284 terms

US History STAAR EOC 11th Grade


Terms in this set (...)

Gilded Age
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics and growing gap between the rich and poor
Technological (Second Industrial) Revolution
based on steel, railroads, electricity, oil-based products
Alexander Graham Bell
He was an American inventor who was responsible for developing the telephone.
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
A device that converts sound into electrical signals that can be transmitted over distances. Invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
Free Enterprise System
An economic system in which people are free to operate their businesses as they see fit, with little government interference.
No government intervention in business.
A business that is owned by many investors.
Bessemer Process
A process for making steel more efficiently, patented in 1856.
Accepting the risk of starting and running a business.
A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller.
Andrew Carnegie
A business man that increased his power through by gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of steel production development.
John Rockefeller
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
Robber Baron
a negative term for business leaders that implied they built their fortunes by stealing from the public
Captain of Industry
business leader who has a positive impact
Giving money to help the poor
Political Machines
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
Political Boss
representative for or head of the political machine; gained votes for their parties by doing favors for people.
Coming to live permanently in a foreign country
Push and Pull Factors
The push factor involves a force which acts to drive people away from a place and the pull factor is what draws them to a new location.
U.S. citizens who opposed immigration because they were suspicious of immigrants and feared losing jobs to them
Ethnic Ghettos
immigrants lived here due to cultural similarities, especially in big cities
Child Labor
Children were viewed as laborers throughout the 19th century. Many children worked on farms, small businesses, mills and factories.
Labor Union
An organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members
times when workers refuse to work until owners improve conditions
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Haymarket Massacre
Was when there was a peaceful protest at the the Haymarket square and a bomb was thrown at the police and the police started shooting at innocent people
AFL (American Federation of Labor)
A labor union created by Samuel Gompers that was the ONLY labor union that only accepted skilled workers
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers
IWW (Industrial Workers of the World)
A labor organization for unskilled workers, formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905. Sometimes called Wobblies
Manifest Destiny
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
Westward Migration
the movement of people to the western and mid-western states to find new opportunities (ex. jobs, land, and gold).
Homestead Act
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Great Plains
A mostly flat and grassy region of western North America
a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country
Klondike Gold Rush
a frenzy of gold rush immigration to and for gold prospecting, along the Klondike River near Dawson City, Yukon, Canada after gold was discovered there in the late 19th century.
Indian Wars
1850 to 1890; series of conflicts between the US Army / settlers and different Native American tribes
areas of federal land set aside for American Indians
Dawes Act
1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans
New Immigration
Immigrants from Southern and Eastern European countries and Asia arriving in the late 1800s
Ellis Island
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
Boss Tweed of Tammany Hall
Leader of the Tammany Hall, New York political machine
A building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Made appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based off candidates performance on an exam
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Progressive Era
time at the turn of the 20th century in which groups sought to reform America economically, socially, and politically
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician (ran for President) who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school
third party political movement to address farmers' plight
Farm Issues
Issues surrounding the production of agricultural products. The main issues were the high cost of transportation (caused railroad monopolies), low prices for farm products (caused by overproduction), and mortgaged farms in order to buy seed and supplies.
Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
cause to acquire and conform to American characteristics. For Native Americans and Immigrants
A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.
Jacob Riis
Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives" exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC
Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Frances Willard
Became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor.
Alfred T. Mahan
Author who argued in 1890 that the economic future of the United States rested on new overseas markets protected by a larger navy. Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
Sanford B. Dole
1894 wealthy, plantation owner and politician who was named President of New Republic of Hawaii. He asked US to annex Hawaii.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States, 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Spanish-American War
Causes of Spanish American War
Yellow journalism, imperialism, Spain brutality to the Cubans, explosion of the USS Maine.
Spanish American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Result of Spanish American War
Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam became territories of the US. US became a World Power
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
Panama Canal
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Dollar Diplomacy
Foreign Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First United States law to limit trusts and big business. Said that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.
Interstate Commerce Act
law passed to regulate (by the government) railroad and other interstate businesses.
Progressive Party
Also known as the "Bull Moose Party," this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912.
Initiative, Referendum, Recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
Upton Sinclair
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
National Forest Service
Government agency created by Theodore Roosevelt to preserve land and protect local animal species.
Pure Food and Drug Act
the act that prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure of falsely labeled food and drugs
Federal Reserve Act
a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
16th Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
17th Amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Susan B. Anthony
Key leader of woman suffrage movement, social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Supreme court case that ruled that separate-but-equal facilities for blacks and whites did not violate the constitution.
W.E.B Du Bois
believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediatly; founded the NAACP
Ida B.Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
Causes of WWI
1. A system of alliances divide Europe into two parts 2. Nationalism was very prevalent in the countries of Europe 3. Militarism or reliance on military strength 4. Imperialism and the conquering of countries in Asia, South America, and Africa 5. The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand by the Black Hand
Date: WWI
US Entry in WWI
-1915: Lusitania sunk by Germans (killed 125 Americans) -President Wilson sent ultimatum to Germans (you don't change your ways with subs, we're your enemies) -Germans did change, but reverted back to their ways in 1917 -Zimmerman telegram (created by Germans to provoke a war between Mexico and US to distract them) in 1917 was the trigger, then US declared war on Germany
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
Trench Warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
General John J. Pershing
General of the American Expeditionary Force in WWI
Battle of Argonne Forest
1 million American soldiers fought in the final Allied offensive. Heavy German fire killed more than 100,000 Americans, but in the end, the Allies were victorious.
Alvin York
killed 25 machine-gunners and captured 132 German soldiers when his soldiers took cover; won Congressional Medal of Freedom
WWI Technology
airplanes, poisonous gas, tanks, machine guns, zeppelins, flamethrowers, barbed wire, submarines
Fourteen Points
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Sedition Act
1918 law that made it illegal to criticize the government
Women in WWI
Nurses, cooked meals for soldiers, work in factories, made clothes for soldiers, and made hospital supplies
A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
Red Scare
A social/political movement designed to prevent a socialist/communist/radical movement in this country by finding "radicals" incarcerating them, deporting them, and subverting their activities
Palmer Raids
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities.
Social Darwinism
19th century of belief that evolutionary ideas theorized by Charles Darwin could be applied to society.
Emphasized that human inequalities were inherited and warned against breeding the "inferior"
Race Riots
Migration of African Americans to Northern cities increased racial tensions, which led to violence in many cities. Conditions were no better in the South than in the North.
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. Revived in the 1920s
Marcus Garvey
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa
American Indian Citizenship Act
law granted immediate U.S. citizenship to all Native American Indians born in the United States.
Roaring Twenties
Nickname for the 1920s becasue of the booming economy and fast pace of life during that era
Return to Normalcy
After World War I 1919-20s, when Harding was President, the US and Britain returned to isolationism. The US economy "boomed"; but Europe continued to struggle. It was the calm before the bigger storm hit: World War II
Henry Ford
American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Assembly Line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Glenn Curtiss
Was an American aviation pioneer and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation.
Consumer Credit
a type of credit granted by retailers that is used by individuals or families for satisfaction of their own wants
A style of dance music popular in the 1920s
Harlem Renaissance
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new
"liberated" woman of the 1920s.
The Great Gatsby
A novel depicting the picturesque idea of the self made American man and entrepreneur who rose from obscurity. was written by F. Scott Fitzgerald.
Scopes Monkey Trial
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
Clarence Darrow
A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible.
Tin Pan Alley
is the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 1800's and early 1900's.
Charles Lindbergh
completed the first non- stop solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean, traveling from New York to Paris
Causes of Great Depression
Higher US tariffs, Overproduction of food, buying on margin, market speculation, stock market crash, bank failures
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress
Great Depression begins/Stock Market Crash
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
President Harding
This president promised a "return to normalcy" when he was elected. His administration was full of scandal and corruption, including the Teapot Dome scandal.
Teapot Dome
Scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money
President Coolidge
He became president after Harding died in office. He fired those involved in the scandals; increased government support of business and encouraged a continuation and expansion of Harding's policies.
President Hoover
the president who was in office when the depression started. He believed that if the government got involved it would only make the depression worse.
Franklin Roosevelt
Established the civilian conservation Corps, which employed more than 175,000 men to plant trees, make paths and roads in national parks and forests, build dams to control flooding, and perform other activities to protect natural resources.
New Deal
A plan by President Franklin Roosevelt intended to bring economic relief, recovery, and reforms to the country after the Great Depression.
Security and Exchange Commission (SEC)
serve as a govt watchdog over the nations stock markets
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
provide govt insurance for bank deposits up to a certain amount
Social Security Administration (SSA)
A branch of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services which provides benefits for retirement, survivors. insurance, disability, health insurance, and death.
Work Progress Administration (WPA)
Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Court Packing
Attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's wife. Traveled, spoke and wrote for new deal; reshaped First Lady's role. Also fought for civil rights
Hideki Tojo
Invaded China in 1937. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy. He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia and joined Germany in World War II.
Adolf Hitler
Austrian born Dictator of Germany, invaded Rhineland, Austria and Czechoslovakia. led during WWII and instituted the final solution (holocaust)
British policy that granted Hitler everything he could reasonably want (and more) in order to avoid war.
Lend Lease Act
Law passed after the fall of Britain during WWII; allowed the U.S. to loan munitions to Allies in WWII; kept U.S. boys at home
Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor
The years of World War II, which began with the German invasion of Poland and ended with the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Office of War Information
established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep Americans united behind the war effort.
Victory Gardens
Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort
War Bonds
Certificates sold by the United States government to pay for the war.
Rosie the Riviter
name given to a fictitious woman who served as a patriotoc woman who helped the war effort by working in factories.
Executive Order 9066
112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes and businesses
German-Soviet Non Aggression Pact
The non-aggression pact was an agreement between Hitler and Stalin not to attack each other. This allowed for German victories in the west without worries of the east
"Lighting war" typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France.
Concentration Camp Liberation
As Allies advanced, Holocaust came to light; Hitler's racist "final solution"
George Marshall
United States secretary of state during WWII. Formulated a program providing economic aid to European countries after World War II. The Marshall Plan provided massive American economic assistance to help Europe recover from the war.
Dwight Eisenhower
Top Allied commander in Europe supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany. Later 34th president
Omar Bradley
A general of the twentieth century. Bradley commanded the United States ground forces in the liberation of France and the invasion of Germany in World War II.
George Patton
Allied Commander of the Third Army. Was instrumental in winning the Battle of the Bulge. Considered one of the best military commanders in American history.
Vernon J. Baker
Awarded Medal of Honor in 1997 for heroic acts in Italy in 1945
Tuskegee Airmen
all black unit of fighter pilots. trained in Tuskegee Alabama. won many awards for bravery and never lost a single pilot
Japanese Expansion
japanese need of raw materials, show power to larger countries, so the attack other countries
Flying Tigers
American pilots who volunteered to fight for China
Bataan Death March
Japanese forced about 60,000 of americans and philippines to march 100 miles with little food and water, most died or were killed on the way
Battle of Midway
1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific
Island Hopping
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
Atomic Bomb
bomb dropped by an American bomber on Hiroshima and Nagasaki destroying both cities
Manhattan Project
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Douglas MacArthur
army commander in Pacific; at Bataan "I shall return" retook Philippines and led rebuilding after WWII
Chester A Nimitz
navy commander (coral sea, Midway, Solomon Island, Philippine Sea)
Navajo Code Talkers
Native Americans from the Navajo tribe used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not desipher
Harry S. Truman
Succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon his death. Led the country through the last few months of World War II, and made the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Arms Race
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
Communist Revolution in China
a revolution led by Mao Zedong and the Red Guards whose focus was to establish a society in which all people were equal, also called the Cultural Revolution
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Venona Papers
Revealed the identities of several American spies
House Un-American Activities Committee
(HUAC) committee formed in the House of Representatives in the 1930s to investigate radical groups in the United States; it later came to focus on the threat of communism in the United States during World War II and the Cold War
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Space Race
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
Sputnik launched; starts the Space Race
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Berlin Airlift
Airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin.
North Atlantic Trade Agreement (NATO)
International Organization set up in 1949 to provide for the defense of western European countries and the United States from the perceived Soviet threat
Korean War
..., The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
Limited War
A war fought to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
GI Bill
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
Baby Boom
30 million war babies were born between 1942 and 1950.
White Flight
working and middle-class white people move away from racial-minority suburbs or inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs
Sun Belt
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
Areas of living outside the cities where middle-class families went to live to escape the city
Polio Vaccine
(1995) created by Dr. Jonas Salk. worked by introducing killed or weak pieces of the virus to allow body to develop antibodies thus preventing polio
Billy Graham
An Evangelist fundamentalism preacher who gained a wide following in the 1950s with his appearances across the country and overseas during and after the war.
In God we Trust
A phrase that Congress made mandatory on all American currency in 1954, inspired by Eisenhower's patriotic crusade to bring Americans back to God.
Beat Generation
Group of writers of the 1950s, led by Kerouac, focusing on alienation, conformity, and materialism.
13th Amendment
Abolished Slavery
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Mendez vs. Westminster
federal court case that challenged racial segregation in California schools. In its ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into separate "Mexican schools" was unconstitutional
Delgado vs. Bastrop
1948-Parents of Mexican American students in Texas sued on the premise that "Separate but Equal" was created to segregate White and Black student, not Mexican American. The decision stated that segregation was illegal for Mexican American.
Executive Order 9981
President Truman desegregated US military
Sweatt vs. Painter
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.
Hernandez vs. Texas
argued that Pete Hernandez could not get a fair trial because no Mexican Americans were allowed on the jury; supreme court agreed
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
1957 Civil Rights Act
A bipartisan commission established by IKE to investigate if certain citizens were being deprived the right to vote
1964 Civil Rights Act
This act prohibited Discrimination because of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin by employers or labor unions
24th Amendment
Abolishes poll taxes
1965 Voting Rights Act
ended literacy tests and poll taxes; allowed officers to register voters
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
1929-1968. Pivotal leader of the American Civil Rights movement. Non-violent leader, became youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination. Led Montgomery Bus Boycott, helped found Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and led March on Washington in 1963 where he delivered "I have a Dream" speech.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
1957 group founded by Martin Luther King Jr. to fight against segregation using nonviolent means
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Orval Faubus
Arkansas governor who called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Little Rock's Central High School under federal court order.
George Wallace
Racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot
Lester Maddox
This racist restaurant owner closed his restaurant rather than integrate. He eventually became governor and hired more blacks to office than all prior governors combined.
Malcolm X
Black Muslim leader who said Blacks needed to have separate society from whites, but later changed his views. He was assassinated in 1965.
Black Panthers
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Assassination of MLK
April 4, 1968 - MLK shot by James Earl Ray on hotel balcony in Memphis -- rocked nonviolent campaign, resulted in violent riots
League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
Fought to desegregae schools, public facilities, and housing in Southern California and the Southwest; fought for Hispanic rights
Hector P. Garcia
founded the American GI Forum to help minority veterans obtain the same benefits other veterans recieved
Edgewood ISD vs. Kirby
historically established the inequity found in the money available to local schools in Texas
Cesar Chavez
1927-1993. Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers.
Dolores Huerta
taught farmworkers how to become citizens and how to vote; earned more money to buy food and clothing for them; worked with Cesar Chavez to form the National Farm Workers Association
Chicano Mural Movement
Began in the 1960s in Mexican-American barrios throughout the Southwest. Artists began using the walls of city buildings, housing projects, schools, and churches to depict Mexican-American culture.
Betty Friedan
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique"
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Affirmative Action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
Title IX
-Provision of the Educational Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions recieving federal funds from disciminating against female student
Tinker vs. Des Moines
Supreme Court case that stated that students do not lose their freedom of speech rights in high school. Mary Beth tinker wore black arm bands to protest the Vietnam War.
Wisconsin vs. Yoder
Court decided that Amish families are required to send their kids to school.
Domino Theory
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Gulf of Tokin Resolution
The resolution passed by Congress in 1964 giving President Lyndon Johnson board powers to expand the U.S. role in Vietnam.
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Fall of Saigon
Marked the end of the Vietnam War in April, 1975 when North Vietnamese invaded South Vietnam, forcing all Americans left to flee in disarray as the capitol was taken
26th Amendment
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
1969 Moon Landing
Neil Armstrong was the first man on the moon.
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment, Ford becomes President
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Oil Crisis
Economic crisis of 1973 that occurred when OPEC nations refused to export oil to Western nations
An independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Sam Walton
the most successful discount retailer and the founder of Wal-Mart
Estee Lauder
American beautician and business woman who began her cosmetics business with a face cream designed by her uncle, and then got her products into all leading department stores
Ronald Reagan
1980 and 1984; Republican; reduce reliance on government; Reagonomics: supply-side, laissez-faire, send troops to Grenada, escalated the Cold War: "rollback" of communism, Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars); War on Drugs, Iran-Contra affair, second term-ended cold war (tear down this wall" (Berlin Wall))
Heritage Foundation
conservative american think tank in washington D.C to promote conservative public policies. based the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional american values and a strong national defense.
Sandra Day O'Connor
(b. 1930) Arizona state senator from 1969 to 1974, appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals in 1979. Reagan appointed her to the U.S. Supreme Court, making her the first female Justice of the Supreme Court.
Phylis Schlafly
She is known for her opposition to feministic ideas and for her ongoing campaign against the proposed Equal Rights Amendment.She believed the Equal Rights Amendment was bad because there were obvious differences between men and women that should be recognized .
These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
Iran-Contra Affair
This involved high officials in the Reagan administration secretly selling arms to Iran (in return for the release of Western hostages in the Middle East) and illegally using the proceeds to finance the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
Mikhail Gorbachev
the last General secretary of the Soviet Union. He brought about massive economic, social, and political changes and helped bring an end to both the Soviet Union and the Cold War. His reforms included giving citizens the ability to freely voice their opinions (glasnost) and entirely restructuring the Soviet Union's economy (Perestroika).
Persian Gulf War
(1990 - 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States; coalition emerging victorious.
terrorist attacks that occurred on Sep. 11, 2001, in which 19 militant Islamist men hijacked and crashed 4 commercial aircraft. Two planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, D. C., and the fourth, overtaken by passengers, crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people were killed in the worst case of domestic terrorism in American history.
Patriot Act
This law passed after 9/11 expanded the tools used to fight terrorism and improved communication between law enforcement and intelligence agencies
Afghanistan War
(2001-Present) to find/kill Osama Bin Laden, destroy Al Qaeda, remove the Taliban from power and; help build a nation better for its citizens than what we found
Iraq War
An armed conflict in Iraq that consisted of two phases. an invasion force led by the United States and a phase of fighting, in which an insurgency emerged to oppose coallition forces
1992 Election
Bush vs. Clinton vs. Perot; focus on stagnancy of economy and problems of middle class (Clinton)
Bill Clinton
1992 and 1996; Democrat; Don't Ask Don't Tell policy implemented by Congress, Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, Travelgate controversy; Operation Desert Fox (4 day bombing campaign in Iraq); Scandals: Whitewater controversy, Lewinsky scandal (impeached and acquited), Travelgate controversy, Troopergate; first balanced budget since 1969
2000 Election
This election came down to the state of Florida, between George W. Bush and Al Gore. George Bush won the Presidency by a Supreme Court vote.
Hurricane Katrina
Considered to be the one crisis of the Bush administrations second term and in is inefficiency to deal with the crisis. It destroyed 80% of New Orleans and more than 1300 people died, while the damages were $150 billion.
George W. Bush
2000 and 2004; Republican; 9/11 terrorist attack invade Afghanistan and Iraq; economy: huge tax cuts, 2007-great recession; No Child Left Behind, Medicare prescription drug benefits, Hurricane Katrina disaster
2008 Election
The election was the first in which an African American was elected President, and the first time a Roman Catholic was elected Vice President (Joe Biden, then-U.S. Senator from Delaware).
Barack Obama
2008; Democrat; first African American president of the US, health care bill; Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster; economy: huge stimulus package to combat the great recession, is removing troops from Iraq, strengthened numbers in Afghanistan; repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell; New Start treaty with Russia
Sonia Sotomayor
Appointed by President Obama in 2009, first Hispanic Supreme Court Justice
Oprah Winfrey
Born January 29, 1954. Television host, philanthropist, producer and actress
MLK was assassinated
United States lands on the moon
Cold War Ends
terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and
the Pentagon
Election of first black president

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