298 terms

Sims Middle School Civics EOC Review

STUDY
PLAY
draft
a call for military service
duty
an action that we are required to perform
register
to record or enroll formally
responsibility
an obligation that we meet of our own free will
tolerance
respecting and accepting others, regardless of their beliefs, practices, or differences
alien
a foreign-born resident of the United States who has not been naturalized
citizen
a member of a community of people who owe loyalty to a government and, in turn, are entitled to its protection
government
the ruling authority for a community
naturalization
legal process to obtain citizenship
refugee
a person who has left his or her home to escape danger such as war, persecution by the government, or natural
disaster
authoritarian regime
a government in which one leader or group of people holds absolute power
civics
the study of the rights and duties of citizens
ethnic group
people who share a common national, cultural, or racial background
welfare
the health, prosperity, and happiness of the members of a community
Enlightenment
cultural movement during which political traditions were formed
monarch
a single ruler, such as a king or queen, who holds great power
authority
the power to make others obey
Parliament
a group that, along with the king, made the laws for the colonists
Athens
city-state
that created the world's first democracy
Rome
city that created the first republic
Massachusetts Bay Colony
a New England Colony founded by the Puritans
Articles of Confederation
document that created the first national government for the United States
Declaration of Independence
statement of the ideals of liberty and natural rights, in response to the colonists' complaints against the British
government, that inspired writers of new state constitutions
English Bill of Rights
lists of rights in state constitutions can be traced back to this original historical document
Northwest Ordinance
law that set up government in the Northwest Territory in the Great Lakes region
Ordinance of 1785
law that made plan for surveying the Northwest Territory in the Great Lakes region
Article I of the Constitution
describes structure and powers of Congress
Article II of the Constitution
outlines powers of the executive branch
Article III of the Constitution
specifies powers of the judicial branch
Article IV of the Constitution
addresses relationship between the federal and state governments
Article V of the Constitution
describes the process for amending the Constitution
establishment clause
portion of the First Amendment promoting freedom of religion
indictment
formal charge brought by grand jury
due process
following established legal procedures
suffrage
the right to vote
freedom of assembly
allows us to attend meetings, rallies, and parades
censorship
banning offensive or alarming information
slander
harming someone's reputation by speaking lies
petition
formal request, often in the form of a brief or letter
civil liberty
freedom to think and act without government interference
libel
harming someone's reputation by printing lies
poll tax
sum of money paid before casting a ballot
black codes
restricted rights of African Americans after the Civil War
Gitlow v. New York
ruled that state governments must honor the Bill of Rights
Civil War amendments
extended civil liberties to African Americans
vice president
casts a Senate vote only in case of a tie
population
basis of representation in the House of Representatives
representatives
focus on their districts, rather than the entire state
legislative
Framers planned for this branch to be the most powerful
term
the two-year period during which Congress meets
pork-barrel projects
federal government projects that benefit home districts or states
expressed powers
specific powers of Congress listed in the Constitution
filibuster
senatorial practice of talking a bill to death
lobbyist
person hired by a private group to influence government decisions
implied powers
congressional powers that are not stated explicitly in the Constitution
executive agency
an independent agency that deals with certain specific areas within the government
government corporation
a business owned and operated by the federal government
merit system
hiring people for government jobs on the basis of their qualifications
political appointee
a person chosen for a federal position by the president
spoils system
rewarding people for their political support by giving them government jobs
ambassador
an official representative of a country's government
amnesty
a declaration of forgiveness to a group of people
executive order
a rule or command the president gives out that has the force of law
pardon
a declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment
reprieve
an order to delay a person's punishment until a higher court can hear the case
concurrent jurisdiction
both federal and state courts have jurisdiction
dual court system
made up of both federal and state courts
exclusive jurisdiction
only federal courts may hear and decide cases
Judiciary Act of 1789
established lower federal courts
U.S. Constitution
established a national Supreme Court
brief
document that explains one side's position in a case
majority opinion
statement that explains the ruling on a Supreme Court decision
remand
to send a case back to a lower court to be tried again
stare decisis
practice of using earlier court decisions as precedents to decide current cases
writ of certiorari
order to a lower court to send its records on a case to the Supreme Court
Canada
country with a multiparty system
United States
country with a two-party system
watchdog
role played by the party that loses the general election
direct primary
election in which voters choose candidates to represent the two major parties in a general election
grassroots
term describing political movements beginning at the neighborhood level
caucus
meeting of state or local party organizations
precinct
geographic area containing a specific number of voters
political machines
strong political organizations whose candidates win elections year after year
Electoral College
made of 538 electors from the fifty states and the District of Columbia
primary election
part of the election process in which voters nominate a party's candidates
registration
a process required of citizens before they are allowed to vote in elections
referendum
a way for citizens to approve or reject a state or local law
polling place
location where voting takes place
ballot
a list of candidates' names
voter turnout rate
percentage of eligible voters who actually vote
canvass
go door-to-door to gather support
apathy
lack of interest
leak
release of secret government information by public officials to the media
prior restraint
stopping information from being known by blocking it from being published
shield law
act that protects a reporter from revealing his or her sources
interest group
people who unite to promote their beliefs about an issue
nonpartisan group
impartial public-interest group working on issues such as voter education
political action committee
group that collects money from its members to support candidates
pollster
person whose job is to conduct surveys regularly
bicameral
having an upper house and a lower house
census
population count
malapportionment
unequal representation
session
a meeting of a legislative or judicial body to conduct business
unicameral
having a single house
chief executive
role of the governor to carry out state laws, appoint officials, and prepare a budget
commute
judicial power of the governor to reduce a sentence
legislative leader
role of the governor to propose, approve, or veto laws
line-item veto
power to disapprove of specific parts of a bill
parole
judicial power of the governor to give a prisoner early release from prison
auditor
state official who makes sure that money is used in state departments and agencies according to state law
felony
major crime, such as murder or armed robbery
redistricting
process of drawing the boundaries of legislative representation
supremacy clause
article in the U.S. Constitution stating that laws made by Congress shall be the highest law of the land
county
normally the largest territorial and political subdivision of a state
home rule
allows cities to write their own charters, choose their own type of government, and manage their own affairs
incorporate
to receive a state charter officially recognizing the government of a locality
levy
to demand and collect a tax or other payment
metropolitan area
formed by a large city and its suburbs
Congress
political group that divided land in the Midwest into square blocks
town
in the New England states, a small political unit within a county
town meeting
type of direct democracy
township
outside the New England area, a small political unit within a county
village
smallest unit of local government
Code of Hammurabi
first-known system of written law
Napoleonic Code
basis of the laws of the state of Louisiana
common law
law based on court decisions and English legal system brought to North America by colonists
precedent
an earlier ruling on a similar case
Roman law
was first published in 450 B.C.
bill of attainder
a law that punishes a person accused of a crime without a trial or a fair hearing in court
grand jury
a group of 12 to 23 citizens who decide whether there is enough evidence to prove that a crime was committed
custody
taking charge of someone in an official way
detention hearing
the juvenile court process that can be compared to a preliminary hearing in adult criminal law
juvenile delinquent
a young person who commits a crime
rehabilitate
to correct a person's behavior
sentence
the punishment given to someone found guilty of a crime
complaint
statement describing a lawsuit
discovery
process in which lawyers on each side build their cases
settlement
pretrial agreement to terms that eliminates the need for a trial
summons
document that informs a person he or she is being sued in court
tort
cases involving injury or damage
diplomats
officials who represents their country's government
genocide
mass killing of a particular ethnic group
prisoners of war
soldiers captured by the enemy during a conflict
refugees
people driven from their country by war or natural disasters
terrorism
use of violence to force governments to act in a certain way
global interdependence
people and nations rely on one another for goods and services
trade war
nations set up ever-increasing
barriers in response to other nations' barriers on imports
Civil law
Disputes of a non criminal nature are often settled with this kind of law
Contract law
Two parties make a business agreement and sign a written agreement. This is called what kind of law
Magna Carta
An early English document that contributed to the development of the jury trial
Statutory law
Written law, often in codes
Bail
A sum of money to ensure a persons appearance at trial
Habeas Corpus
Latin for "you have the body"; prohibits imprisonment with out explanation
Rousseau
person who developed the idea of the social contract
Montesquieu
the idea of separation of powers among three branches of government
John Locke
the idea that men in a natural state are free to make decisions, speak freely, and enjoy life and writer who promoted the idea of the natural rights of man
checks and balances
system in which one branch of government limits the power of another branch
Federalism
sharing powers between a federal and state government
Mayflower Compact
colonial contribution to the idea of democratic government
James Madison
person who wrote the Federalist Papers explaining the role of factions in the US
Federalist Papers
essays written in support of the US Constitution
Senate
house of Congress that has the responsibility to confirm presidential appointments to high government positions
six
number of years a senator serves
two
number of years a House Representative serves
four
number of years the president serves
State of the Union
yearly address given by the president to Congress
35
age requirement for president
nine
number of justices on the Supreme Court
original jurisdiction
authority to be the first to try the accused or listen to arguments in a dispute
segregation
policy of separating people based on race
Marbury v Madison
court case that established judicial review
Chief Justice
presiding judge of the Supreme Court
direct democracy
system of government in which the citizens themselves make the decisions and vote on laws (some New England towns still do this)
parlimentary
system of government under which people elect representatives to a lawmaking body and the executive power is held by the majority leader
435
number of members in the House of Representatives
25
minimum age to be a member of the House of Representatives
100
number of members in the Senate
30
minimum age to be a member of the Senate
Concurrent Powers
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments.
Delegated Powers
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
Speaker of the House
An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.
Due Process
The administration of justice according to established rules and principles.
Suffrage
The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-sixth Amendment.
Naturalization
A legal process to obtain citizenship.
Electoral College
A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
Federal Courts
The courts of the national government that deal with problems between states, with the constitution, and with laws made by congress.
Appeals Courts
Courts that reviews decisions made in lower district courts.
Supreme Court
Highest court of the land; consists of nine justices, each appointed by the President and confirmed by Congress. Appointment is for life. Supreme Court exercises the power to determine constitutionality of statutes.
Arraingnment
In criminal cases, a court hearing where the defendant is advised of the charges and is asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
Self-Incrimination
The situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids self-incrimination.
1st Amendment
Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition.
2nd Amendment
Right to bear arms.
3rd Amendment
In times of peace, citizens do not have to quarter soldiers.
4th Amendment
Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause.
5th Amendment
Criminal rights (don't apply to the military): indictment by a grand jury, one cannot be tried twice on the same charge, no one can be compelled to testify against himself, the "due process" clause (there must be due process of law before anyone is executed, jailed, or fined; if the government takes private property for its use, it must do so by law, and pay the owner its fair value).
6th Amendment
Criminal Proceedings: right to speedy and fair trial; must inform defendant of charges; right to attorney; and right to fair impartial jury.
7th Amendment
Provides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common law.
8th Amendment
Prohibits excessive bail amounts and cruel and unusual punishment.
9th Amendment
Says citizens are entitled to rights not listed in the Constitution.
10th Amendment
Says that powers not delegated to the national government or denied to the states are reserved to the states.
Plaintiff
A person or party filing a lawsuit.
Defendant
An individual or group being sued or charged with a crime.
Jury
A group of citizens chosen to hear evidence and make a decision in a court of law.
Public policy
A specific course of action taken by government to achieve a public goal.
United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 Supreme Court decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel.
Civic Responsibilites
The things that citizens should do: voting, being informed, taking part in government, helping your community, and respecting & protecting the rights of others.
Civic Duties
The things that citizens must do: obey the law, attend school, pay taxes, serve in the Armed Forces, and appear in court.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
Brown v. Bd of Education
1954 Supreme Court decision that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson decision of separate but equal (separate cannot be equal).
Gideon v. Wainright
1963 Supreme Court decision that ruled that defendants accused of any felony in state jurisdictions are entitled to a lawyer and that the states must supply a lawyer when a defendant cannot afford one.
Tinker v. Des Moines
1969 Supreme Court decision that ruled that wearing black arm-bands in protest of the Vietnam war was "pure speech" or symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
1988 Supreme Court decision that ruled that public school papers not established as forums are less protected by first amendment. School wanted to censor newspaper about drug use, judges upheld it.
US v. Nixon
1974 Supreme Court decision that said that no person is above the law, and the president can't use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence from a trial.
Parliamentary
Form of government in which people vote for the legislative body, which in turn selects the prime minister.
Political Party
A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy.
Electors
People elected by the voters in a presidential election as members of the electoral college.
Popular Vote
An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
Primary
Elections where the voter choose the candidate to represent their party.
Caucus
A private meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.
Lobbyist
A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.
Civics
The study of citizenship and government.
Government
An institution that determines and enforces society's laws.
Politics
Method of maintaining, managing, and gaining control of government (who gets what, when, and how).
Enlightenment
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
Social Contract
An agreement among people to set up a government and obey its laws; developed by John Locke.
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.
Natural Rights
Rights given to all humans; life, liberty, & property.
John Locke
English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Magna Carta
"The Great Charter"; a written legal agreement signed in 1215 that limited the English monarch's power.
English Bill of Rights
1689 laws that protected the rights of the English common man and Parliament.
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809).
Common Sense Pamphlet
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation.
1st Continental Congress
A meeting in Philadelphia of delegates in 1774 from all the colonies except Georgia to uphold colonial rights.
2nd Continental Congress
Congress of American leaders which first met in 1775, declared independence in 1776, and helped lead the United States during the Revolution.
The Great Compromise
Two houses in US Congress: House of Representatives would be based on population, the senate would have 2 representatives from each state.
3/5ths Compromise
Officially added to Article I of the Constitution, this concept was an agreement between Northern and Southern states which stated that 3/5 of all slaves in the United States would be counted for representation. Because slaves could not vote, this idea gave them an increased representation in government through apportioning the seats in the House of Representatives accordingly. It also changed the distribution of taxes.
Declaration of Independence
Document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress, July 4, 1776, asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade).
Preamble
Introduction to the US Constitution. "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.", "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."
Checks & Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
Federalists
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Anti-Federalists
Rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states.
Ratification
Approval.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
The Federalists Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Rule of Law
Principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern.
Citizen
A native or naturalized member of a country.
Alien
...
Domestic Policy
A nation's plan for dealing with issues inside its borders.
Foreign Policy
A nation's overall plan for dealing with other nations.
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Amendment
A change in, or addition to, a constitution or law.
Political Platform
Explains the core beliefs of a political party on essential issues (like immigration, abortion, taxes, etc).
Party Plank
Gives the specifics of the party's position on specific issues and the solutions or programs they would implement if elected to office.
Interest Group
An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy.
Propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Public Good
Benefits and services, such as parks and sanitation, that benefit all citizens but are no likely to be produced voluntarily by individuals.
Direct Democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.
Representative Democracy
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Monarchy
A government ruled by a king or queen.
Dictatorship
A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and rules by force.
Autocracy
A system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual.
Oligarchy
A government ruled by a few powerful people.
Federal
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments.
Virginia Plan
A plan that suggested the size of the legislative branch should be based on the states' population.
Confederal
A form of government in which independent states unite to accomplish common goals.
Unitary
A government that gives all key powers to the national or central government.
Legislative
Created by Article 1 of the Constitution, makes laws.
Executive
Created by Article 2 of the Constitution, carries out laws.
Judicial
Created by Article 3 of the Constitution, interprets laws.
13th Amendment
1865 Amendment abolishing and continually prohibiting slavery.
14th Amendment
An amendment to the U. S. Constitution passed in 1868 that made all persons born or naturalized in the United States-including former slave-citizens of the country.
15th Amendment
1870, Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
24th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
26th Amendment
1971, Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.
Civil Law
A law that governs relationships between individuals and defines their legal rights.
Criminal Law
Concerned with wrongs committed "against the public as a whole."
Constitutional Law
Law that involves the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution. Highest law of the land.
Military Law
The body of laws and rules of conduct administered by military courts for the discipline, trial, and punishment of military personnel.
Juvenile Law
Cases involving children.
Intolerable Acts
Passed by Parliament in 1774 in reaction to the Boston Tea Party. Passed series of measures including shutting down Boston Harbor and the Quartering Act, which allowed British commanders to house soldiers in vacant private homes and other buildings. This resulted in the colonists forming the First Continental Congress and drawing up a declaration of colonial rights.
Townshend Acts
Passed by Parliament in 1767, placed taxes on imported materials such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Led to outrage and tons of people boycotted British goods.
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
American Revolution
The war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-83, by which the colonies won their independence.
Eminent Domain
Power of a government to take private property for public use; the U.S. Constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensation for property taken.
Libel
False and malicious use of printed words.
Slander
False and malicious use of spoken words.
Integration
Bringing together as equals.
Segregation
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences.
Congress
Another name for the Legislative branch for the US federal government.
Senate
100 members, 2 members for each state. Members are elected every 6 years. The Vice President is the head of this body.
House of Representatives
The lower legislative house of the United States Congress, 435 members based on population. Speaker of the House is the head.
Veto
A formal decision by the president to reject the bill passed by Congress.
Commander in Chief
The role of the president as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and of the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service.
Cabinet
A group of advisers to the president.
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