Upgrade to remove ads
Second Semester Finals
Terms in this set (114)
the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during cell division (anaphase 1 of meiosis, or sister chromatids fail to separate during anaphase 2)
Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
a genetic disorder caused by a trisomy of the twenty-first chromosome (1 in 800)
Patau syndrome (trisomy 13)
Characterized by severe intellectual disability, a small head, sloping forehead, small eyes, cleft lip and palate, extra fingers and toes, and other disabilities; results from the presence of three copies of chromosome 13.
Edward's syndrome (trisomy 18)
Babies are often born small and have heart defects.
Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)
underdeveloped sex organs, breast development, large hands, and long arms and legs
Turner Syndrome (XO)
A chromosomal disorder in females in which an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX
Tall, seem normal, can live normal lives
Meta Females (XXX)
Taller than average with long legs and slender torsos.
deletion in chromosome 5; physical and mental retardation and catlike cry
Fragile X (duplication)
X chromosome has more than 700 repeats and the tip hangs like a thread under the microscope
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (translocation)
swap of chromosomes 9 and 22
double stranded, deoxyribose, thymine
single stranded, ribose, uracil.
Double helix, looks like a twisted ladder, righthanded twist; 10 bases per turn
the larger of the two grooves in the DNA double helix
A smaller groove that spirals around the DNA double helix.
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
orientation of the two strands of DNA. Parallel but with the 3' and 5' ends at different sides of the strand (3' = deoxyribose, 5' = phosphate)
genetic material could be transferred between dead bacteria and living bacteria
Avery, MacLeod, McCarty
Proved that DNA is the hereditary material
confirmed that DNA is the genetic material because only radiolabeled DNA could be found in bacteriophage-infected bacteria
An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.
makes short RNA primers
An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment
corrects "overwinding" ahead of replication forks by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands
The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction.
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork.
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Double stranded DNA is unzipped by helicase. One strand of DNA serves as a template for RNA synthesis. The enzyme RNA polymerase binds to a specific region in DNA called the promoter sequence. Matching RNA bases, floating in the nucleus, connect to DNA bases on one of the DNA strands. RNA polymerase attaches them together to make a single strand of mRNA.
cut out introns, join exons
DNA sequences that define where transcription of a gene by RNA polymerase begins
1. the exposed codon in the first site attract complementary tRNA bearing an amino acid. The tRNA pairs with the mRNA codon, bringing it very close to the other tRNA molecule
2. the ribosome forms a bond between the two amino acids and breaks the bond between the first tRNA and its amino acid
3. the ribosome pulls the mRNA strand the length of one codon. The first tRNA is shifted into the exit site, where it leaves the ribosome and returns to the cytoplasm to recharge. The first site is again empty by exposing the next mRNA codon.
mRNA (working instructions), ribosome (reader), tRNA (transporter)
UAA, UAG, UGA
Includes an anticodon at one of L , base triple that base pairs to a specific mRNA codon
E = exit site, where discharged tRNAs leave. P = carries the growing polypeptide chain. A = tRNA that carries the next amino acid
steps of translation
initiation, elongation, termination
deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation
removes a chromosomal segment
repeats a chromosomal segment
reverse the direction of parts of chromosomes
fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.
deletion, addition, substitution
Reasons for cell division
DNA overload, transport, surface area to volume ratio
gene >DNA+histones >nucleosome >chromatin >chromatid >chromosomes
Chromatin vs chromatid
chromatin condense into chromatids, chromatids are identical "sister" parts of a chromosome
Histones and nucleosome
eight histones with DNA coiled around it twice make it a nucleosome
G1, S, G2
increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles.
DNA is replicated.
Organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced. Gets ready for mitosis.
Chromosomes become visible, nuclear envelope dissolves, spindle forms
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
Chromosomes turn into chromatin, new nuclear envelopes form
function of mitosis
-Replacement of worn out cells
cytoplasm pinched or cell plate formed
regulate cell cycle in eukaryotes
programmed cell death
body cells grow and divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them.
genes that cause cancer by blocking the normal controls on cell reproduction; accelerator; ras genes, cyclin D1
tumor suppressor genes
make proteins that stop cell division; brakes; p53 gene, Rb gene
produces sex cells
2 homologous chromosomes
the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes
2 sets of chromosomes
1 set of chromosomes; produced by gonads
process when the sperm cell unites with a female egg cell
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
different forms of a gene
Separation of alleles during gamete formation
cross with one trait
cross with two traits
law of dominance
Some alleles are dominant and some are recessive
law of segregation
pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed
law of independent assortment
genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
traits controlled by two or more genes. normal distribution (bell curve)
a condition in which antibodies produced by the mother (-) are transmitted to the child (+), possibly causing brain damage or death
pic of chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
sex linked disorders
color blindness, hemophilia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy
"family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
genetically modified organisms
selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
Induced mutation - Polyploidy
Breeders increase the genetic variation in a population by inducing mutations (through radiation and chemicals)
cloning human insulin gene into E Coli
gene of interest put into plasmid, which is cut with REN and put back into bacteria.
restriction endonuclease = cuts DNA
circle of DNAfrom bacteria
bacteria take in DNA from another bacterial cell
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel; shorter fragments move to the farther side
(polymerase chain reaction) multiple copies of a specific segment of DNA
A hybridization technique that enables researchers to identify certain nucleotide sequences in a sample of DNA.
a method of DNA sequencing based on the selective incorporation of chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides (ddNTP) by DNA polymerase during DNA replication. ddNTPs terminate the chain and are then put through gel electrophoresis
A heat-stable form of DNA polymerase that is used during PCR technique
enucleated ovary cell taken from sheep 1 combined with mammary cell from sheep 2 placed into sheep 3's uterus
antibiotics killed most bacteria but the ones that survive have a resistance, this happens until the antibiotic doesn't work
drugs that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
-discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, discovered when mold juice killed a bacteria named penicillum notatum, and named the mold juice penicillin
bacteria that are resistant to large numbers of antibiotics, caused by overuse of antibiotics
how to use antibiotics responsibly
-make sure you have a bacterial infection vs. a virus.
-never use antibiotics that are not prescribed from doctors.
-use it for the full prescribed period of time
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Module 6: DNA & The Cell Cycle
Biology Exam 3
Biology Lecture Quiz #3
CP Biology- DNA Replication Study Guide…