Transport in plants
Biology unit 6 - Plants; organs; water transport; sucrose loading
Terms in this set (51)
All living plant cells need oxygen for respiration. Cells that are actively photosynthesising produce more than enough oxygen for their needs. Cells that are not photosynthesising have to take in oxygen from their environment, but they do not respire at such a high rate as mammals and so they do not need such a rapid oxygen supply.
Photosynthesising plant cells need a supply of carbon dioxide during the daylight. They obtain this from the air. aquatic plants get carbon dioxide from the water that surrounds them.
A substance or nutrient that contains carbon. Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and vitamins.
Inorganic ions in animals and plants are ions necessary for vital cellular activity.
Root Hair Cell
A root epidermal cell that has a long, thin extension which grows between soil particles and provides a large surface area for the uptake of water and mineral ions.
The outer layer of cells covering an organism, in particular.
A layer of cells lining the surface in an animal.
A dead, empty vessel with lignified walls and no end walls, through which water is transported in a plant.
The vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves.
(of a material or membrane) allowing liquids or gases to pass through it.
A route taken by water as it moves across a plant tissue by passing through the cell walls and the spaces between cells.
A route taken by water as it moves across plant tissue by passing through the cells (by osmosis or connecting strands of cytoplasm called plasmodesmata).
The outer layer of the stele in a plant root.
A band of suberin in the walls of the cells making up the endodermis of plant roots, preventing water from passing between the cells.
A waterproof (waxy) substance that makes up the walls of cells in the endodermis; also in the walls of cork cells.
The central area of the root, containing xylem and phloem tissues.
The area of a stem or root between the surface layers and the centre; it is made up of parenchyma tissue.
A hollow container.
A strong, waterproof substance found in the walls of the xylem vessels.
A long, narrow, empty, dead cell with no end walls and with lignified side walls, through which water travels.
Lignified cell wall thickenings, spiral, annular, reticulate and pitted. (Lignified cellulose wall).
The movement of a bulk liquid, like water flowing in a river.
Part of a xylem element wall in which there is no lignin.
The attractive force that holds water molecules together by hydrogen bonding.
A force that attracts water molecules to a surface, by hydrogen bonding.
The loss of water vapour from a leaf.
A tissue in plant leaves, made up of cells containing chloroplasts, with large air spaces between the cells.
One of the cells in a leaf found just below the upper epidermis; these cells contain many chloroplasts and are the main site of photosynthesis.
Small holes in the epidermis of a leaf, mostly in the lower epidermis, bounded by two guard cells.
The continuous movement of water from soil to air through a plant, brought about by the loss of water vapour from the leaves.
Parenchyma is the most common plant tissue. It is relatively unspecialized and makes up a substantial part of the volume of a herbaceous plant and of the leaves, flowers and the fruits of woody plants. The thin-walled parenchyma cells have large vacuoles and distinct intercellular spaces.
A plant cuticle is a (non-cellular) protective film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm. It consists of lipid and hydrocarbon polymers impregnated with wax, and is synthesized exclusively by the epidermal cells
The measure of how much water vapour is lost is held in the air. In low conditions (dry air) there is a steep water potential gradient between leaf and air. Transpiration rates therefor are greater in low humidity.
Increase in temperature mean an increase in kinetic energy of water molecules - increase in rate of evaporation from the cell walls into air spaces, and also the rate of diffusion of water vapour out of the leaf.
During the daytime light doesn't usually have any effect on the rate of transpiration. Many plants close their stomata at night (dark) so they are unable to photosynthesise, not needing carbon dioxide. In dry conditions it may close its stomata to avoid losing too much water from its leaves.
A plant that has adapted to live in conditions where water is in short supply or difficult to obtain.
An instrument used to measure the rate of uptake of water by a cut stem.
Transport of organic substances made by the plant, such as sucrose, in the phloem tissue.
Substances synthesized by a plant during or following photosynthesis.
A cell found in phloem tissue, with non-thickened cellulose walls, through which sap containing sucrose in transported. the cells have very little cytoplasm, no nucleus and end walls perforated to form sieve plates.
Tissue containing sieve tubes and other cells; it transports substances such as sucrose throughout the plant.
Cells that are closely associated with sieve elements; they have a nucleus and many organelles and provide energy to enable translocation to take place.
The end wall of a sieve element, which has many holes through which water and solutes can pass.
The contents of sieve tubes, mostly sucrose and water.
A complex carbohydrate produced by plants to seal wounds in the phloem tissue.
The movement of sucrose into sieve tubes, using active transport, carried out by proteins in the plasma membranes of companion cells.
In plants, an area where sucrose is produced.
In plants, an area where sucrose is used.
Plant cells occurring in pairs in the epidermis, flanking each stoma. Changes inturgor in the guard cells cause the stoma to open and close. A pair of cells found on each side of a stomatal opening, which has properties enabling the contraction and expansion of the stomatal pore.
Plasmodesmata are narrow channels that act as intercellular cytoplasmic bridges to facilitate communication and transport of materials between plant cells. The plasmodesmata serve to connect the symplastic space in the plant and are extremely specialized channels that allow for intercellular movement of water, various nutrients, and other molecules
The pathway similar to the symplast pathway, except rather than being confined to the cytoplasm the water can move through vacuoles as well.