A & P 2 Study Guide 3

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I still need answers to questions # 24,27,74,77,78


Contraction of any heart chamber is called _____


A persistent, resting heart rate in excess of 100 beats/minute is called ____

ectopic pacemaker

If the SA node fails to function other regions of atrial myocardium called _____ take over and trigger a rhythmic heartbeat, although at a slower rate

stroke volume

Each ventricles ejects about 75ml of blood in one beat. The figure is called the ______


The ventricles are said to exhibit _____ when they beat in a rapid uncoordinated fashion or squirming motion and do not effectively eject blood

myocardial infarction

The death of a patch of myocardium due to ischemia is clinically known as ___ and likely to cause a heart attack. It is sometimes mistakenly used as a synonym for a heart attack


In the aortic arch and carotid arteries there are pressure sensors called _____ which help to monitors and regulate blood pressure

heart rate stroke volume

Cardiac output is a product of ______ & _______


An increased afterload reduces the heart's ejection fraction


If SA node is destroyed the heart will stop beating


The myocardium begins to relax at the end of the plateau in the action potential


Since athletes are in better than average condition their hearts beat faster at rest


Cor pulmonale results when the left ventricle fails causing blood to back up into the lungs


The parasympathetic nervous system has negative chronotropic effect on the heart


The bundle of HIS originates at the AV node


Papillary muscles help to prevent prolapse of the semilunar valves


The myocardium receives the least amount of blood when the ventricles are contracting

m (epicardium)

Same as the visceral pericardium

a (chordae tendineae)

Help to prevent valvular prolapse during ventricular systole

d ( coronary sinus)

Empties into the right atrium

w (av bundle)

Site of damage that could cause heart block

e (ventricular systole)

Phase of the cardiac cycle in which the AV valves close

i (second heart sound)

Caused partly by closing of the semilunar valves

d (coronary sinus)

Receives blood that has circulated through the myocardium

L (stroke volume)

Milliliters of blood ejected by one beat of the left ventricle

z (tachycardia)

Abnormally fast heart rate

g (preload)

Tension in the ventricular myocardium at the end of diastole


The coronary arteries arise from
a. the proximal end of the aorta
b. the interventricular arteries
c. the myocardium
d. the coronary sulcus
e. the venae cavae


The average resting cardiac cycle takes about 0.8 sec., including 0.1 sec for atrial systole 0.3 sec for ventricular systole and 0.4 sec for
a. isovolumentric relaxation
b. ventricular diastole
c. atrial diastole
d. cardiac reserve
e. the quiescent period


If the heart's normal pacemaker is nonfunctional and the AV node takes over the heart beats at a rate of 40-60 bpm called
a. the endogenous rhythm
b. the chronotropic rhythm
c. the ectopic rhythm
d. the sinus rhythm
e. the nodal rhythm


If the chordea tendinease of an animal's heart were cut the most likely effect would be
a. valvular stenosis
b. valvular prolapse
c. fibrillation
d. heart block
e. myocardial infarction


Blood normally leaves the right ventricle through
a. the pulmonary semilunar valve
b. the pulmonary tricuspid valve
c. the tricuspid valve
d. the bicuspid valve
e. the aortic semilunar valve


A heart rate of 45 bpm and an absence of P waves from electrocardiogram would suggest
a. ventricular fibrillation
b. cardiac arrhythmia
c. a bundle branch block
d. cor pulmonale
e. damage to the SA node


A friction rub results from
a. a myocardial infarction
b. ventricular fibrillation
c. valvular insufifciency
d. an excessive afterload
e. a deficiency of pericardial fluid


The amount of blood (mL) coming from one ventricle in one heartbeat is called
a. the ejection fraction
b. the preload
c. the afterload
d. the stroke volume
e. the cardiac output


The cardiac center, which modifies the heart rate is located in
a. the SA node
b. the AV node
c. the carotid sinuses
d. the aortic arch
e. the medulla oblongata


The cardioinhibitory center communicates with the heart by way of
a. the internodal pathways
b. the bundle of HIS
c. Parkinje fibers
d. the vagus nerves
e. sympathetic nerves


At the end of ventricular contraction the amount of blood remaining in the ventricle is
a. the end-systolic volume
b. the end-diastolic volume
c. the stroke volume
d. the residual volume
e. the ejection fraction


The heart normal ___54% can rise to as high as 90% during strenuous exercise
a. ejection fraction
b. end-systolic volume
c. end-diastolic volume
d. coronary circulation
e. stroke volume


Pressure in the arteries that opposes the opening of the semilunar valves is called
a. inotropic pressure
b. oncotic pressure
d. preload
e. hypertension


The heart rate tends to be higher in
a. women than in men
b. teenagers than in infants
c. athletes than in sedentary people
d. men than in woman
e. adults than in children


The ___ commonly measures about 75 mL
a. cardiac output
b. stroke volume
c. end- diastolic volume
d. end- systolic volume
e. ejection fraction


The conduction of electrical signals is fastest in
a. the atria
b. the internodal pathways
c. the Purkinje fibers
d. the SA node
e. the AV node


If end-diastolic volume is 108 mL end-systolic volume is 35 mL and ejection fraction is 0.86 then the stroke volume must be
a. 0.03 L
b. 0.086 L
c. 73 mL
d. 138 mL
e. 143 mL


The heart rate is increased by
a. hypothyroidism
b. acetylcholine
c. hyperkalemia
d. hypernatremia
e. hypercalcemia


Lung diseases that obstruct the flow of blood through the lungs are most likely to
a. increase the preload in the left ventricle
b. increase the afterload in the pulmonary truck
c. increase the ejection fraction of the right ventricle
d. reduce the ejection fraction of the left ventricle
e. have positive chronotropic effect on both ventricles


The innermost lining of the heart wall is
a. the parietal pericardium
b. the visceral pericardium
c. the epicardium
d. the endocardium
e. the myocardium


An anatomical arrangement that reduces the risk for myocardial infarctions is
a. arterial anastomoses in the coronary circulation
b. the desmosomes of the intercalated discs
c. a double circulation
d. gap junctions in the myocardium
e. circumflex arteries


Unlike skeletal muscle cardiac muscle has
a. a more extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum
b. more nuclei per cell
c. more mitochondria
d. longer fibers
e. shorter refractory periods


A substance that reduces the heart rate is said to exert
a. a positive inotropic effect
b. a negative chronotropic effect
c. a positive barotropic effect
d. a negative inotropic effect
e. a positive chemotropic effect


Because the human heart is myogenic
a. it will beat even if all nerves to it are severed
b. both ventricles pump the same amount of blood
c. it is not subject to the influence of hormones
d. it contracts rhythmically
e. it generates electrical activity that can be detected by an electrocardiograph


An arteriovenous ____ is a route by which blood flows from an artery to a vein without passing through capillaries

tunica media

The middle layer of a blood vessel is called the _____


In _____ capillaries there are numerous filtration pores through the endothelial cells


The lowest arterial blood pressure observed during the cardiac cycle is called the ____

auto regulation

The ability of a tissue to control its own blood supply is called ____.

common iliac

At its inferior end the aorta branches into right and left ____ arteries

circle of willis

The ____ is a complex of arteries on the base of the brain surrounding the pituitary gland

hepatic portal

Intestinal blood enters the inferior side of the liver by way of the _____ vein


The femoral vein is a superior continuation of the popliteal vein


The circumflex arteries around the neck of the humerus represent an arterial anastomosis


The lungs receive both pulmonary and a systemic blood supply


A stroke is also know as a transient ischemic attack


All capillaries reabsorb about the same amount of fluid as they release


The only force favoring capillary reabsorption is the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood


Perfusion of the digestive tract drops during heavy exercise


Blood cannot get from an artery into a vein without passing through at least on capillary bed


Distributing arteries are larger than resistance arteries


The inferior vena cava has one-way valves that ensure that upward flow of blood toward the heart


Blood cannot flow from point A to point B in a vessel unless the pressure is higher at A than at B

s (superficial palmar arch)

Semicircular artery that gives rise to the digital arteries of the hand

e (phrenic artery)

Artery that supplies the diaphragm

a (portal system)

Route in which blood flows through two capillary beds in series before returning to the heart

f (renin)

The hormone is a strong vasoconstrictor

b (vasa vasorum)

Small blood vessels that perfuse the larger blood vessels

d (angiogenesis)

The growth of new blood vessels to better perfuse a tissue

i (venous pooling shock)

Category that includes neurogenic and anaphylactic shock

p (peripheral resistance)

A function of blood viscosity vessel length and vessel radius

n (oncotic pressure)

Promotes the upward flow of blood in the inferior vena cava

k (vasomotor center)

Origin of sympathetic control over blood vessel diameter


To get from the subclavian artery to the brachial artery blood must flow through
a. the axillary artery
b. the deep brachial artery
c. the brachiocephalic artery
d. the ulnar artery
e. the radial artery


The human body has only one ____ but has two of each of the rest of these vessels
a. median cubital vein
b. brachiocephalic artery
c. brachiocephalic vein
d. common iliac vein
e. anterior communicating artery


The human body has only one ____ but has two of each of the rest of these vessels
a. inferior phrenic artery
b. superior mesenteric artery
c. gastroepiploic artery
d. femoral artery
e. plantar arch


The muscles between the ribs are supplied by the anterior and posterior
a. subclavian arteries
b. phrenic arteries
c. thoracic arteries
d. thoracoacromial arteries
e. intercostal arteries


Most blood from the brain flows down the internal jugular veins and then into
a. the external jugular veins
b. the vertebral veins
c. the superior vena cava
d. the subclavian veins
e. the brachiocephalic veins


How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart
a. none
b. one
c. two
d. four
e. six


The anterior and posterior communicating arteries are found in
a. the neck
b. the arterial circle (or the circle of Willis)
c. branches of the celiac trunk
d. the forearm
e. the azygos-hemiazygos system


The major deep veins of the forearm are the ___ on the medial side and the ____ on the lateral side respectively
a. cephalic... basilic
b. basilic ... cephalic
c. ulnar ... radial
d. radial ... ulnar
e. brachial .... axillary


The posterior intercostal veins on the right side of the thoracic cage empty into
a. the azygos
b. the hemiazygos vein
c. the inferior vena cava
d. the superior vena cava
e. the subclavian veins


Near the elbow, the brachial artery branches and gives rise to
a. radial and ulnar arteries
b. the deep brachial and radial recurrent arteries
c. the radial and radial recurrent arteries
d. the radial and anterior interosseous arteries
e. the ulnar artery and ulnar recurrent artery


In humans there is no such thing as
a. a right common carotid artery
b. a left brachiocephalic artery
c. a left brachiocephalic vein
d. a right subclavian vein
e. a right brachiocephalic artery


Immediately lateral to the eyebrow you can palpate the pulse of
a. the external carotid artery
b. the ophthalmic artery
c. the hemiazygos artery
d. the facial artery
e. the superficial temporal artery


Which of these is not below the knee
a. the medial plantar artery
b. the obturator artery
c. the small saphenous vein
d. the anterior tibial vein
e. the dorsalis pedis artery


The two internal carotid arteries unite on the base of the brain to form
a. the common carotid artery
b. the posterior communicating artery
c. the Willis artery
d. the obturator artery
e. the basilar artery


Veins are called ____ vessels because they can hold a large amount of blood
a. capacitance
b. resistance
c. storage
d. compliance
e. hemodynamic


A weakened vessel that bulges during systole is called
a. an atheroma
b. an aneurysm
c. a hematoma
d. a varicose vein
e. an embolism


Blood flow is directly proportional to
a. blood viscosity
b. vessel length
c. vessel radius
d. erythrocyte count
e. peripheral resistance


In a puncture of the dural sinus there is great danger of blocking cardiac output because of a (an)
a. aneurism
b. air embolism
c. hypertensive event
d. transcytosis
e. varicose vein


Excessive fluid loss by perspiration or hemorrhage is most likely to cause ____ shock
a. anaphylactic
b. cardiac
c. neurogenic
d. obstructed venous return
e. hypovolemic


Inadequate pumping activity of the heart is likely to cause
a. neurogenic shock
b. venous pooling shock
c. obstructed venous return shock
d. cardiogenic shock
e. anaphylactic shock


At any given moment most of the body blood is in
a. the veins
b. the arteries
c. the heart
d. the capillaries
e. the lungs


Peripheral resistance is directly proportional to
a. blood viscosity
b. vessel diameter
c. cardiac preload
d. systolic contraction force
e. pulse pressure


Blood flow will decrease if
a. vessel radius increases
b. viscosity increases
c. pi increases
d. pressure increases
e. afterload increases


Water enters the blood capillaries by means of
a. filtration
b. active transport
c. osmosis
d. pinocytosis
e. facilitated diffusion


The medullary ischemic reflex results in
a. increased circulation to the brain
b. reduced circulation to the brain
c. ischemia of the medulla oblongata
d. increased circulation to the adrenal medulla
e. hormone secretion by the adrenal medulla when perfusion drops


Blood solutes can pass through the walls of continuous capillaries by passing through either the endothelial
a. the thoroughfare channels
b. the intercellular clefts
c. the filtration pores
d. the sinusoids
e. the fenestrations


According to the principle of ______ blood near the middle of an artery flows faster than blood near its wall just as water flows faster in the middle of a river than it does near shore
a. laminar flow
b. Poiseuille's law
c. capacitance
d. autoregulation
e. Harvey's law


In autoregulation all of the following chemicals tend to increase blood flow except
a. nitric oxide
b. carbon dioxide
c. thromboxane A2
d. histamine
e. lactic acid

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