Terms in this set (109)
Why did European nations use imperialism?
to seize colonies and dominate the local governments and economies in Africa and Asia
one nation takes control over another nation politically, economically, and/or culturally
takes control over foreign dependencies
-in Europe meant that each nation wanted to become the most powerful
-having a lot of overseas colonies showed power
-turned into an all out race for the best and most numerous colonies in Africa and Asia
-(compete for colonies and trade)
Causes- Economic Competition
-the Industrial Revolution led to a huge demand for raw materials so countries could make more factories (produce goods)
-also a huge demand for new overseas markets to sell finished goods
-having numerous colonies in Africa and Asia helped to fuel the Industrial Revolution
Causes- Missionary Spirit
-christian missionaries wanted to convert the "uncivilized" natives in the world by creating churches, schools, and hospitals (ethnocentrism)
-must spread christian beliefs
europeans believed in this idea and that argued that whites were the most evolved and superior race
White Man's Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
-British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism
-wrote it in 1899
-called, "The White Man's Burden: The United States and Philippine Islands"
europeans seize a territory and rule it directly by sending governors to the colony (most restrictive)
local government exists, but europeans make all decisions in order to protect their trade
Sphere of Influence
nations gain exclusive trading rights in territory, dominate all trade, but allow the local government to make all other decisions (least restrictive)
What were the only independent African nations?
Liberia and Ethiopia
Scramble for Africa
- process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers between 1880-1914
-1880, Europeans controlled 10% of Africa
-1913, Europe controlled almost all of Africa, 95% (33 years later)
Barriers to Europeans Exploration
Rainforests, rapids, waterfalls, and sickness prevented Europeans from going to far inland
Three G's vs. Three C's
-God, Gold, Glory
-Christianity, Commerce, Civilization (and curiosity and adventure)
What did medical advancements allow?
Europeans the ability to fight Malaria and yellow fever
Why did Europeans want to go to Africa?
-New trade routes to India and East Asia
-Resources (slaves, gold, salt, ivory, cotton, palm oils, gum)
A light and powerful weapon that fired 11 bullets/sec. that was adopted in 1880s, gave Europeans stronger arsenals that any other in the world (early machine guns)Fƒ
-A ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
-Completed by French company (1869)
Conference of Berlin: Carving up Africa (1855)
-all Europeans nation wanted pieces of Africa
-made an agreement to end slavery and allow for free trade in Africa
-drew lines on map, and decided who would get what parts
"Great African Cake"
everyone at the Berlin Conference got a piece
What were the 4 problems with the Conference of Berlin?
1. Europeans had a new sense of entitlement
2. Act of Berlin legalized the "Scramble for Africa"
3. No asked any Africans to attend it
4. Europe though of Africa as the "Dark Continent", wild exotic and in need of help
What were the political effects of European rule?
the colonial power controlled government at every level ex. France, Germany, Belgium
left traditional rulers in place but colonial office makes overall decisions ex. England
-economic system in which goods or services are paid for through the exchange of a token of an agreed value
-cash crops were more important than food in places
What were the economic effects of European rule?
-new economic patterns (colonies were forced to profitable no matter what)
-more trade routes
-Africans sold their labor, had to leave home for jobs
What were the material effects of European rule?
-new system of transportation and communication
-ex. roads, railroads, telegraphs
Britain had so many colonies it was said that the...
"Sun never set on the British Empire"
India was the most valuable colony and was known as...
"The brightest jewel in the British Crown"
Why was the British East India Trading Company formed?
to trade exotic Asian goods in Europe in America
Where did British East India Trading Company set up trading ports?
in major port cities in India
What was India's Mughal Empire by 1700 like?
it was in decline and small states ruled by a mnarajah were form
What conflicts further weakened India?
Hindus and Muslims
How did the British East India Trading Company make big profits?
creating plantations to harvest tea, coffee, cotton, and opium
Where was opium refined and then smuggled into?
Refined in India
Smuggled into China
How did the opium addiction help British?
it helped the British gain access to Chinese trade, which increase trade
What were the Opium Wars?
conflicts between China and Britain (and others) that resulted in China becoming dominated by foreigners
From 1750 to 1850 British East India Trading Company did what?
co-ruled most of India with little interference from Britain
Indian Soliders who were hired to protect British trade and territories
What were the rumors spread about the sepoy's guns?
that the gun cartriges supplies by the British were greased with pork and beef fat
What did the Hindu and Muslim sepoys do?
How long did the Sepoy Mutiny last?
over 1 year, the British government had to send troops to help British East India Trading Company
What did the British government do in 1858?
they took control from British East India Trading Company and ruled India directly, British rule was called the Raj and last until Queen Victoria
What were some of the improvements the British government made in India?
What were some of the negative effects the British government made in India?
-further divided social classes
-increased hostility between Muslims and Hindus
What did the British emphasis on cash-crop plantations lead to?
led to food shortages and famine in India (7 million Indians dies due to starvation in 1876)
What did the Dutch do in Southeast Asia?
-Dutch East India Co. gained control of East Indies in 1600s
-Dutch profited from rubber, tin, oil, resources, cash crops
What did France do in Southeast Asia?
-France seized control of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
-French profited from rice plantations
How many Indian soldiers were involved during WW1?
more than 1.3 million and 43,000 died
What did WW1 increase calls for?
What was the Quit India Movement?
-Demanded and end to British rule
-organized by the All-India Congress Committee and Gandhi
What was Gandhi's salt march?
-it was illegal for Indians to make salt, and they were forced to buy expensive British salt
-salt is needed in Indian food culture
-Gandhi led a march to the coast to symbolically create salt from ocean water
How is salt made?
you boil salt water until all the water is evaporates and then you are left with salt
When was Pakistan formed and why?
In 1947 after India gave independence, it was formed in order to give the Muslim minority their own land/ state
What was the immediate consequence of the forming of Pakistan?
massive migration of Hindus and Muslims into areas where they would be the majority
Why was there a split with Pakistan?
-tension between Muslim league and the mostly Hindu Indian National Congress
-British encouraged the conflict wen they were still colonizing power (they thought it would weaken calls for independence)
-some Hindus saw Muslims a foreign conquerers
Relating to Pakistan what broke out in 1946 and what were people afraid of?
-rioting broke out between Hindus and Muslims
-people were afraid of civil war
What did British Parliament pass in 1947 relating to Pakistan?
passed an independence act
What did the British Parliament act do?
Ended British rule in India and spilt Indian subcontinent into 2 nations under the direction of Lord Moutbatth, Muhammad Ali Jihnah, and Jawaharia Nehru (Partition Plan)
Where did Hindu dominate? Who was the Prime Minister?
India and Jawahrial Nehru
Where did Muslim dominate? Who was the governor general?
Pakistan and Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Who was China imperialized by?
How was China imperialized?
a treaty was signed that gave Britain trade control
What were the positive effects of imperialism in China?
industrialization and many more trading ports
What were the negative effects of imperialism in China?
opium wars which benefitted Britain
What are the modern day evidence of imperialism in China?
Boxer revolution by the Chinese people against the Chinese government and foreign governments, and the country is bilingual, and culture is messed up
Who was the Belgian Congo imperialized by?
Why did Belgium imperialized Belgian Congo?
to carry out the White Man's Burden and spread christianity
What were positives of Belgian Congo being imperialized?
gaining of independence from Belgium, palm oil and cotton, and education
What were negative of Belgian Congo being imperialized?destruction of culture and segregation
destruction of culture and segregation, starvation
What is modern evidence of imperialism in Belgian Congo?
people living in poverty because Belgium took the money and they speak French
Who was Egypt imperialized by?
textiles, cotton, formal government, fixed economy, established trade
What were negatives of imperialism in Egypt?
loss of culture and heritage
What is modern examples of imperialism in Egypt?
religion and language
religion and language and pop culture
Who was Hawaii imperialized by?
How was Hawaii imperialized?
treaty of annexation
What were positives of imperialism in Hawaii?
gained resources, opportunity to be apart of a democracy
What were negatives of imperialism in Hawaii?
wiped away culture and no more monarchy
What are modern evidence of imperialism in Hawaii?
US naval base and boosted economy through tourism
How was Japan imperialized?
treaty of kanagawa
Who was Japan imperialized by?
What did the treaty of kanagawa do in Japan?
allowed US army to have ports out of Japan to replenish resourced but did not ensure trade
What were positive effects of imperialism in Japan?
westernization and industrialization
What were negative effects of imperialism in Japan?
cultural diffusion like in food and influences in government
What is modern evidence of imperialism in Japan?
womens rights, food, government, industrialization
Who imperialized Philippines?
How as the Philippines imperialized?
treaty of Paris lead to the US gaining control
What were positive effects of imperialism in the Philippines?
americans instituted schools and provided protection from other countries
What were negative effects of imperialism in the Philippines?
How is imperialism shown in the Philippines today?
language and country wide school system
Who imperialized Rwanda?
Germany and Belgium
What are positive effects of imperialism in Rwanda?
trade routes, global exposure
What are negative effects of imperialism in Rwanda?
rights were taken away, political power was taken away, tension between cultural groups, did not have many resources
How is imperialism shown in Rwanda today?
Who imperialized South Africa?
Dutch and British
What were positive effects of imperialism in South Africa?
advances in agriculture, education, mining
What were negative effects of imperialism in South Africa?
racial discrimination and economy exploitation
How is imperialism shown in South Africa today?
education like Britain, economic exploitation still present, language has decreased, spices have changed
Who imperialized Vietnam?
How was Vietnam imperialized?
What were positive effects of Imperialism in Vietnam?
What were negative effects of Imperialism in Vietnam?
french governed them, split into three sections which made it lack culture, and working conditions were poor
How is imperialism shown in Vietnam today?
coffee was brought from France and is now popular in Vietnam and bread was also brought over
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
The rivalry among producers of goods and services for profit. Leads to higher-quality, lower-priced goods and services
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.