Trzasko Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (118)
An alternative form of a gene.
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
The scientific study of heredity
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
Passing of traits from parents to offspring
a group of individuals born and living at the same time
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
The regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents.
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
An ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome.
Mendel's 3 Laws
law of dominance, law of segregation, law of independent assortment
Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
when multiple alleles are controlled by more than one gene
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype.
A dense body formed from a deactivated X chromosome.
Traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes.
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
a condition in which an extra copy of a chromosome is present in the cell nuclei, causing developmental abnormalities.
A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
loss of a portion of a chromosome
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
the process of making a copy of DNA
the formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase
Process by which mRNA is converted into a protein
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
Single stranded ends of DNA left after cutting with enzymes
Organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA from a different organism
The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
11 body systems
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
Fluid wastes removed from the body by the kidneys
First line of defense
skin and mucous membranes
second line of defense
third line of defense
specific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluids
type of immunity produced by T cells that attack infected or abnormal body cells
red blood cells
white blood cells
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
Broken down to glucose to provide energy.
lipids used for
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
pivot, ball and socket, hinge, gliding
An organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
A supercontinent containing all of Earth's land that existed about 225 million years ago.
Breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits.
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
A technique used to determine the actual age of a fossil
length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
geologic time scale
scale used by paleontologists to represent evolutionary time
the ability to walk upright on two legs
the ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image
In Europe, another human species lived and adapted to life in the cold climates of the last Ice Age.
A cave in southwestern France that contains Paleolithic paintings
The process of grouping things based on their similarities
The scientific study of how living things are classified
A group of similar species
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
7 levels of classification
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
same funtion structure different structure
substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine
the process by which a cell specializes to carry out a specific role
organs that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with water
Main organs of the respiratory system
5 levels of organization
cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
A protein hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels; an antagonistic hormone to insulin.
An embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
An organism that causes disease
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
a signal to which an organism responds
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation (usually good)
compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH
formation of organs
A type of white blood cell that engulfs invading microbes and contributes to the nonspecific defenses of the body against disease.
Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.
A hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics
stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells
excite or set in motion
A state of balance
Cells created in the thymus that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body.