PSC 120 - Final Exam Study Guide
Terms in this set (35)
Loyalty of people to a political party
The categorization of the number and competitiveness of political parties in a polity
A distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men
Process by which citizens put a proposed new law directly on the ballot
A general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision.
An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy
A strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature.
Attempting to influence policy makers.
Employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
a type of representation in which representatives have the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents; it is based on the principle that if two individuals are similar in background, character, interests, and perspectives, then one can correctly represent the other's views
The type of representation according to which representatives are held accountable to their constituents if they fail to represent them properly. That is, constituents have the power to hire and fire their representatives.
the holding of an office or the period during which one is held.
manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class.
A session in which committee members offer changes to a bill before it goes to the floor
A person or group who provides resources and support for the project, program, or portfolio and is accountable for enabling success.
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue.
Chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a legislature
A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
express powers of the president
Commander in chief, power to make treaties
Delegated Powers of the President
These powers, also called "enumerated Powers", are the powers that are clearly spelled out in the Constitution. These are powers of the federal government.
Examples include: the powers to declare war and to raise taxes; regulate immigration & naturalization; regulate interstate commerce; set standards for weights & measures; establish & enforce copyright laws; create lower courts; establish foreign policy; establish a postal system. There are many others.
Inherent Powers of the President
Powers that belong to the president because they can be inferred from the Constitution
a rule or order issued by the president to an executive branch of the government and having the force of law.
a presidential document that reveals what the president thinks of a new law and how it ought to be enforced
a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives.
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
hiring people into government jobs on the basis of their qualifications
The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These are the courts that determine the facts about a case.
The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
writ of certiorari
An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up a case for review
A judicial philosophy in which judges make bold policy decisions, even charting new constitutional ground. Advocates of this approach emphasize that the courts can correct pressing needs, especially those unmet by the majoritarian political process.
A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that duty strictly to the legislatures
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
The Constitution of the United States is referred to as a "living document" because the architects of the document intended for it to be adapted by future generations. It is adaptable - amendments could be ratified, or added to it.
A Supreme Court test to see if a law denies equal protection because it does not serve a compelling state interest and is not narrowly tailored to achieve that goal