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Global 2 final
Terms in this set (55)
Who were the leaders of the Scientific Revolution?
Galileo, Copernicus and Issac Newton
Copernicus & Galileo figured out that the earth was NOT the center of the universe (not geocentric), that sun was at the center of the universe (heliocentric)
What were their ideas and what did they challenge
Use reasoning and logic, conducted experiments, and they all challenged the church and argued to use reason and logic - Don't Rely on God!
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
Earth is the center of the universe and everything revolves around it
What were the Enlightenments major ideas
John locke :
- People had natural rights-life, liberty(freedom),
- Consent (permission) of the governed (people had
the right to say "yes we want this")
- Government and citizens should sign a social
-People could elect (vote) and overthrow (get rid of)
-Limited government - limited control over citizens
- Separation of Powers - 3 Branches of Government
- Prevent tyranny/corruption by acting as a CHECK on
POWER - CHECKS & BALANCES
What did the Enlightenment challenge
Political systems/ government: Absolutism
Traditional ideas: similar to the Scientific Revolution
Which rulers changed/reformed their methods following the Age of Enlightenment?
● Catherine the Great
● Peter the Great
● Frederick II - Frederick the Great
Who were Enlightened Despots?
● Absolute monarchs who used some of the Enlightenment ideas to reform their country
● Gave people more rights
What were the causes of the French Revolution?
● Third Estate (peasants, lower class, commoners) had to pay all
the taxes for the 1st (Clergy-Church leaders) & 2nd (Nobles) who had more land and money.
● Third Estate had no representation in government (no one to
speak up for them) - wanted political power
● Poor people couldn't afford food and had little land
● Citizens had few rights & were treated unfairly (Wanted
Enlightenment Ideas - Natural Rights!!) Wanted DEMOCRACY
● Absolutism (leader who had total power)
Louis XIV (14th) - centralized government to increase control Louis XVI (16th) - beheaded during the Reign of Terror
● Debt from building Palace of Versailles and helping American
Revolution led to increased bread prices and angry Frenchmen
What were the key events and effects of the French Revolution?
● Estates General, Storming of the Bastille, Tennis
Court Oath, Declaration of Rights of Man and Woman and Citizen
● REIGN OF TERROR
Beheading of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette by
Robespierre and the Jacobins
Guillotine - Weapon to Cut heads off
● Restored political stability in France after an
overthrow of the Directory (Weak leadership following Reign of Terror)
● Napoleonic Codes (Laws for all citizens - Achieved
Revolutionary goal of natural rights)
● Napoleon as Emperor (Failed Revolutionary goal of
electing leader/democratic government)
● Taxes for All (Achieved Revolutionary goal of 3rd
Estate splitting taxes with 1st and 2nd)
● Inspired Nationalism/Nationalist feelings
throughout the world
How was Napoleon defeated by Russia during the Napoleonic Wars?
● Size of Russia (very big)
● Climate - freezing winters
● Russians burned all crops (plants) - "Scorched Earth"
What was the goal or purpose of the Congress of Vienna?
● To balance the power between countries so that no one country had more power than others
● Restore (bring back) monarchies (leadership) in power before Napoleonic
Who were the important leaders of Latin Independence movements?
● Toussaint L'ouverture - Haitian Revolutionary Leader - Fought against France
● Jose de San Martin & Miguel Hidalgo - Mexico
● Simon Bolivar - Argentina - Failed to unify South America
because of the Andes Mountains acting as a barrier
What inspired/ caused them to fight
● The American and French Revolution
● Limited rights (not enough rights)
● Enlightenment ideas of Natural Rights (John Locke)
● Nationalism - Loyalty/Love/Pride for Country/Culture
What are the possible impacts/effects of nationalism ( pride for your country/ culture )
● United/Unify groups of people (small states become countries - unification)
● Italy Unified by Garibaldi, Mazzini, Cavour and Emmanuel II
● Germany Unified by Otto von Bismarck (Blood and Iron Speech) & King Wilhelm I
● Cause conflicts (large countries/empires have different ethnic groups that want independence) o Serbian Nationalists vs. Austria-Hungary - (WWI)
How did the Agricultural Revolution impact society. Think farming revolution
● More food = More people born (increase life expectancy-people lived longer, and birth rates)
● Caused the Industrial Revolution & urbanization - farmers forced to move into cities
o workers were displaced/no longer needed on farms due to new farming technology like the seed drill/crop rotations
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain?
● Had an adequate (surplus/extra) food supply
● Close to water which generated (made) electricity for factories
● Natural Harbors/Ports for trading
● Britain had the money/capital for factories
● Britain had an energy revolution because of an abundant amount of natural resources (steam power & coal, iron-ore)
● Britain had an available work force following the Agricultural Revolution
What are Capitalist ideas
● People can make a lot of money - PRIVATE BUSINESSES - entrepreneurs
● LAISSEZ-FAIRE - no government interference(Little government involvement)
● Supply (how much we make) is based on demand (how much people want)
● Adam Smith-Wrote the Wealth of Nations-Capitalist book - MARKET economy
What are Communist ideas
● No social classes, everyone is equal
● No private property
● Everything belongs to everyone
● Proletariat/Workers must revolt (fight back) to improve society & overthrow capitalist system
Who created Communism?
● Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
● Wrote the Communist Manifesto-Communist book
How did society change during the industrial revolution
● Urbanization -people moving from the countryside (farms) to cities
● Laissez faire economics (government "LAZY", not involved)
● Improved transportation - trains and steamboats using steam engine
● Rise of big business
● Growth of the Middle class
● People's roles changed
● Working Class was poor, lived in slums
● Women and Children Working - Paid Less than Men
● Dangerous working conditions -workplace accidents and deaths
● Low wages (pay) and long hours (16 hour work day)
What reforms ( changes ) were made to improve the problems caused by the industrial revolution
● Unions - Fight for workers' rights to higher wages (pay), shorter hours, and better working conditions
● Outlawed Slavery
● Rights to vote (suffrage) for all citizens
● More schools were set up (public education for all-boys and girls)
● Rise in the standard of living
Why did Irish citizens emigrate or leave Ireland during the 1840s and 1850s?
● Because of the potato famine (no food) - starved to death
Why did Europeans imperialize ( take over ) areas of India, china, and africa?
● Industrial Revolution
● Natural Resources to produce manufactured goods at home in factories
● New Markets to sell manufactured goods (large populations in India & China)
● Social Darwinism - Survival of the fittest - Ethnocentrism - Racism - White > Colored
● Christianity - Educate/Save Savages
What were the effects of Imperialism
● European nations controlled regions in Africa and Asia
because of their superior/stronger military
● British colony created after British East India Company traded with Mughals,
● Controlled by telecommunication systems & railroads
● Sepoy Mutiny - attempted to remove foreign/imperial influence
● Opium War caused China to become sphere of Influence for many industrial nations
● Boxer/Taiping rebellion - remove foreign/imperial influence
● Berlin Conference - Africa divided by European nations with no regard to African culture
● Suez canal built as strategic location between Africa and Middle East/Asia - Europeans used Suez Canal for faster access to colonies
● Meiji Restoration - caused by American Commodore Matthew
Perry - removed the Tokugawa Shogunate
● Became modernized and industrialized - controlled Asian
countries like China and Korea
● Satisfied imperialist goals - NEEDED RUBBER & OIL NATURAL
What were the causes of World War 1
M - A - N - I - A
● M - Militarism - increase size and strength of military
● A - Alliances - Germany defends ally Austria-Hungary, forces France and England to defend their allies of Russia and Serbia
● N - Nationalism - Pride/loyalty in country - Serbian nationalists kill Austria-Hungary's leader
● I - Imperialism - Nations compete and fight for colonies around the world
● A - Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand - Balkans aka "the powder keg of Europe" - IMMEDIATE CAUSE/SPARK that
started World War I - Germans joined Austria Hungary in
declaring war against Russia, Serbia, Britain, and France.
What new warfare was introduced during WWI?
● Chemical Weapons - biological weapons like poison and mustard gas
● Machine Guns led to Trench Warfare
● Trench Warfare - Trenches dug to avoid open fire
How did WWI end
● Treaty of Versailles - Germany harshly punished
● Germany accepts blame
● Germany pays reparations, damages from World War I
● Germany reduces military size
● Germany loses land
● Treaty Causes Rise of Fascist Germany, Hitler & WorId War II
What caused the Russia/Bolshevik Revolution
● Bloody Sunday - Czar (leader) killed innocent Russians
● Bolsheviks promising land to the poor/peasants
● Vladimir Lenin promising "PEACE, LAND, AND BREAD"
● Losing Russo-Japanese War - weak military
● Economic differences between social classes
● Failures of WWI
What were the effects of the Russian Revolution
● Lenin's Communist Russia - First communist Government EVER!!
● Command Economy - Businesses TOLD what products to buy/sell
● Government Controlled Businesses
● New Economic Policy - Allowed some elements of Capitalism
How did Joseph Stalin rule the Soviet Union
● Totalitarian Regime
● Killed political opponents
● Censored citizens
● Secret Police - TERROR
● 5 Year Plan - Increase Agricultural and Industrial Output (HEAVY INDUSTRY)
● Collectivization - widespread food shortage and forced
famine/starvation in Ukraine.
What caused totalitarianism?
● Economic and Social Problems
like the Great Depression and loss of faith in democracy
What is totalitarianism?
● Citizens gave up freedom for stability (safety)
● Leaders have total control
● State/country was more important than individuals
● Censorship, arrests, secret police force
● Denied basic human rights
● Adolf Hitler in Germany
● Benito Mussolini in Italy
How did Hitler cause WWII
● Policy of Appeasement - AVOID CONFLICT by giving into demands Britain and France gave Hitler land in exchange for peace
● Europeans promised to fight Hitler if he invaded Poland
● Hitler invaded Poland causing/starting World War II
How did the Russians defeat Hitler
● Russia's large size
● Russia's harsh winters/climate
● Same result as Napoleon invading Russia
What was the Holocaust?
● European and German Jews used as an excuse/scapegoat for German struggles after World War I
● Genocide - Planned extinction/killing of European Jewish population by the Nazi's
● 3 Step Process of Holocaust:
1) Take Rights Away - Nuremberg Laws
2) Isolate from Society - Ghettos & Concentration Camps
3) The Final Solution - Extermination Camps - Gas chambers, Shooting Squads, Death Marches
What were the effects of WWII
● European domination decreased
● Nationalism in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East led to decolonization (colonies gaining independence)
● Nuremberg Trials - German officials punished for human rights violations
● Cold War
o Russia/U.S.S.R./Soviet Union vs. U.S.A.
What were Cold War policies and events
● Capitalism - U.S. and NATO vs. Communism - USSR (Russia) and Warsaw Pact
● U.S. Marshall Plan & Truman Doctrine - Support Countries with $ to prevent spread of Communism - CONTAINMENT
● USSR used military pressure to create Communist governments in Eastern Europe
● U.S. and Soviet Union (USSR) avoided war to prevent global
nuclear destruction (no nuclear bombs)
● Arms Race (weapons), Space Race (NASA wins)
● Berlin Wall - Divided Communist and Democratic Berlin
● Korean War (North and South Korea divided at 38th Parallel
● Vietnam War (Communist Vietnam unified N+S- Ho Chi Minh)
● Cuban and Nicaraguan Communist Revolutions - Fidel Castro in Cuba
● Cuban Missile Crisis
How did communism collapse
● High costs during Cold War
● Russian failures in Afghanistan
● Gorbachev - Glasnost & Perestroika - Policies to make Russia more democratic and capitalist - Remove/Reduce Communist ideas
● Fall of the Berlin Wall = END OF COLD WAR!!
Why did Indians want independence?
● British controlled Indian business & mistreated Indians
● The British were making money while Indians were suffering
poverty and a loss of culture
● Desire to remove foreign/European imperialism
How did Gandhi and Indians gain their independence
● Indian National Congress & Muslim League - nationalist organizations with the goal of gaining Indian independence
● Gandhi - Passive Resistance and Civil Disobedience
(Non-violence and breaking unfair/unjust laws peacefully)
● Gandhi - Salt March & homespun movement - boycott Salt Tax & boycott buying British clothes (wear traditional Indian clothing)
What were the effects of Indian independence
● India and Pakistan divided (partitioned) - India for Hindus and Pakistan for Muslims
o Muslims feared Hindu domination
o Indians murdered moving to new areas
● Border disputes for India with Pakistan and China
● India vs. Pakistan conflict over Kashmir - border between nations
● Nuclear weapons remain an issue
Why did Africans want independence
● European nations weakened after World War II - decline of empires
● Human rights violations - limited rights as colonies
● Desire to remove foreign/European imperialism
How did African nations gain their independence
● Strong leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah, and Kenneth Kaunda
● Nationalist movements
● Mau Mau in Kenya - rebelled against colonial power
What struggles were Africans faced with after gaining its independence?
● Clashes/Fights with traditional tribes
● Islamic fundamentalism (traditional Muslim ideas) vs.
Modernization (Western ideas)
● Ethnic/tribal differences or traditions
What was the policy of Apartheid in South Africa
● Apartheid was a series of laws
that segregated and discriminated against the majority black population of South Africa.
● This policy was started and upheld by the minority white population who held all governmental power.
Some policies were:
● Pass laws - passes wereneeded to travel from black to white areas
● The Race Classification Act. Every citizen suspected of not being European was classified according to race.
● The Mixed Marriages Act. It prohibited marriage between people of different races.
● Homelands and Forced Migration - Forced people of certain races into living in designated areas.
How did Nelson Mandela help South Africa remove Apartheid?
● African National Congress - goal was to rule as majority political party
● Mandela first practiced peaceful protests and civil disobedience but later began violent protests.
● Mandela was imprisoned for fighting against Apartheid
● Nations boycotted/did not buy economic goods from South
Africa when Mandela was in jail
- ECONOMIC SANCTIONS placed
on South Africa
● Mandela was elected President following his release from
prison and Apartheid laws were repealed/removed.
What caused the Chinese Communist Revolution?
● They wanted to eliminate democratic ideas
● Peasants supported Communism - promised land and power to peasants
● Mao Zedong leading the Communist Chinese Revolutionaries ● Long March - Mao escaping anti-Communist Chinese
How did Mao Zedong lead Communist China?
● The Great Leap Forward - increase industrial productivity - heavy industry
● Marxism - communes & collectivization
● No religion - religions compete for loyalty
● Cultural Revolution - Remove anti-communist ideas and
What were the policies of Deng Xiaoping's Communist China?
● Four Modernizations - increase industrial, agricultural, defense, and science/tech productivity
● Tiananmen Square Massacre - Government oppression (brutal control) of citizens continued
● Not a democratic government
How did the Middle East change following World War II
● Zionism - Belief in a Jewish Homeland - Israel created & given to Jewish followers
● Israeli Jews vs. Palestinian Muslims
● Palestinians want to establish a homeland
● Arab nationalism vs. Jewish nationalism
● Camp David Accords - peace treaty between Israel and
● Saddam Hussein - Iraqi Dictator - Persian Gulf War vs. United States
● Oil/Petroleum is an important resource in the Middle East!!
● OPEC created to regulate/control oil prices
how did Kemal Ataturk change turkey?
-Under Ataturk, Friday was no longer a public holiday
-Western legal codes were adopted to replace the form of Sharia law that had been used
- Islamic scholars were forced under state control
- Arabic script was replaced by the Latin alphabet
-European dress was required for both men and women
What caused the Iranian Revolution?
● Failure of the leader, Shah Reza Pahlavi, to meet needs of the people
● Shah supported Western ideas, not Muslim ideas - Viewed as a PUPPET of the West
● Ayatollah Khomeini, leader, who supported Islamic fundamentalism - Sharia law - Muslims wanting to keep traditional beliefs
● Khomeini and traditionalists rejected Western and modern beliefs including increased women's rights
What were the effects of the Iranian revolution
● Iran - FIRST Islamic Republic
● Iran returned to traditional customs/beliefs
● Sharia Law - limited rights for women
● Islamic fundamentalism
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