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Clinical Laboratory Sciences
64A ch. 19
Terms in this set (71)
True or False; Most of the cholesterol found in the blood comes from the intake of dietary cholesterol.
True or False; The primary use of the cholesterol test is to screen for the presence of coronary heart disease.
True or False; LDL picks up cholesterol from ingested fats and the liver and carries it to the cells.
True or False. The function of glucose in the body is to build and repair tissue.
True or False Insulin is required for normal utilization of glucose in the body.
True or False An abnormally low level of glucose in the body is known as hypoglycemia.
True or False The hemoglobin A1c test measures the average amount of blood glucose over a 3-month period.
True or False An antibody is a substance that is capable of combining with an antigen.
True or False Mononucleosis is transmitted through coughing and sneezing.
True or False Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis include severe fatigue, fever, and sore throat.
True or False The buildup of plaque (due to high cholesterol) on the walls of arteries is known as thrombophlebitis.
True or False . An HDL cholesterol level greater than 50 mg/dL is a risk factor for coronary heart disease.
True or False . The triglyceride test requires that the patient not eat or drink for 12 hours before the test.
True or False . The normal range for a fasting blood sugar is 120 to 160 mg/dL.
True or False The glucose tolerance test is used to assist in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
True or False Before meals, it is recommended that the blood glucose level for a diabetic patient fall between 60 and 80 mg/dL.
True or False The recommended A1c level for a patient with diabetes is 4% to 6%.
True or False The RPR test is a screening test for syphilis.
True or False . The varicella virus causes infectious mononucleosis.
True or False; Serum is required for most blood chemistry tests.
A clumping of blood cells is known as
A substance that is capable of combing with an antigen resulting in an antige-antibody reaction is known as
A substance capable of stimulating the formation of antibodies is known as
The form in which carbohydrate is stored in the body is called
The process of glucose attaching to hemaglobin is known as
A lipoprotein consisting of protein and cholesterol is known as
Compound formed when glucose attaches or glycosylates to the protein in hemoglobin
An abnormally high level of glucose in the blood is termed what
An abnormally low level of glucose in the blood is termed what
A lipoprotein consisting of protein and cholesterol that picks up cholesterol and delivers it to the cells is called what
A complex molecule consisting of protein and a lipid fraction such as cholesterol
What type of specimen is required for most blood chemistry tests?
What is the purpose of quality control?
To ensure that the test results are reliable and valid.
What is the purpose of calibrating a blood chemistry analyzer?
To check the precision of the blood chemistry analyzer.
List two reasons why a control may not fall within its normal range.
Problems or errors exist with the analyzer or the technique used to perform the procedure.
What is cholesterol?
A white, waxy, fatlike substance that is essential for normal functioning of the body.
List the two main sources of cholesterol in the blood.
Most of the cholesterol circulating in the blood is manufactured by the liver; a portion of it comes from an individual's diet (dietary cholesterol).
What is atherosclerosis, and why is it a health risk?
Fatty deposits that build up on the walls of the arteries; the arteries may become occluded, which eventually could lead to a heart attack or stroke.
Why is LDL cholesterol referred to as "bad cholesterol" and HDL referred to as "good cholesterol"?
An excess amount of LDL cholesterol can cause plaque to build up on the arterial walls, resulting in atherosclerosis. HDL cholesterol removes excess cholesterol from the walls of the blood vessels.
What does a total cholesterol test measure?
A combined measurement of the amount of LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol in the blood.
List the ranges for each of the following cholesterol categories:
a. Desirable cholesterol level: Less than 200 mg/dL.
b. Borderline cholesterol level: 200 to 239 mg/dL.
c. High cholesterol level: 240 mg/dL and greater.
At what level is the HDL cholesterol considered a risk factor for coronary heart disease?
Less than 40 mg/dL.
What type of patient preparation is required for a triglyceride test?
Fast for at least 12 hours before collection of the blood specimen.
What is the primary use of the cholesterol test?
To screen for the presence of high blood cholesterol related to coronary heart disease.
What is the purpose of performing a BUN?
To detect kidney disease.
What is the function of glucose in the body?
Glucose is the chief source of energy for the body.
Explain the function of insulin in the body.
Insulin is required for the normal use of glucose.
List the abbreviation for each of the following tests:Fasting blood sugar:
2-hour postprandial blood sugar:
Glucose tolerance test:
b. 2-hour PPBS.
What type of patient preparation is required for a fasting blood sugar?
The patient should not have anything to eat or drink except water for 12 hours preceding the test.
What is the normal range for a fasting blood sugar?
70 to 110 mg/dL.
List two reasons for performing a fasting blood sugar.
To evaluate the progress and regulate treatment of a diabetic and as a routine screening procedure to detect diabetes mellitus.
What type of patient preparation is required for a 2-hour postprandial glucose test?
The patient is required to fast beginning at midnight preceding the test and continuing until breakfast. For breakfast, the patient must consume a prescribed meal containing 100 g of carbohydrates. An alternative to this is to consume a 100-g test-load glucose solution.
Describe the procedure for performing a 2-hour postprandial glucose test.
A blood specimen is collected 2 hours after consumption of the meal or glucose solution.
What is the purpose of the glucose tolerance test?
To assist in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and liver and adrenocortical dysfunction.
What type of patient preparation is required for the glucose tolerance test?
Consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet for 3 days before the test, consisting of 150 g of carbohydrate per day. The patient must be in a fasting state when the test begins.
Describe the procedure for a glucose tolerance test.
On the morning of the test, a blood specimen is drawn from the patient (FBS), and a urine specimen is taken. The patient then consumes a glucose solution, and thereafter blood and urine samples are taken at regular intervals (generally 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes).
Define hypoglycemia, and list three conditions that may cause it to occur.
A condition in which the glucose in the blood is abnormally low; occurs with an overdose of insulin, Addison's disease, bacterial sepsis, carcinoma of the pancreas, hepatic necrosis, or hypothyroidism.
Why is it important for an insulin-dependent diabetic to perform SMBG?
To maintain blood glucose levels as close as possible to reduce symptoms of the disease and delay or prevent long-term complications of diabetes.
What is the ideal insulin testing schedule for SMBG?
Four times a day: in the morning after an 8-hour fast, before lunch, before dinner, and at bedtime.
What type of damage can occur to the body from prolonged high blood glucose levels?
Progressive damage to the body organs resulting in blindness, kidney disease, nerve damage, and circulation problems.
List three advantages of blood glucose monitoring at home.
Convenience of testing; more patient involvement in self-management decisions; reliable decisions regarding insulin dosage; decrease or delay in long-term complications.
What is the recommended blood glucose level for a diabetic during the following times of the day?
a. Before meals: 80 to 120 mg/dL.
b. 1 to 2 hours after meals: 100 to 180 mg/dL.
c. At bedtime: 100 to 140 mg/dL.
What information is provided by a hemoglobin A1c test?
The average amount of glucose in the blood over a 3-month period.
What is the normal hemoglobin A1c range for an individual without diabetes?
4% to 6%.
What is the recommended hemoglobin A1c percentage for an individual with diabetes?
Less than 7%.
What are the storage requirements for blood glucose reagent strips?
In a cool, dry area at room temperature with the cap tightly closed.
What is the definition of serology?
The scientific study of the serum of the blood; more specifically, the study of antigen and antibody reactions.
List three examples of antigens.
Bacteria and viruses, bacterial toxins, allergens, and blood antigens.
What is the purpose of performing each of the following serologic tests?Rheumatoid factor:
ABO and Rh blood typing:
a. To assist in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.
b. To assist in the diagnosis of rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, bacterial endocarditis,and scarlet fever.
c. To assist in diagnosis or charting the progress of rheumatoid arthritis, acute rheumatic fever, widespread malignancy, and bacterial infections.
d. To prevent transfusion and transplant reactions and to identify problems such as hemolytic disease of the newborn.
How is infectious mononucleosis transmitted?
Through saliva by direct oral contact.
What are the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis?
Mental and physical fatigue, fever, sore throat, severe weakness, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
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