Honors Biology Unit 8 Genetics Test
Terms in this set (49)
Who is known as the Father of genetics and studied 7 characteristics of pea plants?
What is Genetics?
The study of how traits are passed on from parent to offspring
What is Heredity?
The passing on of traits from parent to offspring, either asexually or sexually
What is a trait?
A single physical or genetic characteristic
What is a Purebred?
An organism that always produces an offspring with the same physical/genetic characteristic
What is the P generation?
What is the F1 generation?
The offspring from the parents
What is the F2 generation?
The offspring from F1
What is a Gene?
A portion of DNA that codes for a specific protein
What is an Allele?
An alternative form of a gene found on a one of two homologous chromosomes
- You have two alleles for each gene: one from mom and one from dad
What is the Mendelian law of Dominance?
An allele can be either dominant or recessive
- When present, a dominant allele will ALWAYS express the trait
What is the law of Segregation?
Each gamete only donates one allele for each gene
What is the law of independent assortment?
Traits are inherited separately of one another (No two genes are linked!)
- Just b/c you have blonde hair doesn't
mean you have to have blue eyes.
What is probability?
- The likelihood an event will or will not occur.
Ex. What is the probability of flipping heads?
Ex. What is the probability of pulling an ace out
of a deck of cards?
What is a phenotype?
Refers to an organism's physical trait(s).
Ex: Height & Eye Colo
What is a Genotype?
- Refers to an organism's genetic make-up, or
allele combination for a trait(s).
Ex: Hh for height.
What is Homozygous?
When an organism has two of the same allele for a trait.
- Can be either dominant or recessive
What is Heterozygous?
When an organism has both a dominant
and recessive allele for a trait.
What are Punnett squares
A chart that shows all possible allele
What is a Monohybrid Crosses
A cross involving only one trait.
- Create a table with 2 columns & 2 rows.
What is a Dihybrid Cross?
A cross involving two traits.
- Create a table with 4 columns & rows.
What is Incomplete Dominance?
When alleles of a heterozygote blend together.
- One allele is not fully dominant over the other.
- Write the more dominant allele as a capital
letter and the more recessive allele as a
capital followed by an apostrophe.
What is Codominance?
When alleles of a heterozygote show
- You will see both traits, not a blending.
- Write each allele similar to the following
Black is codominant to White
What are Multiple Alleles?
When there are more than two possible
alleles for a gene.
- Along with having multiple alleles, a gene
may also show incomplete or codominance.
What are the possible blood type alleles?
IA, IB, or i. i= O type.(ALLELES)
What Alleles would be for A blood?
IAIA or IAi
What alleles would be for B blood?
IBIB or IBi
What alleles would be for type O blood
What alleles would be for type AB blood
Interaction of two or more genes to control a single phenotype.
- The trait of one gene is masked or modified by the presence of another gene.
- The gene which controls the expression of the other gene(s) is said to be "epistatic."
The gene which controls the expression of the other gene(s) is said to be
A trait controlled by two or more genes.
Examples: Height, Eye Color & Skin Color
Example Genotype: EeBbYy = Hazel Eyes
Human Sex Inheritance
Chromosomes & Sex Determination
How many pairs of chromosomes are called autosomes?
- We have 22 pairs of chromosomes called Autosomes.
How many pairs sex chromosomes do we have
- We have 1 chromosome pair that are our Sex Chromosomes.
- XX for a girl and XY for a male.
Sex-linked genes are found on the sex chromosomes.
What is a carrier?
- A person is a carrier if they have one recessive allele "and" one dominant allele for a trait.
Why are males more likely than females to receive and express a recessive trait
- Because males have only one X chromosome, males are more likely than females to receive & express a recessive trait.
Traits not located on the sex chromosomes.
What is Autosomal Recessive?
Equal numbers of males & females affected.
- Can skip generations.
What is Autosomal Dominant?
One dominant allele leads to death
See in every generation
What are pedigrees?
A chart that helps you track which members of the family express a trait
What are symbols used in pedigrees? (5)
Male = Square
Female = Circle
Carrier = Half shaded circle or square
Affected = Fully shaded circle or square
Married = Line connecting two individuals
What is the first step of interpreting pedigrees?
Determine if it's sex linked or autosomal
It is most likely X linked if ....... (Pedigrees)
Most affected individuals are males
It is most likely autosomal if .... (Pedigrees)
There is a 50:50, or close to it, ratio of affected males and females
If dominant then what has to happen (Pedigrees)
One parent must have a trait that is seen in every generation
If recessive then what has to happen (Pedigrees)
Neither parent has to have it and it can skip generations
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