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41 terms

Chapter 8 Blood and Lymph System

Blood and lymph system
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plasma
liquid portion of the blood and lymph containing water, proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, vitamins, and cellular components (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets)
serum
liquid portion of the blood left after the clotting process
erythrocyte
red blood cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide within the bloodstream
neutrophil
a granular leukocyte, named for the neutral stain of its granules, that fights infection by swallowing bacteria (phagocytosis) (neuro = neither; phil = attraction for)
eosinophil
a granular leukocyte, named for the rose-color stain of its granules, that increases with allergy and some infections [eos = dawn-colored (rosy); phil = attraction for]
lymphocyte
an agranulocytic leukocyte that is active in the process of immunity--there are four categories of lymphocytes: T cells (thymus dependent); B cells (bone marrow derived); NK cells (natural killer); K-type cells
platelets
thrombocytes; cell fragments in the blood essential for blood clotting (coagulation)
lymph
fluid originating in the organs and tissues of the body that is circulated through the lymph vessels
lymph nodes
many small oval structures that filter the lymph received from the lymph vessels-major locations include the cervical region, axillary region,and inguinal region
antigen
a substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it
antibody
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
immunity
process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
microcytosis
the presence of small red blood cells
anisocytosis
the presence of red blood cells of unequal size (an = without; iso = equal)
poikilocytosis
the presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells (poikil/o = irregular)
reticulocytosis
an increase of immature erythrocytes in the blood
erythropenia
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
lymphocytopenia
an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
neutropenia
a decrease in the number of neutrophils
pancytopenia
an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
hemolysis
breakdown of the red blood cell membrane
immunocompromised
impaired immunological defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or therapy with immunosuppressive agents
immunosuppression
impaired ability to provide an immune response
lymphadenopathy
the presence of enlarged (diseased) lymph nodes
splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurological diseases to develop; it is transmitted sexually or through exposure to contaminated blood
anemia
a condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red blood cells in the blood, resulting in a diminished ability of the red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues; common types follow: aplastic anemia (a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells) b) iron deficiency anemia: a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron, affecting production of hemoglobin and characterized by small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin) c) pernicious anemia: a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
Rh factor
the presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetal anemia. Rh positive: the presence of antigens; Rh negative: the absence of antigens
hemophilia
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which there is a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
leukemia
a chronic or acute malignant (cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs, marked by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow; classified according to the types of white cells affected (e.g., myelocytic, lymphocytic)
lymphoma
any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease
metastasis
the process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to distant organs
mononucleosis
a condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
thrombocytopenia
a bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, which impairs the clotting process
blood chemistry panel
specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions (e.g., metabolic panel, lipid panel, arthritis panel)
blood culture
a test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms; the specimen is observed and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified
complete blood count
the most common laboratory blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes; the following is a listing of the component tests included in a CBC (note: CBC results are usually reported within normal values so that the clinician can interpret the results based on the instrumentation used by the laboratory; normal ranges also may vary depending on factors such as the region and climate)
white blood count
a count of the number of white blood cells per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods
red blood count
a count of the number of red blood cells per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods
hemoglobin
a test to determine the blood level of hemoglobin (expressed in grams)
hematocrit
a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood