298 terms

AP Music Theory vocabulary list

From a packet I got in class. It should include pretty much every vocab word you'll ever see on the AP Music Theory exam. Probably has a few spelling mistakes, repeats or misuses of words here or there, but there are 298 of them so bare with me.
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Cadence
Ending of a musical phrase
Cadential extention
Extension of a cadence using the same chords
Coda
Closing musical material, not included in the main idea.
Codetta
A small coda
Contour
Shape of a melody
Countermelody
Melody that is equally important to the main melody; usually provides consonace
Elision
One phrase connecting to the other
Fragment
Part of a motive
Introduction
A preparatory movement, usually in a slow tempo to introduce a larger composition. The term is chiefly applied to Classical and Romantic music, but is not exclusively applicable to those eras.
Bridge
Connects the B and A section
Chorus
A group of people singing a song, usually with multiple parts, together.
The main tune.
Song Form (AABA, ABA, ABA', etc.)
The form a song is in.
Turnaround
Gets you back to the beginning
Twelve-bar blues
I,I,I,I,IV,IV,I,I,V,V,IV,IV,I
Augmentation
When the notes in a melody are increased, generally by half, in value. Antonym: Diminution
Conjunct
Stepwise melodic motion
Diminution
When a melody played in such a way that the time value of every note is shortened, generally halved, in value. Its antonym is ' augmentation'
Disjunct
Melodic motion in intervals larger than a 2nd
Extended version
wat
Fragmentation
When part of the song is broken into parts
Internal expansion
Expands beyond expect phrase length
Inversion, Melodic inversion
When you take one of the upper notes of a chord or interval and take the notes bellow it and put them on top.
Literal Repetition
When sequences are repeated exactly.
Motivic repetition
When the rhythmic theme is changed
Octave displacement
Taking a melodic line and moving the notes to a different octave
Retrograde
Backwards modulation
Rhythmic transformation
rhythm changes
Sequence
pitch and rhythmic pattern, repeated and different pitch levels
Sequential repetition
A sequence that repeats
Shortened version
When a song is shortened
Transposition
Change of key in the entire work
Truncation
To shorten, fragment
Motive
Smallest musical idea
Antecedent
The "Call" in a call and response
Consequent
The "Response" in a call and response
Contrasting period
When two phrases begin different
Double period
2 periods put together
Parallel period
When two phrases begin the same
Repeated period
Exact repetition
Phrase group
Group of phrases that seem to belong together without forming a period
Refrain
Similar to a Chorus; the main tune
Binary small form
Movement with two main sections (AB)
Rounded binary small form
A B1/2 A
Ternary
Statement, contrast, return (ABA)
Solo, Soli
Group of soloists
Stanza
Different verses
Strophic
Music repeats, lyrics change
Theme
Main idea of the song, what it's about
Thematic transformation
When the theme changes in the song
Throuhg-composed
No form
Tutti
All, everyone
Variation
Material is altered during repetition
Capital roman numerals
Indicate major triads
Lowercase roman numerals
Indicate minor triads
Capital roman numeral with *
Augmented triad
Lowercase roman numeral with °
Diminished triad
Arabic numerals or figured bass numerals do what?
Denote intervals above the bass and hence indirectly indicate chord inversion. Arabic numerals may indicate voice leading and/or nonharmonic tones.
Figured Bass 6
Inidicates first inversion triad (third on bottom)
figured bass 6/4
indicates second inversion triad (5th on bottom)
Figured bass 7
Indicated root position seventh chord (root on bottom)
figured bass °7
Fully diminished seventh chord (diminished triad with minor third on top)
figured bass ø7
Half diminished seventh chord (diminished triad with major third on top)
figured bass 6/5
first inversion seventh chord (3rd on the bottom)
figured bass 4/3
second inversion seventh chord (5th on the bottom)
figured bass 4/2
third inversion seventh chord (7th on the bottom)
figured bass 8-7
suspension where the 8 moves to the seven
9-8. 7-6, 4-3 figured bass
All indicate suspension and a melodic resolution
accidental before Arabic numeral
alteration of an interval
a slash through one of the arabic numerals or a plus after the arabic numeral
indicates that the note creating the interval in question is raised a half step
imperfect authentic cadence
must end on I chord
perfect authentic cadence
V to I; in root position; melody ends on tonic
conclusive cadence
cadence ends on tonic triad
deceptive cadence
V to vi
half cadence
ends on V
Phrygian half cadence
iv6 to V/V7
inconclusive cadence
ends in something other than the tonic chord
Plagal
IV to I
Augmented triad (*)
two major thirds make up the triad
diminished triad (°)
Two minor triads make up the triad
Major triad (M)
a major then a minor third makes up the triad
Minor triad (m)
a minor then a major third makes up the triad
Major seventh chord (
Major triad with major third on top
dominant seventh chord
a major triad with a minor third on top
minor seventh chord
minor triad with minor third on top
Half diminished seventh chord
diminished triad with major third on top
fully diminished seventh chord
diminished triad with minor third on top
Tonic
first scale degree
supertonic
second scale degree
mediant
third scale degree
subdominant
fourth scale degree
dominant
fifth scale degree
submediant
sixth scale degree
subtonic
whole step bellow the tonic
leading tone
half step below tonic
tonic function
ha
dominant function
leads to tonic, sets up half cadence
predominant function
sets up dominant tonic tonailities
Circle of fifths
keys or tonalities ordered by ascending (for sharp keys) or descending (for flat keys) intervals of a fifth
deceptive progression
The root of a secondary dominant can move up stepwise in its own deceptive progression
Harmonic rhythm
The rate of chord change, or the series of durational patterns formed by the chord changes in a musical work.
modulation
change of tone within a piece
common tone modulation
using one or more tones that are common to both keys as an intersection b/w them
Phrase modulation
modulations without common chords or tones
Pivot chord modulation
using one or more chords that are common to both keys as an intersection b/w them
Neighboring chord
lol
Retrogression
series of chords that weaken tonality
secondary dominant
the V or Dominant of a key other than Tonic
secondary leading tone chord
A leading-tone chord that functions as an applied, or secondary, dominant; usually a fully diminished seventh chord.
tonicization
a chord other than tonic that seems to the ear to be a temporary tonic
Arpeggiating 6/4 chord
a 6/4 created by arpeggiation of the triad in the bass
cadential 6/4 chord
a 1 6/4 preceding the dominant, often at a cadence, although it contains the notes of the tonic triad, it doesn't exercise a tonic function but rather serves as an embellishment of the dominant. it occurs in a metrically stronger position than the dominant and the upper voices most often move by step to the tones of the dominant. may also be written as V6/4=5/3, including the resolution of the cadential 6/4 to the dominant.
Neighboring of pedal 6/4 chord
(embellishing 6/4, auxilary 6/4) occurs when the third and the fifth of a root position triad are embellished by their respective upper neighboring tones, while the bass is stationary, usually occurring on a weak beat.
passing 6/4 chord
harmonizes the second note of a three note ascending or descending scale fragment in the bass; that is, it harmonizes a bass passing tone. the usual metric placement is on an unaccented beat and the motion of the upper voices is ordinarily by step.
anticipation
approached by step or leap, same tone as following note
appoggiatura
approached by leap, resolved by step
escape tone
approached by step, resolved by leap
embellishment
melodic decoration
neighboring tone can be known as...
(auxiliary tone, embellishing tone, neighbor note)
double neighboring tone
involves one note on top of the other
lower neighbor
approached by step down, resolved by step to the original note
upper neighbor
approached by step up, resolved by step down to the original note
neighbor group (cambiata, changing tones, changing notes)
oh
ornament
nonharmonic tones
passing tone
approach my step, resolve by step, moving in the same direction
pedal point
suspension of same note throughout
preparation
tone preceding suspension
resolution
When the dissonant note is changed to a consonant one.
retardation
opposite of a suspension; resolves up instead of down
suspension
a tone held from one chord into another, and then resolved down to the chordal note
closed position
notes placed as close as possible on the staff
doubling
to duplicate a note into another octave
open position
wide intervals between parts
root
the note a chord is built on
root position
root is in the bass
common tone
a tone that is common in two chords
contrary motion
when two parts move in opposite directions
cross relation
when a note sounds with its altered equivalent
crossed voices
when an upper voice goes bellow a note used previously in a lower voice, and vice versa
direct fifths/direct octaves
when the outside voices move in the same direction
oblique motion
the relative motion of two melodic parts in which one remains in place or moves relatively little while the other moves more actively.
overlapping voices
when an upper voice is lower than a voice lower than it, and vice versa
parallel motion
when two voice parts move in the same direction
objectionable parallels
no
parallel fifths
when two parts move in the same direction, staying in fifths
parallel octaves
when two parts move in the same direction, staying in octaves
similar motion
In part-writing, similar motion is the situation in which two voices of the composition move in the same direction, either ascending or descending, but they do not necessarily cover the same interval.
tendency tone
note that tends to move in one direction or another
unresolved leading tone
when the leading tone isn't resolved up to the tonic
unresolved seventh
when the seven in a chord isn't resolved down by step
voice exchange
the repetition of a contrapuntal passage with the voices' parts exchanged.
EX:
Voice 1: a b
voice 2: b a
arpeggio
broken chord
chormatic
not in the key

a scale that moves by half steps
common practice style
obeys two different kinds of musical norms: first, it uses conventionalized sequences of chords, such as I-IV-V-I. Second, it obeys specific contrapuntal norms, such as the avoidance of parallel fifths and octaves.
consonance
pleasing to the ear
diatonic
in the key
dissonance
not pleasing to the ear
figured bass
arabic numerals that tell where the notes in the chord are placed
flatted fifth
flatted fifth note
lead sheet
sheet containing words and melody for a song written in simple form
picardy third
major third in tonic chord of minor key
resolution
do i really need to define this
compound interval
distance between two notes that exceeds an octave
half step
when you move from one note directly to the next
interval
distance between two notes
inversion of an interval
to turn an interval upside down
perfect interval
unison, fourth, fifth
major interval
second, third, sixth, seventh
minor interval
second, third, sixth, seventh.
Lowers them by one half step.
diminished interval
second, third, sixth, and seventh are lowered another half step from minor.
unison, fourth, fifth are lowered from their perfect form
augmented interval
when any interval is raised from its original form
Tritone
augmented fourth, or diminished fifth
unison
one note is played/sung
whole step
two half steps
antiphonal
responsive
articulation
the style in which an individual note is played
arco
with the bow
legato
smoothly
marcatto
marked
pizzicato
plucking the strings
slur
to sing to a single syllable or play without a break (two or more tones of different pitch)
staccato
short, detached
tenuto
hold
call and response
what the name says?
dynamics
marks the volume of the song
crescendo
gradually louder
diminuendo/decrescendo
gradually softer
terrace dynamics
volume levels shift quickly
pianissimo
pp
very soft
piano
p
soft
mezzo piano
mp
medium soft
mezzo forte
mf
medium loud
forte
f
loud
fortissimo
ff
very loud
phrasing
a division of a composition, commonly a passage of four or eight measures, forming part of a period.
tempo
the speed of the piece
adagio
slow and stately
allegro
fast and bright
andante
walking speed
andantino
slightly faster than andante
grave
slow and solemn
largo
very slow
lento
very very slow
moderato
moderately
presto
very fast
vivace
lively and fast
accelerando
gradually speed up
ritardando
gradually slower
ritenuto
gradually decreasing tempo
rubato
to be played with a flexible tempo
accent
stress
agogic accent
stress given to a note through prolonged duration.
dynamic accent
occurs when performer emphasizes a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it
metrical accent
The pattern of strong and weak beats based on the "weight" of the downbeat and the "lift" of the upbeat.
anacrusis
pickup note or figure
asymmetrical meter
A compound meter with beat units of unequal duration. These irregular beat lengths are typically (though not always) created by five or seven beat divisions, grouped into beat lengths such as 2 + 3 or 2 + 3 + 2.
bar line
the line that shows where one measure stops and one begins
beat
the pulse in a song
compound beat
a beat that subdivides into three parts
simple beat
a beat that subdivides into two parts
changing meter
a common trait in 20th-century music; time signature changes frequently and unpredictably; a rejection of standard metrical patterns in favor of non-symmetrical groupings (Bartok & Concerto for Orchestra)
cross rhythm (polyrhythm)
Two conflicting rhythms used at the same time. Also known as polyrhythm.
dot on the side of a note
takes half the length of the note its beside
dotted rhythm
long-short rhythmic pattern in which a dotted note is followed by a note that is much shorter
duplet
A group of two notes played in the time usually taken to play three
hemiola
a shift in the rhythmic pulse from a division of 2 to a division of 3, or vice versa. i.e. 6-8 time meter into 3-4 time meter.
irregular meter
asymmetrical groupings with different numbers of beats per measure
meter
how the pulse/beat is established
duple meter
2 beats per measure
quadruple meter
four beats per measure
triple meter
three beats a measure
rhythm
the rate at which notes are played
swing rhythm
Rhythm where notes with equal written time values are performed with unequal durations, usually as alternating long and short.
syncopation
the accenting of musical beats not normally accented; notes that aren't played on the beat.
tempo
the rate at which music is played
tie
when a note in one measure is held into the next
time signature
the top number is the number of beats in the measure.
the bottom number is the note that gets the beat.
triplet
three notes played in the space of one or two.
accidental
alters a note up or down a half step
major scale
In the key of C (up and down):
C D E F G A B C B A G F E D C
harmonic minor scale
In the key of a (up and down):
a b c d e f g# a g# f e d c b a
Melodic minor scale
in the key of a (up and down):
a b c d e f# g# a g f e d c b a
Ionian scale
A major scale
Dorian scale
natural minor with a raised 6
phrygian scale
natural minor with a flat 2
lydian scale
major scale with raised 4
mixolydian scale
major scale with flat 7
aeolian scale
natural minor scale
locrian scale
natural minor scale with a flat 2 and 5
modality
the state of being modal
parallel key
two keys that share the same tonic but NOT the same key
pentatonic
scale that has five notes to an octave (think Asian music)
relative key
2 scales that have the same key, but not the same tonic.
tetrachord
Series of four notes having a pattern of whole step, whole step, half step
tonality, tonal
Principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale.
whole tone scale
moving only by whole steps
melismatic
notes sung to one syllable
syllabic
one note per syllable
alberti bass
1 5 3 5; broken base
canon
a contrapuntal piece of music in which a melody in one part is imitated exactly in other parts, starting at different points.
chordal accompaniment
The underlying harmonic support for a melody; chords may be blocked or broken.
contrapuntal, counterpoint
voices working against each other
imitation
a copy that is represented as the original
imitative polyphony
technique in which each phrase of a composition is addressed by all the voices, which enter successively in imitation of each other
nonimitative polyphony
two or more melodic lines playing distinct melodies
countermelody
Accompanying melody sounding against the principle melody
fugal imitation
imitation of the subject which enters at a different pitch level; almost like a sequence
heterophony, heterophonic
one melodic line being improvised upon
homophony, homophonic
melodic accompaniment
chordal homphony
sameness, regarding rhythm and melody
chordal texture (homorhythmic)
a type of homophonic texture, with pitches sounding simultaneously
brass
the section of a band or orchestra that plays brass instruments
continuo
a bass part written out in full and accompanied by numbers to indicate the chords to be played
percussion
the section of a band or orchestra that plays percussion instruments
rhythm section
the section within a jazz band, usually consisting of drums, double bass, piano, banjo, and/or guitar, that establishes the harmony and rhythm
strings
the section of an orchestra that plays stringed instruments
timbre
the distinguishing quality of a sound
woodwinds
wind instruments that include the piccolo, flute, oboe, english horn, clarinet, bassoon, and saxophone
monophony, monophonic
one tone
obbligato
a part of the score that must be performed without change or omission
ostinato
a musical phrase repeated over and over during a composition
polyphony, polyphonic
many voices/tones
contrapuntal
having two or more independent but harmonically related melodic parts sounding together
tessitura
most widely used range of pitches in a piece of music
walking bass
a bass line that moves at a moderate pace, mostly in equal note values, and often stepwise up or down the scale
Aria
A song from a larger work
Art song
a song that stands alone
concterto
solo instrument and orchestra
fugue
a musical form consisting of a theme repeated a fifth above or a fourth below its first statement
genre
style, category of music
opera
staged vocal work
prelude
a part of a song before the main section
postlude
a part of the song after the main section
sonata
ABA form
string quartet
2 violins, a viola, and a cello
symphony
a piece for an orchestra with many movements.
modulation
a change of key within a piece
pizzicado
plucked string (tighten or loosen pegs to change pitch)
Changing tone
Approach by step, jump a third, resolve by step to the original note.
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