1 & 2 \end{array}\right] \cdot\left[\begin{array}{ll} 2 & 7 \\ 1 & 4 \end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{ll} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{array}\right] $$ Break up the message to be encrypted into blocks of two characters, and apply a function mapping the letters of the alphabet into the integers 0–25 as follows: $$ \begin{array}{|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|} \hline \mathbf{A} & \mathbf{B} & \mathbf{C} & \mathbf{D} & \mathbf{E} & \mathbf{F} & \mathbf{G} & \mathbf{H} & \mathbf{I} & \mathbf{J} & \mathbf{K} & \mathbf{L} & \mathbf{M} & \mathbf{N} & \mathbf{O} & \mathbf{P} & \mathbf{Q} & \mathbf{R} & \mathbf{S} & \mathbf{T} & \mathbf{U} & \mathbf{V} & \mathbf{W} & \mathbf{X} & \mathbf{Y} & \mathbf{Z} \\ \hline 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 & 6 & 7 & 8 & 9 & 10 & 11 & 12 & 13 & 14 & 15 & 16 & 17 & 18 & 19 & 20 & 21 & 22 & 23 & 24 & 25 \\ \hline \end{array} $$ Thus $[B \quad R] \rightarrow[1 \quad 17].$ The heart of the encryption algorithm consists of multiplying the resulting $1 \times 2$ matrix by A using arithmetic modulo 26. Thus $$ \left[\begin{array}{ll} 1 & 17 \end{array}\right] \cdot\left[\begin{array}{ll} 2 & 7 \\ 1 & 4 \end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{ll} 19 & 75 \end{array}\right] \rightarrow\left[\begin{array}{ll} 19 & 23 \end{array}\right] $$ and $$ \left[\begin{array}{ll}19 & 23\end{array}\right] \rightarrow\left[\begin{array}{ll}T & X\end{array}\right]. $$ Therefore [B R] is encrypted as [T X]. To decrypt, convert [T X] back to [19 23] and multiply the resulting $1 \times 2$ matrix by $\mathbf{A}^{-1},$ again using modulo 26 arithmetic. $$ \left[\begin{array}{ll} 19 & 23 \end{array}\right] \cdot\left[\begin{array}{rr} 4 & -7 \\ -1 & 2 \end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{ll} 53 & -87 \end{array}\right] \rightarrow\left[\begin{array}{ll} 1 & 17 \end{array}\right] $$ to be converted back to the original message [B R]. a. Using the encryption matrix a above, encrypt the block [V I]. b. Decrypt the result from part (a) to recover [V I]. c. Explain why the decoding process recovers the original (numerical) block.
computer science
A(n) __________ loop has no way of ending and repeats until the program is interrupted. a. indeterminate b. interminable c. infinite d. timeless
computer science
What is output by the following code? String word1="blue"; String word2="red"; String word3="green"; word2=word3; word1=word3; word3=word1; System.out.println(word1+" "+word2+" "+word3); a. blue red green, b. green green blue, c. blue blue blue, d. green green green, e. red red blue.
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