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Terms in this set (67)
A specific course of action taken by government to achieve a public goal.
The informal list of issues that Congress and the president consider most important for
A type of policy that provides benefits to all Americans.
A type of policy that takes benefits (usually through taxes) from one group of
Americans and gives them to another (usually through spending).
The precise legal definition of how government will implement a policy.
A policy-making alliance that involves a very strong ties among a congressional committee,
an interest group, and a Federal Department or agency.
A policy-making alliance among loosely connected participants that comes together on a
particular issue, then disbands.
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling taxing and
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money
supply and thus interest rates.
A rise in the general price level (and decrease in dollar value) owing to an increase in the
volume of money and credit in relation to available goods.
The number of Americans who are out of work but actively looking for a job. The
number does not usually include those who are not looking.
Consumer tax on a specific kind of merchandise, such as tobacco.
The difference between the revenues raised annually from sources of income other than
borrowing and the expenditures of government, including paying the interest on past borrowing.
Tax levied on imports to help protect the nation's industries, labor, or farmers from foreign
competition. It can also be used to raise additional revenue.
A tax graduated so that people with higher incomes pay larger fraction of their income
than people with lower incomes.
A tax whereby people with lower incomes pay a higher fraction of their income than
people with higher incomes
The total amount of money the Federal government has borrowed to finance deficit
spending over the years.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
Presidential staff agency that serves as a clearinghouse
for budgetary requests and management improvements for government agencies.
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
An agency of Congress that analyzes presidential budget
recommendations and estimates the cost of proposed legislation.
General tax on sales transactions, sometimes exempting food and drugs.
Value-added tax (VAT)
A tax on increased value of the product at each stage of production and
distribution rather than just at the point of sale
Loss of tax revenue due to Federal laws that provide special tax incentives or benefits
to individuals or businesses.
A theory that government should control the money supply to encourage economic growth
and restrain inflation.
Federal Reserve System
The system created by Congress in 1913 to establish banking practices and
regulate currency in circulation and the amount of credit available. It consists of 12 regional banks
supervised by the Board of Governors. Often called simply the Fed.
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond
what is necessary to protect life and property.
Economic theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes stating that
government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
An imbalance in international trade in which the value of imports exceeds the value of
World Trade Organization (WTO)
International organization derived from the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade (GATT) that promotes it free trade around the world.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
An international trade organization with more than
130 members, including the United States and the People's Republic of China, that seeks to encourage free
trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement signed by the United States, Canada,
and Mexico in 1992 to form the largest free trade zone in the world.
Policy of erecting trade barriers to protect domestic industry.
The practice of exporting U.S. jobs to lower paid employees in other nations.
Efforts by government to alter the free operation of the market to achieve social goals such
as protecting workers and the environment.
Domination of an industry by a single company; also the company that dominates the
Federal laws (starting with the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890) that try to prevent
a monopoly from dominating an industry and restraining trade.
A monopoly that controls goods and services, often in combinations that reduce competition.
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership is a condition of
A company in which new employees must join a union within a stated time period
A court order forbidding specific individuals or groups from performing certain acts
(such as striking) that the court considers harmful to the rights and property of an employer or community.
Method whereby representatives of the union and employer determine wages,
hours, and other conditions of employment through direct negotiation.
Environmental impact statement
Statement required by Federal law from all agencies for any project
using Federal funds to assess the potential affect of the new construction or development on the
A policy promoting cutbacks in the amount of Federal regulation in specific areas of
Programs that the Federal government requires States to implement without
Programs such as unemployment insurance, disaster relief, or disability payments that
provide benefits to all eligible citizens.
Programs such as Medicaid and welfare under which applicants must meet
eligibility requirements based on need.
Aid to the poor; "welfare."
Programs in which eligibility is based on prior contributions to government, usually in
the form of payroll taxes.
A combination of entitlement programs, paid for by employer and employee taxes, that
includes retirement benefits, health insurance, and support for disabled workers and the children of
deceased or disabled workers.
National Health Insurance program for the elderly and disabled
Federal program that provides medical benefits for low-income persons.
Health maintenance organization (HMO)
Alternative means of health care in which people or their
employers are charged a set amount and the HMO provides health care and covers hospital costs.
Medical savings account
Alternative means of health care in which individuals make tax-deductible
contributions to a special account that can be used to pay medical expenses.
A theory of international relations that focuses on the hope the nations will act together to
solve international problems and promote peace.
A theory of international relations that focuses on the tendency of nations to operate from self-interest.
The desire to avoid international entanglement altogether.
The belief that nations must engage in international problem solving.
A philosophy that encourages individual nations to act on their own when facing threats
from other nations.
A policy adopted by the Bush administration in 2001 that asserts America's right to attack
any nation that has weapons of mass destruction that might be used against U.S. interests at home or
A philosophy that encourages individual nations tacked together to solve international
The reliance on economic and military strength to solve international problems.
The reliance on diplomacy and negotiation to solve international problems.
Theory of deterrence
A theory that is based on creating enough military strength to convince other
nations not to attack first.
Weapons of mass destruction
Biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons that can cause a massive
number of deaths in a single use.
Normal trade relations
Trade status granted as part of an international trade policy that gives a nation
the same favorable trade concessions and tariffs that the best trading partners receive.
National Intelligence Director
The Federal government's primary intelligence officer, responsible for
overseeing all national intelligence agencies and providing advice to the President on terrorist threats.
A policy that emphasizes a united front and cooperation between the major political
parties, especially on sensitive foreign policy issues.
Denial of export, import, or financial relations with the target country in an effort
to change that nation's policies.
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