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Scm fisheries unit final
Terms in this set (28)
What is the issue that has plagued sea stars
Why is eelgrass important?
Protects the shoreline, improves water quality, sustains marine food webs, supports many fish and invertebrate species
Factors leading to eelgrass decline
Changing water depth, salinity, wave velocity, pathogens, grazing, dredging, invasive species, boat propellers
What is being done to help endangered steelhead trout recover?
Reduce physical barriers, monitor human activities and restore habitat, eliminate non native species,
What type of fish make up the bread and butter of Morro bay fisheries?
What are the two main aquaculture operations on our coastline?
Morro bay oyester and cayucos abalone farm
What key thing makes on land recirculating aquaculture so much better than open water systems
No sediment buildup (waste solids)
➢You should be able to describe why on-bottom and off-bottom aquaculture of
oysters and scallops farming is pretty good, environmentally speaking.
• Can use natural substrate or racks/bags/cages that are held above the bottom.
• Do not require feeding!
• Can be farmed without chemicals or antibiotics!
• As filter feeders, they can actually improve the environment by removing excess nitrogen from the water.
You should be able to describe the problems associated with the pond aquaculture of shrimp farming as presented in class and as found on PolyLearn powerpoint slides. Be able to name the two countries mentioned as very large producers of farmed shrimp (see powerpoint slides).
china and Thailand
Mangrove forest and wetlands destruction
Seepage of wastewater into groundwater or rice fields. If groundwater is used for ponds, saltwater intrusion or subsidence may occur. (Don't use groundwater!)
Shrimp pond waste water has lots of suspended solids, nutrients ,and a lack of oxygen. (Use a pond liner!)
The SHRIMP industry has had SEVERE HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES.
what is a demersal fish?
Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (flounder, halibut, hagfish)
what is a pelagic fish?
Pelagic fish live in the pelagic zone of ocean or lake waters - being neither close to the bottom nor near the shore (shark, sunfish, tuna)
what is a benthic fish?
benthic fish also live on the bottom of the sea floor but are lower than demersal fish
what is an abyssal fish?
a deep-sea fish
Be able to describe what a 'Raceway' is and be able to name at least two fish that are commonly farmed in raceways.
A raceway, also known as a flow-through system, is an artificial channel used in aquaculture to culture aquatic organisms. trout, catfish, tilapia.
Be able to name the four countries mentioned in class (and on the power point slide on PolyLearn) that produce an especially large quantity of farmed salmon.
Norway, chile, Canada, Scotland
Be able to describe the major escape of farmed Atlantic salmon in Washington State, specifically: How many escaped (approximately? How does the govt. estimates of the escaped numbers compare to the company's? What did investigators find was the cause of the escape? Why did the escape farmed Atlantic salmon cause such an uproar in Washington state? What was the ultimate effect of the escape on Washington state laws governing the farming of Atlantic salmon?
What? A major escape of farmed Atlantic salmon
How Many? 4000? ..... er..... 160,000 (Cooke Aquaculture) - 260,000
Why? Cooke Aquaculture initially blamed the collapse on strong tides due to a solar eclipse.
Washington State investigators found that Cooke Aquaculture had failed to maintain its nets and that buildup of mussels on the nets caused excessive drag between the water and nets.
In March, 2018, Washington State banned the farming of Atlantic salmon in state waters.
Be able to list the three species of fish that have a huge amount of open-water net-pen aquaculture associated with them (see powerpoint slides)
Salmon, tilapia, tuna
You should be able to list (or at least recognize when shown possibilities) the many problems involved in open-water net-pen salmon aquaculture (see PowerPoint)
Problems due to crowding so many fish in a small area known as 'Floating Feedlots'
This makes them ideal breeding grounds for
parasites like sea lice.
Pesticides are used to control the parasites
The fish are fed or bathed in antibiotics to prevent
The density of excrement that drops from the net causes algal blooms and eutrophication
Problems due to the 'open nature' of the system
Marine mammals are attracted to the pens and are caught in the pen nets or killed by the company.
Parasites get into the natural environment and can infect wild salmon.
Pesticides and antibiotics get into the natural environment.
ESCAPES can mate with or outcompete native salmon (invasive species)
The fish are often fed pellets composed of wild fish, with 1.5 - 8kg of wild fish used to produce 1 kg of farmed salmon.*
These wild fish may be from Southern hemisphere (robbing from the poor to feed the rich)
For tuna, they are actually wild captive fish being fattened, with 15 pounds of food required for each pound of tuna. Many tuna are killed in capture transport.
Know the name of the proposed federal marine sanctuary off our coast. Know whether or not this sanctuary, if established, would impose additional regulations on fishing and whether or not it would prohibit oil drilling.
Chumash heritage national marine sanctuary. would not change fishing but would prohibit oil drilling.
Know the names of our closest MPA (You don't need to know its official name).
Morro bay state marine reserve/rec management area.
Know the names of the two closest FEDERAL marine sanctuaries.
Monterey bay and channel islands national marine sanctuary
Be able to explain the difference between a marine protected area (MPA) and a marine no-take reserve.
Marine Protected Area (MPA)
Some protective regulations. Often allows for multiple uses and may have only very mild or specific restrictions.
protected at the federal (or international) rather than, state/local level. Usually large.
Very high level of protection
Marine 'No-Take' Reserve
Cannot remove animals or plants or do anything
that alters their habitats.
Be able to name the state law that called for the establishment of state- administered 'Marine Protected Areas'. Know the year the law was passed and the state agency that the act names as responsible for carrying out the act's mandates.
1999- marine life protection act
Appointed California Department of Fish and Game to develop and managing a network of MPA's which will contain some 'no-take' zones.
Be able to name the federal law that called for the establishment of federally administered marine sanctuaries. Know the year the law was passed (hint: It's 3 years after the Santa Barbara oil spill!) and the government agency that the act names as responsible for carrying out the act's mandates.
National marine sanctuaries act 1972.
Congress directs the Secretary of Commerce and NOAA to identify, designate, and manage ocean and Great Lake areas of special national significance as national marine sanctuaries
Be able to describe the Seafood Watch Consumer Guide (what is its purpose, what does it look like, how effective is it?)
40% of the fish on the market are ratable
Know the full name of the cap-and-trade system as it applies to fisheries (Hint: Its initials are ITQ)
individual transferable quota. regulates number of fish rather than time
You should be able to explain why government subsidies to the fishing industry can be a bad idea (ie Be able to explain the 'ratchet effect')
Increase fishing effort in productive times Government Subsidies to maintain employment In non-productive times which leads to overfishing
You should know the full name of the main sustainability certification label
('eco-label') for seafood in the U.S. (Hint .... its initials are MSC)
marine stewardship council
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