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Critical Analysis Final Rasmussen
Terms in this set (97)
What was the significance of the 1886 NYC Training School?
It was the first school for male nurses
Who are the Alexian Brothers?
They created the Alexian Brothers Health System, and they were one of the earliest men in nursing dating back to the 1300's.
When were men allowed into the military nursing core?
Name an organization for men in nursing:
The American Assembly for Men in Nursing
What field of nursing were men first allowed in?
What will the increase in men do to the current diversity statistics in nursing?
The increase in men in the field will change the men to women ratio (duh?)
How is the face of nursing changing?
The BSN level of nurses is becoming the standard. However, ADN's, and LPN's are still relevant.
Where do most nurses work?
They work in acute care.
What are the goals for community nursing?
To educate and promote health. They focus on community health improvement, providing educational programs.
What level of nurses have been shown to provide better patient outcomes?
Her work during the Crimean War argued the case for reform in the British Army medical system. Her emphasis on the environment is what she is known for too. She wrote the 1859 Notes on Nursing book.
Catholic sister. She was an advocate in mental illness nursing. She helped establish a training program that was one month long for nurses during the Civil War.
American Red Cross;
Mary big booty
Hotel for wounded soldiers. Got many of her own supplies. Was denied from Nightingale's schools.
Established the Henry Street Settlement in NYC in 1895 - Public Health Nursing with the goal of improving the health of immigrants who were seeking better lives in America
Social activist and reformer. Helped Wald with public health nursing.
Anthropologist who worked with Leininger to help her form the theory of Transcultural nursing
Founded the ANA
Helped Robb founded the ICN
(focused on men)
- stage 1 - doing something to avoid punishment
- stage 2 - doing something for a potential reward (kids here)
- Stage 3 - making a choice to please others
- Stage 4 - making a choice while considering society (most adults here)
- Stage 5 - Doing what is right regardless of restrictions
- Stage 6 - Doing what is right to one's own conscience
When were nurses recognized as a profession?
1893 Chicago World's Fair
Isabel Hampton Robb, Lavinia Dock, Bedford Fenwick brought attention to many key issues in nursing such as lack of uniformity in nursing education, need for scientific training, and the precursors to the National League for Nursing was established.
What is the issue regarding representation of diverse populations in nursing?
Nurses are predominantly white, so minorities are not represented.
Kelly's Criteria for a Profession:
- The service is necessary
- There is a special body of knowledge
- Is intellectual, and professionals must be accountable
- Higher learning
- Professionals are autonomous
- Professionals are altruistic
- Code of ethics
- There is an organization
Code of Ethics:
3 purposes: statement providing values, obligations, duties, and professional ideals; nonnegotiable ethical standard; nursing's own understanding of its commitment to society
9 provisions: first 3 - the fundamental values and commitments of the nurse; second 3 - addresses boundaries and loyalty; last 3 - addresses duty beyond patient encounters
What are some barriers the nursing profession has experienced?
-Varying levels of education for entry into the practice
-Historical influences (both positive and negative - nurses are thought to just serve the doctors)
-Nurses scope of practice is expanding it for some, it may feel like they are stepping on toes.
-Tension between nurses with different degrees of education
Characteristics of an occupation:
-On the job training
-Length of training varies
-Decision making based on experience
-Values, beliefs, ethics not important
-May not identify with job
-Accountability rests with employer
Characteristics of a profession:
-College or university edu.
-Values, ethics, beliefs are important
-Identifies with the job
-Unlikely to change professions
-Commitment transcends rewards
-Accountability rests with individual
1923 Goldmark Report
A study of nursing education that advocated for the establishment of schools of nursing associated with colleges and universities, rather than hospital-based diploma programs, and encouraged the establishment of rural programs in midwifery
The 1948 Brown Report
It recommended that basic schools of nursing be placed in universities and colleges, with effort made to recruit men and minorities into nursing education programs
BSN Degree facts:
-BSN graduates are, on average, 5-years younger than graduates of an ADN
-Currently 55% of RN's have BSN's or higher
Pro's and Con's for Online Learning
-Comfort of own home
-Flaws with how content is delivered online
-some fraudulent programs out there
refers to state regulation of the practice of nursing. It is required of individuals a the entry point to practice and must be renewed periodically. It is a legal designation that ensures public safety by assessing basic and continuing competence.
This goes beyond licensure by validating a high level of knowledge and proficiency in a particular practice area. Certification has professional but not legal status. An exam is required to be certified. Certified nurses have greater earning potential, wider employment opportunities, broader scope of practice, etc.
Why do nurses do CEU's?
To maintain certifications, the individual must get continuing education credits.
What do State Nurse Practice Acts consists of?
1. Define the practice of professional nursing
2. Sets the minimum educational qualifications and other requirements for licensure
3. Determines the legal titles and abbreviations nurses may use
4. Providers for disciplinary action of licensees for certain causes
Why are most nurses disciplined?
Practicing with impairment
What do you do if the dose of a medicine is questionable?
Call the physician
The 5 Rights of doses:
Informed Consent: 3 Criterion, how it is considered legal, who is responsible for it?
-Person must have capacity and be competent enough to understand
-Person must be completely informed
Competency, voluntariness, and completeness are examined to be considered legal
Primary physician is responsible fro explaining everything, and nurse is responsible for advocating.
What did the patient self-determination act of 1991 do?
Pushed for advanced directives in healthcare facilities
Gilligan's theory on moral development:
Women focused more on care, men focused more on justice.
Levels of moral development:
-Orientation to individual survival
-Focus on goodness with recognition of self-sacrifice
-Morality of care and being responsible for other and self
Gathers fact, then makes informed decisions. The act becomes standardized and practices in all scenarios.
Emphasize rules/guides/principles that lead to an action
A means to act and analyze ethical dilemmas
means to do good
means to do no harm
working under own values
a just behavior or treatment
faithfulness to a person, cause, or belief, demonstrated by continuing loyalty and support
truthfulness; conformity to facts; accuracy
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs:
Physiological needs: food, water, warmth, rest
Safety needs: security, safety
Belongingness and love needs: intimate relationships, friends
Esteem needs: prestige and feeling of accomplishment
Self-actualization: achieving one's full potential, including creative activities
How has the prevalence of single parent families change?
1980 - 19.5% of households were single-parent households
2008 - 29.5% of households were single-parent households
2013 - 41% of all births were to single women
Single parent homes are increasing
A group of concepts, ideas, etc. that attempts to describe a phenomena
A statement about how two or more concepts are related
Virginia Henderson Philosophy:
What can I help this patient do that he would do for himself if he could?
14 Basic Needs
Henderson's 14 basic needs:
-eat and drink adequately
-eliminate body wastes
-move and maintain body wastes
-sleep and rest
-select suitable clothes - dress and undress
-maintaining body temp
-Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the skin
-Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others
-Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions
-work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment
-play or participate in various forms of recreation
-learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.
Jean Watson Philosophy:
The 10 Caritas Processes
Watson's Caritas Processes:
-Embrace altruistic values and practice loving kindness with self and others.
-Instill faith and hope and honor in others
-Be sensitive to self and others by nurturing individual beliefs and practices
-Develop helping-trusting-caring relationships
-Promote and accept positive and negative feelings as you authentically listen to another's story
-Use creative scientific problem-solving methods
-Share teaching and learning that addresses the individual needs and comprehension styles
-Create a healing environment
-Assist with basic physical, emotional, and spiritual human needs
-Open to mystery and allow miracles to enter
Hildegard Peplau Philosophy:
-Within the relationship with my patient, how can I best help him or her understand his or her health problems and develop new, healthier behaviors?
-Therapeutic Use of Self
-Orientation Phase, Working Phase, Termination phase
Carl Rogers Philosophy:
He built his theory of personhood based on the idea that people are constantly adapting, discovering, and rediscovering themselves.
What is important to consider for an RN returning for a BSN degree?
Being open minded to new practices.
What is regression?
It proceeds positive change. It is a defensive mechanism.
What is congruent communication?
Communication that is both verbally and physically in sync
Usually develops gradually, requires ongoing medical attention, and may continue for the duration of the individual's life. Hypertension, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease are examples.
characterized by severe symptoms that are relatively short-lived. Symptoms tend to appear suddenly, progress steadily, and subside quickly.
When symptoms subside
When symptoms reappear or worsen
Stages of illness
-Disbelief and denial
-Irritability and anger
-Attempts to gain control
-Depression and despair
-Acceptance and participation
An individual who recognizes the need for organizational change and facilitates that process
A deliverer of health care services - hospital, clinic, nurse, or physician
A person who publicly supports or recommends a particular cause or policy
Who is the sandwich generation?
The generation where they have to take care of their parents as well as their children because parents are living longer, and the generation is having kids later.
rude or unsociable speech or behavior
What is the ANA
American Nurse Association
What is the WHO?
World Health Organization; Healthy people 2020
Genetics in nursing:
-Can be used to determine genetic conditions prenatally.
"the model for quality, compassionate care for people facing a life-limiting illness or injury"
"an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness, through prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psycho-social and spiritual"
Three major concepts are foundational to end-of-life care:
1. Persons are iving until the moment of death.
2. Coordinated care should be offered by a variety of professionals, with attention to the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs of patients and their families.
3. Care should be sensitive to patient/family diversity (or cultural beliefs)
doing something that shouldn't have been done
Failing to do things that should have been done
What four things must be proven for malpractice?
1)the nurse in question assumed responsibility
2)Duty for care was breached
3)Failure of care was the cause of an injury
4)The injury is proven
Who pushed for a clear definition of nursing?
Why is there a definition of nursing?
"If we cannot name it, we cannot control it, finance it, research it, teach it, or put it into public policy. It's just that blunt!"
For legislation is one of the answers
Ethnic and racial disparities; Men and women disparities; young and old disparities;
Healthcare disparities: Infant mortality
AA, AI, Puerto Ricans have higher raters than Whites.
Healthcare disparities: Cancer and Screening management
AA women are more than 2x likely to die of cervical cancer than white women; and more likely to die of breast cancer than any other woman group
Healthcare disparities: CVD
Heart disease and stroke are leading causes of death for all racial and ethnic groups in US
Healthcare disparities: Diabetes
AI and Alaska Natives are most likely to have diabetes.
Healthcare disparities: HIV/AIDs
AA and Hispanics account for 66% of adult AIDS cases and 82% of pediatric AIDS cases in 2001
Healthcare disparities: Immunizations
65+ year old Hispanics and AA were less likely to have flu or pneumococcal vaccines.
How has palliative and hospice care grown?
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