Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, March 6 from 3–4 PM PST
Upgrade to remove ads
RTVF 230 Final
Terms in this set (158)
the wording in anything written or printed; the structure formed by the words in their order; the very words, phrases and sentences as written
The whole structure of a connected passage regarded in its bearing upon any of the parts which constitute it; the parts which immediately precede or follow any particular passage or "text" and determine its meaning
Some Aspects of Contextualist Thought
-Context is never singular
-Context is different from aesthetics
-Contextual thinking is a two way street
-Contextualization is always happening
-Contextualization can take meaning away as well as giving
-Contextualization can be appropriation
-Contextualization is both creative and destructive
-Contextualization inevitably disobeys creative visions
-Media have contexts, media are contexts - case of radio and film
The study of the past through documents
Implications of History
-Written over oral traditions
-Bureaucratic over nonbureaucratic phenomena
-Experiences of bourgeois over proletarian, men over women, racially unmarked over racially marked
-National histories, politics and war
The theory, history and practice of writing history itself
The study of historical change
-Wrote "From Work To Text" and "The Death of the Author"
-Against the idea of Auteur Theory
-Based on ideas of Marx, Freud and Saussure
-Studies the idea of what is text
Roland Barthes on Text
1. Texts don't stop, they don't have borders ("The Work is a fragment of substance, occupying a part of the space in books (in a library for example), the Text is a methodological field")
2. "Text does not stop at (good) literature; it cannot be contained in a hierarchy"
3. "The Text can be approached, experience, in reaction to the sign [...] it practices the infinite deferment of the signified"
4. "The Text is plural"; "The text is a tissue, a woven fabric"; "woven entirely with citations, references, echoes cultural languages"
5. A network rather than an organism; the author participates in the text as a guest. "The world is caught up in a process of filiation... The author is reputed to be the father and the owner of his work: Literary science therefore teaches respect for the manuscript and the author's declared intentions...As for the text, it reads without the inscription of the Father"
6. The text as a musical score. "The Text (if only by its frequent "unreadability") decants the work (the work permitting) from its consumption and gathers it up as play, activity, production, practice."
7. The text gives pleasure without separation
Benedict Anderson (Imagined Communities)
-The nation as an imagined political community
-Imagined: members never know or meet most of their fellow-members, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion
-Limited: even the largest of them has finite, if elastic boundaries, beyond which lie other nations
-Sovereign: members have the right to govern themselves
-Community conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship, despite abiding inequality between members
-Imagined/Not Imaginary: it's not false, just imagined
-Mediated: for Anderson, the rise of print culture was key
Hilmes and Radio
-Talks about how Radio in the early 20th century creates the sense of imagined communities
Raymond Williams (Structure of Feeling)
-Problem: conversion of experience into finished products
-The fixed, articulate and explicit vs. the personal or social
-Feelings are not attributed to institutions, because (a) they happen in the present and (b) they exert influence before we know how to classify them
Structure of Feeling
-Meanings and values as they are actively lived and felt, and the relations between these and formal or systematic beliefs are in practice variable over a range from formal assent with private dissent
-Elements of impulse, restraint, and tone: "not feelings against thought but thought as felt and feeling as thought"
-Social experience in solution, as distinct from other semantic formations
-Often multiple, not tied to ideologies or institutions necessarily
New Criticism (1930s-1960s)
-Main people are I.A. Richards, T.S. Eliot, and John Crowe Ransom
-Arose against German romantic criticism and philology
Dismissing everything outside the text
-"objective""intrinsic" qualities of the work
-Focused on poetry
-Focus on close reading
-Autotelic theory of art
-Althusser, Foucault, and Derrida opposed
-Main people are Stephen Greenblatt, Lisa Jardine, and Harold Aram Veeser
-Every expressive act is embedded in a set of material practices
-Every act of critique or opposition uses the tools it condemns
-Literary and non-literary texts are inseparable
-No discourse gives access to unchanging truths or expresses unalterable human nature
-A language adequate to capitalist media production participates in the system it describes
Some Figures in the History of Cinema and Media Studies
-Hugo Munsterberg: The Photoplay (1916); Emphasis on psychology & imagination; How does cinema impact consciousness?
-Dziga Vertov: Kino-eye (1916); emphasis on technology and revolution; How does cinema change sociopolitical life?
-Jean Epstein: Photogenie and the Imponderable (1932); What makes a cinema-medium specific art?
-James Agee: Film reviews for Time and The Nation; 1930s-40s
-The Frankfurt School 1930s-1940s: capitalism and critical theory; the media in the age of fascism
-Andre Bazin 1950s: the Ontology of the Photographic Image; realism, auteurism, Italian Neorealism, the French New Wave
-Marshall McLuhan: Understanding Media 1964; "The Medium is the Message"
-Laura Mulvey: Feminism and Lacanian Analysis; "The Male Gaze" 1975
-Stuart Hall: Birmingham School; Encoding/Decoding
-David Bordwell: Cognitivist approaches; Narration in the Fiction Film (1985)
Three Branches of Film Studies (Dudley Andrew)
-Film Theory (what film is; art films)
-Film Criticism (how films work; narrative)
-Film History (film as a technology and social force)
What is History for Allen and Gomery (1985)
-Against "High School History"
-Facts of the Past vs. Historical Facts
-Open Systems vs. Closed Systems
-Conventionalists vs. "Objectivist" theories
How to "do" media history
-Selection of methodology
Allen and Gomery 4 Types of Film History
-Aesthetic Film History
-Technological Film History
-Economic Film History
-Social Film History
Aesthetic Film History
History of the cinema as an art form
Technological Film History
Origins and development of the technology that makes possible the creation and presentation of movies
Economic Film History
Who pays for movies to be made, how and why
Social Film History
Who saw what, when, where and how
Gitelman & Media Archaeology
A Definition Based on the Work of Geert Lovink, Erkki Huhtamo and Jussi Parikka:
-Media archaeology is a methodology for reading the "new" against the grain of the past, rather than telling the history from past to present
-A Refusal of teleology, even of narrative, in favor of "layering" and "singularities"
-Emphasis on obsolete, forgotten forms, fantasies, speculations, designs, blueprint "dead media"
-"I define media as socially realized structures of communication, where structure includes both technological forms and their associated protocols, and where communication is a cultural practice, a ritualized collocation of different people on the same mental map, sharing or engaged with popular ontologies of representation. As such, media are unique and complicated historical subjects
Media Archaeology Arises Out Of...
1. Early Cinema History (Gunning, Cinema of Attractions)
3. Determinism/Constructionism Disputes
4. German Media Theory (Friedrich Kittler)
Original documents and objects which were created at the time under study
Some Contexts (Sobchack & Film Noir)
-Sobchack "Within the context of the postwar period's national (and personal) insecurity about the future and its longing for the purposefulness, unity, and plenitude of a mythologized national past, film noir provided ... the cinematic space-time in which contemporaneous cultural anxieties found vernacular expression"
-Proposes to approach film noir "in its contemporaneous context"
Characteristics of Film Noir
-uncertainty as an "allegorical dramatization of the economic and social crises" between 1945 and 1958
-Double Indemnity as a text rather than a work
-Double Indemnity as reflecting an imagined community
-Double Indemnity and the structure of Feeling in the 1940s
-Double Indemnity as Film Noir
Nino Frank (1946) (On Film Noir)
-American (derived from American lit)
-Emphasis on Crime and Criminal Psychology
-Violent and Emotional action rather than thought
-"True to life"
-The Meaningful Glance
James Naremore (1998)
-Noir as "discourse" rather than genre, period, cycle, style or phenomenon
-Films initially called "murder melodrama" "brass knuckled thrillers" even "gangster pictures"
-Influence of Andre Berton: celebrated dream, violence, marvel in decor
-Affects: films are oneiric, bizarre, erotic, ambivalent, and cruel
-A genre disappearing
-Borde and Chaumeton: "The essence of noirness lies in a feeling of discontinuity, an intermingling of social realism and oneiricism, an anarcho-leftist critique of bourgeouis ideology and an eroticized treatment of violence
-Influence of J-P Sartre via Andre Bazin: Realism, passive observation, fatalism
-"The creation of a cinema of authors"
-A genre disappearing
-Ethical complexity, isolation, individuality "moral solitude"
-Icon of Humphrey Bogart
After the 1950s
-Surrealist and Existentialist values move to anglophone world (Durgnat and Sarris)
-Re-emergence in the 1970s. New shift to neo-noir and visual aesthetics (Taxi Driver)
-Feminist film criticism and the femme fatale
Homes in Noir
-Secure, integrated, solid: lost in noir
-Replaced by other spaces: hotels, cocktail lounges, nightclubs, fragmented incoherent social spaces
-Any topological pattern in the artistic work that possesses the characteristics of a semantic field or grid (M.M. Bakhtin)
-An arrangement of time and space in art where neither category is privileged over the other, but both work together to create the possibility for meaning
-A chronotope allows narrative and characters to emerge
-Lounge spaces: cocktail bars, hotels, nightclubs
-No longer glamorous spaces for romance, display
-Substitute for the "broken" home. Intimate activities happen here, but impersonality, incoherently
-Not familial--no children. Cyclical, not generative
-No real labor, no real nourishment takes place
-Impulse, chance, no social curbs on behavior
-Passion, libido, revenge
-Chronotopes like "Lounge Time" illustrate the boundaries of an audience's world as they perceived it, social attitudes toward change, exclusions from community, etc.
-Lounge time is one of the dominant--or master--chronotopes of the historical period that begins in the early 1940s with the rumblings of war and declines in the 1950s as the "security state" becomes a generally accepted way of life
Born in Flames
-Born in Flames as an Imagined Community
-Born in Flames as a text
-Born in flames as another history
The idea that history is a story always moving forward towards a better society, more scientifically enlightened and equal. Roots of this theory in Hegel and Marx, but ascends in late 19th and early 20th century
Tendency among postwar American historians to dismiss diversity, ignore ideology, and smooth out conflicts and identities, emphasizing a generally liberal "pragmatism" at the center of American historical change. First identified by John Higham in 1959
Challenges to Consensus History
-The Annales School
-Social and Cultural History
-Women's History (2nd Wave Feminism)
-Anticolonialism (midcentury liberations)
The Annales School
-Postwar French Group
-Focus on "Mentalitee"
-Long Duree History
-Social, Economic, Geographic
-e.g. Fernand Braudel's The Mediterranean (1949)
-Focus on individual stories
-Social and women's history
-"Ask big questions in small spaces"
-A single mill workers, a marriage
-e.g. LaDurie's Montaillou (1975)
-"History from Below"
-What workers do, what they make
-Classes that change over time
-e.g. Thompson (1963)
Solanas and Getino
-The problem of liberation
-The artist's role in liberation
-looking to documentary
-"I make revolution therefore I exist"
-What is "revolution?"
-The anti-imperialist struggle of the peoples of the Third World and of their equivalents inside the imperialist countries constitutes today the axis of the world revolution. Third cinema is, in our opinion, the cinema that recognizes in that struggle the most gigantic cultural, scientific, and artistic manifestation of our time, the great possibility of constructing a liberated personality with each people as the starting point - ion a word, the decolonization of culture
-Central Argument: film can be used for revolutionary purposes as well as just entertainment
The mechanistic takeover of a cinema conceived as a show to be exhibited in large theatres with a standard duration, hermetic structures that are born and die on the screen, satisfies, to be sure, the commercial interests of the production groups, but it also leads to the absorption of forms of the bourgeois world-view which are the continuation of the 19th century art, of bourgeois art; man is accepted only as a passive and consuming object; rather than having his ability to make history recognized, he is only permitted to read history, contemplate it, listen to it, and undergo it. The cinema as a spectacle aimed at a digesting object is the highest point that can be reached by bourgeois filmmaking
The first alternative to this type of cinema, which we could call the first cinema, arose with the so-called "author's cinema", "expression cinema", "nouvelle vague", "cinema novo", or, conventionally, the second cinema. This alternative signified a step forward inasmuch as it demanded that the filmmaker be free to express himself in non-standard language and inasmuch as it was an attempt at cultural decolonization. But such attempts have already reached, or are about to reach, the outer limits of what the system permits. The second cinema filmmaker has remained "trapped inside the fortress" as Godard put it, or is on his way to becoming trapped [by distribution].
-Takes the "mass" function of First Cinema and leftist instincts of Second Cinema
-Revolutionaries integrate production, distribution, reception
-Film as "image weapon"
-Film as "detonator" or pretext
-"Queer Temporality and Postmodern Geographies" from In a Queer Time and Place (2005)
-Queer time develops "in opposition to the institutions of family, heterosexuality, and reproduction"(139)
-So seamlessly has capitalism been rationalized over the last two hundred years, in fact, that we no longer see the fault lines that divide black from white, work from play, subject from object
-I try to use the concept of queer time to make clear how respectability, and notions of the normal on which it depends, may be upheld by a middle-class logic of reproductive temporality.
-Central Argument: queer time and space develops differently than the time in heteronormative society
-No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive (2004)
-Argues that the dominant value system in the West rests upon the notion of a future figured by and for The Child
-Children as symbol of the nation's future
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Allen and Gomery (1985)
-What story should these facts tell? Whose story should they tell?
-Causal Mechanisms: flagging market for movies, New York vaudeville market; dynamics of technological change; conventions of still photography; etc.
-For A&G Historians must identify, rank and explain these mechanisms
McCarthyism: Facts About the Past
-Martin Dies (Dies Committee) 1938-1943
-Anticommunism Replaces Antifascism
-Hollywood Ten named (1947)
-Army McCarthy Hearings 1954
Anticommunism Replaces Antifascism
-1945: Defection of Igor Gouzenko, disclosures of Elizabeth Bentley. HUAC becomes permanent committee
-1946: Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech; the "Long Telegram"
-1947: Truman signs Executive Order 9835
-1948: Whittaker Chamber names Alger Hiss before House Un-American Activities Committee, leading to a show trial; Berlin blockade
-1949: Investigation of Klaus Fuchs; CIO purges nearly 1 million members for suspected CP ties; Chinese Revolution
-1950: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg; Red Channels; McCarthy gives first speech in Wheeling about communist infiltrations
Queer Time and Space in the Manchurian Candidate
-Raymond's Queer Affect
-Eugenie and Ben Marco
-Affectless "Loveable" Raymond
-Queer Time in Dreams
Manchurian Candidate and TV
-Television Aesthetics in Camera Technique
-Foregrounding of TV Production
-TVs all over the place
-Anxiety about screens (Marco and Raymond)
-Relationship between Brainwashing and TV
-Hypnotization using "light and drugs"
-TV set for the Manchurian Demonstration
-Viewfinder of the rifle as TV screen
-Rise of the White Middle Class
-1950s Economy; Korean War Layoffs; Recession
-Inequality and Civil Rights
-Rock 'n' Roll and Teen Culture
-1954 Army McCarthy Hearings
-The $64,000 Question & FCC scandals 1957
-Kennedy Nixon 1960
-Sitcoms, Westerns, Police Programs, Sports and News
How do we assess this change in modern life?
The Rise of Media Industry Studies
Media Industry Studies vs. Cultural Industry Studies
-The Culture Industry Critique (1944)
-The Frankfurt School (1923)
-Base & Superstructure vs. The Economic (Mode of Production) & Cultural (Latent, False, Ideological)
Dialectical Philosophy and History: Why do things Change?
-GFW Hegel & Johann Gottlieb Fichte
-Karl Marx & Fredrich Angels
-Leads culture industry studies
-"enlightenment as mass deception"
-Mass Culture: not popular culture, not "authentic" culture; "amusement under late capitalism is the prolgonation of work"
-All art produced by the culture industry has one goal: maximize profit; art produced by the culture industry tends to reinforce the central economic system, generally capitalism
-Mass culture is propaganda
-Mass culture is formulaic and repetitive
Culture Industry Themes
1. Totalization of Culture
2. Sameness of Culture
Totalization of Culture
-"Culture now impresses the same stamp on everything. Films, radio and magazines make up a system which is uniform as a whole and in every part. Even the aesthetic activities of political opposites are one in their enthusiastic obedience to the rhythm of the iron system"
-Unity of microcosm and macrocosm
-Movies need not longer pretend to be art. The truth that they are just business is made into an ideology in order to justify the rubbish they deliberately produce
-A technological rationale is the rationale of domination itself
-Ruthless unity a harbinger of politics
-There is nothing left for the consumer to classify. Producers have done it for him...Not only are the hit songs, stars, and soap operas cyclically recurrent and rigidly invariable types, but the specific content of the entertainment itself is derived from them and only appears to change. The details are interchangeable
-The might of industrial society is lodged in men's minds
Sameness of Culture
-Every detail is so firmly stamped with sameness that nothing can appear which is not marked at birth, or does not meet with approval at first sight
-Impossibility of suffering
-In the culture industry, imitation finally becomes absolute. Having ceased to be anything but style, it reveals the latter's secret: obedience to the social hierarchy
-Amusement under late capitalism is the prolongation of work
-The culture industry perpetually cheats consumers of what it perpetually promises
-What is decisive today is... the necessity inherent in the system not to leave the customer alone, not for a moment to allow him any suspicion that resistance is possible. The principle dictates that he should be shown all his needs as capable of fulfillment, but that this needs should be so predetermined that he feels himself to be the eternal consumer, the object of the culture industry
-To be pleased means to say Yes... pleasure always means not to think about anything, to forget suffering even where it is shown. Basically it is helplessness
-The effrontery of the rhetorical question "what do people want?" lies in the fact that it is addressed--as if to reflective individuals--to the very people who are deliberately to be deprived of this individuality
-"Now any person signifies only those attributes by which he can replace everybody else: he is interchangeable, a copy"
-"The culture industry refutes the objection made against it just as well as that against the world which it impartially duplicates. The only choice is either to join in or to be left behind"
-Culture as social control
-The morality of mass culture is the cheap form of yesterday's children's books
-The masses are kept in order by the sense of inexorability of life and by exemplary role models
-Individuality is an illusion but pseudo individuality is rife
-The triumph of advertising in the culture industry is that consumers feel compelled to buy and use its products even though they see through them
-Hoaxes: Radio and TV?
-Compared to Manchurian Candidate, how have cultural fantasies about television across its age of cultural dominance, from 1962-1994?
-Does this film have a character with a moral center?
-Does this film have a critique to offer?
Guerrilla Television (Article)
-Published in 1971
-Written by Michael Shamberg and the Raindance Corporation
-Illustrated by art collective the Ant Farm
-Described how everyday people could make TV
-Had a progressive/radical ideology
-The first commercially available camcorder
-Released widely in 1968
-Allowed for non-professionals to create television imagery and programming
-Easy to maneuver, allowing for a wider variety of things to be videotaped
-Resulted in activists taking up the camera and recording the world as they saw it and as they wanted it to be
What is Guerrilla Television?
-TV broadcasts that seek to resist the hegemonic ideology of typical broadcasts
-Similar to Third Cinema in its desire to incite activist behavior
-Sought to include non-professional videomakers in the production of broadcast television
-Resistant to genres
-Sought to expand the limits of the medium through formal experiments and radical content
Rise of Web TV
-How did the internet become television for Hollywood, Silicon Valley, and independent agents? A combination of social reasons and technological reasons
-Tweaking Television (1995-1999): Period of cybersoaps (The Spot)
-Pushing Television (2000-2005): Webcamming, film companies, brands, comedies, flash
-2007-2008 Writer's Strike: coincides with the rise of YouTube and broadband
-Attempts to reinvent media from the outside
-Theorist as practitioner
Holt and Perren: Media Industry Studies
-Why Media Industry Studies rather than "creative industries" or cultural industries?"
-Focus on: Radio, Film, Television, Advertising and Digital
-Genesis of Media Industries Scholarship
Problems with Adorno
2. Supposition of a "monolithic" media industry
3. Focus on the "one-way" or "hypodermic needle" model of communication: messages flow from a central industry out to a passive audience
Culture Industry Critique vs. Mass Communication Studies
-Lazarsfeld, audience measurement et al
-Focus on advertising and news
-"Who says what to whom and to what effect"
-Two Step Model of communication: information flows from industries to local opinion leaders
-Sociology and Anthropology
-Media Economics and Industrial Analysis
-Political Economy/Cultural Studies
-Journalists and Activists
-Film and TV Studies
-Cultural Policy Studies
Sociology and Anthropology
Interviews, participant observation, "bottom up"
-Ex. Caldwell, Banks, Rao
Media Economics and Industrial Analysis
Business models, economics, manufactured scarcity, etc.
Political Economy/Cultural Studies
Focus on classes, markets and regulations, power relations for production and distribution, media imperialism, decoding, race and gender
-Ex. Hall, Atali?
Journalists and Activists
-Shamberg, Ellison, Attali?
Film and TV Studies
Textuality, authorship, industrial histories
-Christian, Gray, Turner
Cultural Policy Studies
Cultural imperialism, advising roles for government
-Above the line/below the line
-Breakdown in the borderland between the theorist and the practitioner
Above the Line/Below the Line
Those who "create" and share profit (actors, directors, producers) vs. those viewed as technical staff (hair and makeup, marketing, grips)
Industrial Self-Theorizing or "Reflexivity"
The way trade publications, trade jargon, and even movie plots "theorize" the industry itself
-Rhodes Scholar of West Indies Descent
-Grounding in literature and contemporary of E.P. Thompson and Raymond Williams
-Key Theorist in the Birmingham School
-Reception Theory, Marxism, Cultural Studies, Identity, Multiculturalism
-Multi-Stage model of Communication: production, circulation, distribution, consumption, reproduction
-The autonomy of stages
-The complexity of the televisual sign
-Naturalization of codes
-Distortions of misunderstandings?
-The naturalization of codes
-The three positions
Model of Encoding and Decoding
-Start with frameworks of knowledge, relations of production, technical infrastructure
-Meaning structure 1 and encoding
-Programme as "meaningful" discourse
-Decoding and meaning structure 2
-The act of putting an ideological message into a bottle
-Done by media-maker (producer)
-The act of receiving the bottle with the ideological message . -Done by the media consumer
-Viewer operates within the dominant code
-Connects events to grand narratives
-Carries stamp of legitimacy
-Detotalize and retotalize
-All the terms of the statement are wrong
-Mixture of adaptive and oppositional elements
-Operates with exceptions
Blackface Minstrelsy as America's Oldest "Media Industry"
-Blackface characters and Folklore Blackface
-Blackface performance and White Symbolic Needs
-Masking as America
Key Themes of Attali
1. Political Economy: Sound is Power
2. Music as a Mirror of Society
3. Music as a Prophecy of Society
4. Music as a Battleground in Society
Sound is Power
-Music began in ritual and entered commodity exchange: deritualization leading to repression of the body, specialization, and stockpiling. In this way, music economics reflects the establishment of society
-"All music, any organization of sounds... is a tool for the creation or consolidation of a community, of a totality"
-Eavesdropping, censorship, recoding, surveillance as tools of power
-Concern for tonalism, melody, distrust of outside languages, instruments and abnormality = Fascism
-Muzak as security system
Mirror of Society
-Jimi Hendrix says more about the 1960s than economic crisis
-Music is a mode of immaterial production, structuring theoretical paradigms "far ahead of concrete production"
-"Music runs parallel to human society, is structure like it, and changes when it does"
-"Simultaneity of economic and musical evolution"
-Can we hear the crisis of society in the crisis of music?
1. Mozart and Bach prefigure C19 political theory
2. "Music is prophecy. Its styles and economic organization are ahead of the rest of society because it expores, much faster than material reality can, the entire range of possibilities in a given code"
3. The political economy of music is a succession of orders (in other words differences) done violence by noises (in other words, the calling into question of differences) that are prophetic because the create new orders, unstable and unchanging
Music as a Battleground
-Social history of the musician since antiquity (domestication of the jongleur, etc.)
-"Behind a mutation in the status of the musician, a rupture between two types of music" the popular and court music
-Music is a battleground
What is a Celebrity?
-Someone with Innate Natural Qualities
-The Product of Cultural and Economic Processes
-Private Self/Public Self
-A "Human Pseudo-Event"
-A God (Rojek)?
-A Cultural Text (Dyer)?
-A Process (Giles)?
-Celebrity as Process
Planned and staged entirely for the media, which accrues significance through the scale of media coverage rather than through any more disinterested assessment of its importance
-The coexistence of coexistence of many possible meanings for word or phrase
-Identity has bearing on how message decoded
-Are alternative readings distortions or misunderstandings?
-Naturalization of codes: one sees texts and reception as natural, not constructed
-Finite multiplicity of meanings and affects they embody
-The attempts to so structure them that some meanings are foregrounded and others are masked and displaced
-Celebrity is the visible tip of a highly contingent field of power relations
Where do Celebrities Come From?
-18th Century? (Marie Antoinette)
-Shift from "Picture Personalities" to "stars" (Mary Pickford)
-Link with Mass Media
Are All Forms of Celebrity the Same?
-Distinguishing "political, economic and religious power" from non-institutional sources of power (Alberoni)
-Hero (actually done something of note) vs. Star (developed a public persona) vs. Quasar (someone who has fame thrust upon them) (Monaco)
-Ascribed (royals) vs. achieved (sports stars) vs. attributed (TV personalities) (Rojek)
What is Celebrity Good For?
-Distinguishing cultural identity
-Event constructed only for the media: press conference, opening ceremony, "mission accomplished"
-A means of compensating for changes in the social construction of the communities with which many of us live
-Replacing one-on-one relationships
-Providing an identity to copy
-The Star as a construct: the star is just a construct. They are constructed by advertising, music videos, interviews, etc
-The Star as a Commodity: stars are created to make a profit. They make this profit through sales of things such as ticket sales, merchandise, albums, streams, etc.
-The Star as an Ideology: stars will represent certain social groups and views, therefore reinforcing certain ideologies among their fans
-Professor of Sociology at UC Santa Cruz
-Books: Watching Race: Television and the Struggle for "Blackness" (1995); Cultural Moves: Culture, Identity and the Politics of Representation (2005)
Matters of Fact
-The previous method of analysis for representations of race or politics of visibility in television and cultural studies.
-Concerned with veracity, accuracy and authenticity "when measured against the real"(285)
-More empirically based analysis
Matters of Concern
-Gray's new proposed analytic
-Concerned with "feelings, attachments, identities, sentiments, policy, violence"
-More affective based analysis
Politics of Visibility-Positive Representation
-Often showcase an ideal, successful and affluent black family can in effect cause an erasure of the real ongoing persistent struggle and experiences of racism and discrimination
-Confirm a [white] middle class utopian imagination of racial pluralism as if everyone has an equal chance at success
Example: Reality Crime Programming
-Cops, Lock Down, Lock-Up "devoted to showcasing crime, justice, and policing"
-We might take [these examples] both as an index of the racialization of crime and the prison industrial complex and as instance of the after life of slavery and colonialism that exposes and denaturalizes modernity's liberal ideal of freedom, subjects, and citizenship
Example: YouTube Auto-Tuning Black Voices
-Viral circulation...of voices of black eye witnesses in local (and national) news stories
-The habitual repetition of crime stories can insulate audiences from actually seeing members of these communities and feeling empathy with their plight. And the repetition..may work more often to reinforce the normative ideals of white middle class circumstance rather than produce points of identification and empathy
-On the other hand the viral circulation of such images...may make members of these communities visible and sentiments about their conditions palpable beyond the circuits of the local news
-What is a celebrity? A symptom from illness of society
-Someone with innate natural qualities; difference from others due to special talent
-The product of cultural and economic processes; result of cultural constructs
-Private self/public self; subordinated to public image
-What is celebrity good for: mass delusion (distraction from real issues); distinguishing cultural identity (role models)
Shah Rukh Khan
-King of Bollywood
-Extremely popular/influential in India
War of the worlds (1938)
The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (1971)
The War of the Worlds (2005)
-"From Work to Text" Image-Music-Text
-Central argument is that work is a physical thing and text is something that extends itself deeper than the work
-Text: intersection of method, genres, signs, plurality, affiliation, reading and pleasure
-"Structures of Feeling" from Marxism and LIterature
-Structure of Feeling
-"Radio and the Imagined Community" from The Sound Studies Reader
-Central Argument: radio connected people and made them feel like they were part of a larger community
Allen & Gomery
-Film History: Theory and Practice
-Objectivism: data; linear objective narratives; no consideration of subjectivity
-Conventionalism: takes into account how narratives are constructed; takes into consideration subjective experiences
-Realism: a combination of thew two (so data combined with the account of an event from two different perspectives)
-Four approaches to history (social, technological, economical, aesthetic)
-"Media as Historical Subjects"
-Media archaeology, reading media against the grain of the past, destabilizing narratives
-Focus on telling history without relying on narrative
-Double Indemnity (1944)
"A New Kind of Police Drama: the Criminal Adventure"
"The History of an Idea"
"Lounge Time: Postwar Crises and the Chronotope of Post War Film Noir"
Born in Flames (1983)
"History from Below"
-"The Paranoid Style in American Politics"
-Central Argument: American politics are defined at certain points in our history by paranoia and obsessive behavior towards something that may not even be a real threat
-"Pixies: Homosexuality, Anti-Communism, and Television"
-Central Argument: paranoia that swept through America fueled by the people in power in America ruined many lives for no reason. Focuses on queer narratives and how they manifested during this time
-"Breaking the Blacklist, Part i: Frank Sinatra and Albert Maltz"
-Central Argument: focuses on the power that celebrity can gain you in politics and the influence that popular actors had also led to a greater scope of power. Entertainment can outweigh truth.
-What happened next? It depends on who you ask, more than one side to every story
-The Manchurian Candidate (1962)
Adorno and Horkheimer
-"The Culture Industry"
-Excerpt from Guerilla TV (1971)
Aymar Jean Christian
"Developing Open TV"
Holt and Perren
"Introduction" to Media Industries: History, Theory and Method
"Gender Below the Line: Defining Feminist Production Studies"
"Both Sides of the Fence"
Sorry to Bother You
"Change the Joke and Slip the Yoke"
"Race, Media and the Cultivation of Concern"
"The Globalization of Bollywood"
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
MEDIA STUDIES Midterm
Media Studies 102
Comm 1 &15
CST 271 Midterm
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth
Technological and Environmental Transformations (8…
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
CMD 160 Audiology Midterm
Chemistry 5: Crude Oil
Psy 3600 chapter 5 symtoms
AP Bio Ch. 7