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62 terms

Medical Terminology - Respiratory System

Pacific College Medical Terminology with Dr. Adriano Borgna L. Ac.
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Nose
It is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration. It also houses the nosehairs, which catch airborne particles and prevent them from reaching the lungs. Within and behind the nose there is the olfactory mucosa and the sinuses.
turbinate
(or nasal concha) is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) which protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose. The turbinates divide the nasal airway into three groove-like air passages -and are responsible for forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface of cilia and climate controlling tissue.
Sinus
A sinus is a sack or cavity in any organ or tissue, or an abnormal cavity or passage caused by the destruction of tissue.
Paranasal sinuses
Paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces, communicating with the nasal cavity, within the bones of the skull and face The paranasal sinuses are joined to the nasal cavity via small orifices called ostia.
Pharynx
The section of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx, where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.
Larynx
Voice box
Epiglottis
The thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue
Trachea
A thin-walled, cartilaginous tube descending from the larynx to the bronchi and carrying air to the lungs. Also called windpipe.
Bronchi
The two main brances of the trachea, leading directly to the lugns.
Bronchiole
The fine, thing-walled, tubular extensions of a bronchus.
Alveoli
A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lung where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Also called air sac.
Mediastinum
The region in mammals between the pleural sacs, containing the heart and all of the thoracic viscera except the lungs.
Diaphragm
A muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities and functioning in respiration. Also called midriff.
Pleura
A thin serous membrane in mammals that envelops each lung and folds back to make a lining for the chest cavity.
Hilum
The area through which ducts, nerves, or blood vessels enter and leave a gland or organ.
bilateral
Both sides
hilar
In the region of the Hilum
Adenopathy
Enlargement of the lymphnodes
Adenoids
One of two masses of lymphoid tissue located at the back of the nose in the upper part of the throat that may obstruct normal breathing and make speech difficult when swollen. Often used in the plural.
Adenoidectomy
Surgical removal of the adenoids
Cilia
Cilia are thin, tail-like projections extending approximately 5 - 10 micrometers outwards from the cell body. There are two types of cilia: motile cilia, which constantly beat in one direction, and non-motile cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles.
Cilium or Flagellum
They have microtubule dependent molecular motors (dynine)
Mucocilliary elevator
Brings the mucus upward so it can be swallowed and digested by the gastric juices
Pulmonary parenchyma
The tissue of the lung performing its function; the alveoli and the small bronchioles
COPD
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
COPD (examples)
Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema
Asthma
A chronic reversible resperatory disease that is characterized by sudden recurring attacks of labored breathing, chest constriction, and coughing. Asthma attack is often triggered by cold, allergies, pollution, emotional factors, and other unidentified factors.
Chronic Bronchitis
Is defined clinically as a persisten cough that produces sputum matter that is coughed up from the respiratory tract, for at least three months in two consecutive years.
Emphisema
A pathological condition of the lungs marked by an abnormal increase in the size of the air spaces, resulting in labored breathing and an increased susceptibility to infection. It can be caused by irreversable expansion of the alveoli or by the destruction of the alveolar walls.
Emphysima
It is chracterized by loss of elasticity of the lung tissue, destruction of structures supporting the alveoli, and destruction of capillaries feeding the alveoli. The result is that the small airwars collapse during expiration, leading to an obstructive form of lung disease (airflow is impeded and air is generally "trapped" in the lungs in obstructive lung diseases).
Pneumothorax
is collection of air or gas in the sapce surrounding the lung
Atelectasis
(1) Total or partial collapse of the lung. (2) A congenital condition characterized by the incomplete expansion of the lungs at birth.
-pnea
breathing
Apnea
cessation of breathing
Dyspnea
difficulty breathing
Hyperpnea
increase in the depth of breathing
Bradypnea
slow breathing
Tachypnea
fast breathing
Prthopnea
difficulty breathing when lying down
Phon/o
voice
Dysphonia
hoarsness
Aphonia
loss of voice
Rhin/o
Nose
Rhinorrhea
liquid discharge through the nose
Rhinoplasty
aesthetic surgery of the nose
Aestetic
Gk. /aisthetikos/ "sensitive," from /aisthanesthai/ "to perceive, to feel,"
-esthesia
sensation
Anesthesia
no sensation
Paraesthesia
abnormal sensation
Hypoesthesia
low sensation
Hyperesthesia
increased sensation
Pulmonary
belongs to the lungs
Pulmonaryabscess
a large collection of pus in the lungs
Pulmonaryedema
swelling and fluids in the air sacs and bronchioles
Pulmonaryembolism (PE)
clot or other material lodged in the vessels (arteries of the lung)
Pulmonaryfibrosis
scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lung
Sarcoidosis
Chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules or tubercules develop in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.
Mesothelioma
A usually malignant tumor of mesothelial tissue, especially that of pleura or peritoneum.
Pleural effusion
The seeping of serous, purulent, or bloody fluid into a body cavity or tissue
Rale
An abnormal respiratory sound characterized by fine crackles
Ronchi
Course rattlin sound somewhat like snoring, usually caused by secretion in a bronchial airway
Wheezing
A continuous, course, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.