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Terms in this set (50)
red blood cells
small biconcave disk, anucleate, no ribosomes, no mitochondria
transport O2 and CO2; conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate
what factors impact ability to transport O2?
size, abundance, and hemoglobin content
decreased O2 carrying capacity
normal-sized red blood cell; normocytic
small red blood cell; microcytic
large red blood cell; macrocytic
how is erythrocyte abundance measured?
red blood cell count, hematocrit
percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells
what does erythrocyte production depend on?
oxygen levels in the kidneys
blood drawn, centrifuge the sample, formed elements seperate
Percentage of Formed Elements in the blood
45% RBCs and <1% WBCs
what does blood doping do?
increases hematocrit; more RBCs in blood makes it easier to carry oxygen
how do people blood dope?
Erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and reinfusion of packed RBCs
minimum hematocrit to donate blood
what protein is most present in erythrocytes?
How is hemoglobin measured?
using a hemoglobinometer; measured in g/dL
structure of hemoglobin
4 globin chains: 2 alpha 2 beta
4 heme with 4 iron within
can carry up to 4 oxygens
2 alpha chains and 2 gamma chains; more efficient at carrying oxygen
stimulates fetal hemoglobin production in adults
disease characterized by lack of enzymes required to complete hemoglobin; can be inherited and acquired
sickle cell anemia
genetic mutation in the beta chain that makes it difficult for RBCs to carry oxygen; heterozygous recessive condition
produces thalessemia beta or thalessemia alpha chains. erythrocyte production is limited and the RBCs are often fragile and short lived
normal colored cells
Less color than normal
more than normal color
production of red blood cells
-1st 8 week of embryonic development=yolk sac
-2nd to 5th months in utero=liver and spleen
-5th month on=red bone marrow
-post natal formation= red bone marrow
Stages of Erythropoiesis
2. Erythroblasts/ Normoblasts
4. Mature Erythrocyte
stem cells that give rise to all the formed elements of the blood
immature red blood cell; produce a majority of hemoglobin
still have ribosomes and mitochondria; leave bone marrow after ~ 2 days
A hormone produced and released by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow.
1. increased cell division
2. increased hemoglobin production
3. faster maturation of RBCs
Other factors impacting erythropoiesis
testosterone and growth hormone; diet- amino acid, vitamin B12, and iron intake
iron deficiency anemia
RBCs are microcytic and hypochromic;
intrinsic factor deficiency makes it difficult to absorb vitamin B12; RBCs are macrocytic and normo-hyperchromic
Old and damaged RBC's are broken down by the spleen; Fe is transported by transferrin to red bone marrow or liver/spleen; porphyrin ring is converted to bilirubin and transported to the liver to be attached to albumins
Erythrocyte Recycling Disorder- Jaundice
hyper bilirubinemia; too much bilirubin in the blood
causes of jaundice
liver dysfunction, obstructive jaundice, neonatal jaundice, transfusion reaction
reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction' caused by transfusion reactions, sickle-cell anemia, severe burns, reactions to certain toxins, some infections
hemoglobin in the urine- can be a side effect of hemolytic anemia because there is an increase of Hb in blood
Results from a loss of blood such as can result from trauma, ulcers, or excessive menstrual bleeding.
based on surface antigens
antigens on the surface of the RBC that is the basis for blood typing
what happens when agglutinogens are exposed to agglutinins?
the RBCs will clump
type A would react with (clump in)
Refers to the presence or absence of the Rh antigen on red blood cells. Denoted as + or -
a hemolytic disorder in which antibodies against the Rh factor cross the placenta from an Rh negative female into the blood of the Rh positive child
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