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Chapter 12: Biostats cont. (Types of Medical Studies & Pharmacogenomics)
Terms in this set (14)
case control study
compares patients with a disease to those without the disease. reasearcher looks back retrospectively to see if a relationship exists
compares outcomes of a group of patients exposed and not exposed to a treatment. researcher follows both groups prospectively or retrospectively
estimates the relationship between variables and outcomes at one particular time in a defined population
case report and case series
Describes an adverse reaction or a unique condition that appears in a single patient (case report) or a few patients (case series)
randomized controlled trial
An experimental study in which researchers randomly assign individuals to either an experimental or a control group and expose the experimental group to the manipulated variable of interest.
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies. result has a greater statistical power
systematic review article
Summary of the clinical literature that focuses on a specific topic or question
what is the order or least reliable to most reliable types of medical studies?
Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
What does the ECHO model stand for
cost minimization analysis
same outcome just compare cost
** use of this method is limited given its ability to compare only alternatives with demonstrated equivalent outcomes
A pharmacist is conducting a pharmacoeconomic analysis of two medications used to treat hypertension.
cost benefit analysis
a study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good
cost outcome unit is dollars
A clinical pharmacy is adding a lifestyle and disease management service for their patients. The choices are smoking cessation, congestive heart failure (CHF), or weight management.
cost effectiveness analysis
a type of evaluation research that compares program costs with actual program outcomes
outputs measured in natural units (BP, life years gained, etc)
An assisted living facility is experiencing an increase in MRSA cases. The pharmacist has been asked to compare different treatment options to optimize clinical cure outcomes.
what is the most common type of pharmacoeconomic analysis and why
cost effectiveness because the outcomes are easier to quantify
cost utility analysis
Analysis that includes the use of quality-adjusted life years and disability adjusted years
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