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The English model settlement implied promise to settle land and propagate christianity amoung natives; main goal - trade for gold, other valuable goods; 120 Englishmen embarked, 38 survived 9 mo. later; no gold/food, only illness and disease

House of Burgess

1619 Jamestown, had authority to make laws, levy taxes, govenor could veto, company could nullify

Mayflower Compact

Pilgrims own covenant of government, first constitution adopted in North America; Pilgrims belief in the autonomy of the religious congregation and recognized sovereignty of king but produced system of self-government based on rule of law


like pilgrims, envisioned a reformed Christian society but rather than break with the church wanted to simply reform it - "non-separatists";

Massachusetts Bay Colony

1630, 900 Puritans, using a corporate (trading) charter granted by the king for the area around Boston; led by John Winthrop, transformed joint-stock business corporation, the General Court of shareholders, into a colonial legislature


Pious protestant families who settle Plymouth, the first permanent community in New England in 1620; 35 of them led by William Bradford with 60 other English migrants, "separatists"

Rhode Island

founded in 1636 by Roger Williams and his followers as purchased by the Narragansett Indians. Other religious dissidents founded in neighboring towns. In 1644 these towns obtained a coporate charter from the English Parliament that granted them full authority "to rule themselves." There was no legally established church; every congregation was autonomous, and individual men and women could worship God as they pleased.

Anne Hutchinson

argued salvation was not something earned, it was bestowed by God. Diminished role of all established authority, found heretical, banished and settled in RI then NY

Roger Williams

As a Puritan, preferred Pilgrims separation of church and state and condemned congregationalism; settled with followers in RI in 1636, no legally established church, congregation = autonomous free to worship as pleased

Maryland Toleration Act

1649 granted religious freedom to all Christians. Created after political conflict constantly threatened the states stability and to protect the Catholic coreligionists who remained a minority.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

In 1639 Connecticut Puritans adopted this plan of government that included an established church, a popularly elected governor and assembly and voting rights for most property-owning men not just church members

Bacon's Rebellion

Leader of the protestors, Nathaniel Bacon was on the governor's council but when Berkley refused military commission, Bacon marched frontiersmen slaughtering peaceful Indians. Condemning frontiersmen as rebels and mutineers, Berkley expelled Bacon and arrested but Bacon won release and forced the govenor to hold legislative elections. The House of Burgess enacted far reaching political reforms that curbed the powers of the govenor and restored voting rights to landless freemen.


devised democratic church structure controlled by laity or ordinary members of the congregation


believed God had chosen a few "elect" men and women for salvation and condemned the rest to damnation

Legacy of Bacon's Rebellion

Landed planters remained dominant in VA by curbing corruption and finding public positions for politically ambitious yeomen. Also appeased lower social orders by cutting their taxes and supporting the expansion onto Indian lands. Confirmed planter's growing commitment to African slavery with turn away from indentured servitude to explicitly legalized slavery in 1705.

Cause of Bacon's Rebellion

Hundreds of impoverished English freeholders and aspiring tenents wanted cheap land and insisted that the natives be expelled/exterminated. However, wealthy planters, planter-merchants, and VA's Govenor Berkley opposed expansion into Indian territory. Fighting broke out in 1675 when a band of VA militia murdered 30 Indians. Defying Berkley's orders 1,000 militiamen surrounded a fort and killed 5 chiefs who had come out to negotiate. To avoid war Berkley proposed a defensive military policy. However, settlers dismissed strategy of building frontier forts as useless militarily and simply plot to impose high taxes and take all the tobacco.


designed by William Penn as a refuge for Quakers who were persecuted in England because they refused to serve in the army and would not pay taxes to support the Church of England


radical protestant sect that used William Penn's prestige to spread influence; wanted to restore simplicity and spirituality of early Christianity, followed teachings of founders George Fox and Margaret Fell, arguing all could be saved because God gave everyone inner "light" of grace.

Halfway Covenant

Devised in 1662 to preserve Puritanism, altered traditional Calvinist dogma by allowing unconverted Puritans to baptize children; birth not conversion is key to church membership

Salem Witchcraft Trials

1647-1662 hung 14 people who challenged prevailing customs in Salem MA 1692 - group rivalries and deception spawned accusation, arrested 175, executed 20; fear and suspicion spread. English Enlightenment cast intelligence and other explainations than witchcraft.

Great Awakening

Sparked by George Whitfield; controversial as conservatives condemned reactions caused by emotioonal preaching; New Lights - followers of revival v. Old Lights - worked to bar traveling preachers byt eventually had law overturned; challenged authority of ministers; questioned government involvement in religion; farm families reaffirmed cooperative work ethic and economic competition; ignored blacks and poor whites


posed threat to ruling gentry by appealing to black and poor; came in 1760s, drew poor offering solace and hope; baptized in emotional public ceremony that celebrated shared fellowship; welcomed slaves shrinking cultural gulf between blacks and whites undermining justification for slavery and giving blacks new sense of spiritual identity


God had created world, but allowed it to operate in accordance with the laws of nature; influenced by Enlightenment science; rejected authority of bible and relied on people's natural reason to define moral code


emotional, evangelical, religious movement stressing Christians relation to God, attracted many social groups, sparked religious revival

Stono Rebellion

Late 1730's government of Southern FL promised freedom and land to runaway slaves from SC. War between England and Spain in 1739, 75 Af. Am. killed whites, stole guns, ammunition and marched toward FL; white militia killed rebels and dispersed rest

Mercantilist Navigation Acts

colonies could produce only agriculture goods and raw materials, more profitable manufacturing and provision of commercial services were reserved for British; made because British felt threatened by North America; made way for many harsh, restrictive policies angering colonists greatly


system of state supported manufactuing and trade, monarchs used these policies to increase exports and reduce imports getting favorable balance of trade gold and silver flow stimulated economy, enhanced power of government. By 1600 made overseas colonization possible.


between gentlemen and peasant, owned small land worked by family, since constant labor cost with wheat 2/3x trading price brought in lots of money

joint stock companies

sold shares of stock to many investors for funding

Lord Baltimore

Ceilius Calvert, 1632 given charter by Charles I making him proprietor of territory bordering Chesapeake Bay, wanted Maryland to be Catholic refuge, devised policy of religious toleration; grew tobacco, had economic stability, politically and religously unstable until Toleration Act (1649)

Navigation Acts

revised and extended in 1660 and 1663; permitted only English or colonial owned ships to enter American ports, also required colonists to ship certain "enumerated articles" including tobacco only to England

South Atlantic System

new agricultural and commercial order; brought wealth to entire English economy, tragedy for W. Af. and parts of E. Af. uprooted 15 million diminishing wealth and population for continent

The Enlightenment

emphasized power of human reason to shape the world appealing to well-edu. and artisans; originally relied on religion to explain natural world; gave secular dimension to colonial life

Salutary Neglect

British colonial policy during 1714-1760 contributed significantly to the rise of American self-government. Royal bureaucrats relaxed their supervision of internal colonial affairs, focusing instead on defense and trade. By-product of political system developed by Robert Walpole, leader of the British Whigs.

Albany Congress

1754; To maintain influence with the Iroquois Nations, the British Board of Trade called a great intercolonial meeting with the Indians at Albany. The Am. delegates declared they had no designs on the lands of the Iroquois and sought their assistance against the French

tensions leading to the French and Indian War

Ohio Co. earned 200,000 acre land grant in VA (Iroquois land) alarming France and Iroquois; France constructed forts where upon George Washington came into land with troops and seized and expelled prompting calls for war among expansionists; Head of parliament Board of Trade Will Pitt = expansionists and persuaded PM to send military British had reaped unprecedented money from its overseas trading empire and was determined to crush France, the main obstacle to British expansion

Albany Plan

In an effort to protect the British colonies from France it was a proposed plan of Union with a continental assembly that would manage as western affairs: trade, Indian Policy, and defense. It was thrown out because British ministers feared consolidated Am. gov't would undermine their authority.

European country line up for French and Indian War

France, Spain, and Austria v. Britain and Prussia with British mounted offensives in India, W. Af. and N. Am.

Legacy of French and Indian War

positive - British drove France out of Canada and dominated N. Am.
negative - increase in money = increase in debt = British impose new taxes on Am; spurred Parliament to redefine character of Empire salutary neglect gave way to emphasis on imperial power and direct Parliament rule

George III

1760-1820; wanted patronage positions for his military friends, so needed large army, someplace to station it, and somebody to pay for it

Sugar Acts

1764 maintained settlers had to sell wheat, fish, lumber to French Islands, without molasses sugar and bills of exchange from from those sales, colonists would lack money to buy British goods. so PM (Grenville) resisted demands for sugar duty which would cut off Am. imports of French molasses settled on decreased duty to allow British to compete with France. Threatened Am. merchants and distillers, publicly announce would wipe our trade with France so they privately smuggled. Raised constitutional issues of duty - making act contrary to fund Pricipal of constitution all taxes originate with the people. Merchants prosecuted under act tried by vice-admiralty courts = maritime tribunals with British judges degrading Am. to below rank of English. Taxed several imported goods like coffee and wine in substantial amounts, Parliament says money will go to war debs and troops out W.

Stamp Act

1765; would cover part of cost of keeping troops in Am. tax required stamps on all court documents, land titles, contracts, playing cards, newspapers, and other printed items. Hope to raise 60,000 a year. Unlike other taxes, passed in Parliament, not Am. colonial councils/assemblies

Quartering Act

1765; directing colonial gov't to provide barracks and food for British troops; overall provoked constitutional confrontation not only on the specific issues of taxation, jury trials and quartering of military but also on the fundamental question of representative self-gov't. permitted to stay in colonial inns, ale houses, and unoccupied buildings so colonial share money of troop protection

Stamp Act Congress

NY Oct. 1765; called meeting of colonies to implore relief from the act; nine assemblies sent delegates; the group issued a set of resolves, challenging the constitutionality of the stamp and sugar acts and declaring only the colonists' elected representatives could tax them. The resolves also protested against the loss of Am. rights and liberties especially trial by jury. Most sought compromise not confrontation. Concluded the resolves by assuring Parliament that Am. glory in subjects of king and petitioned for repeal of stamp act.

Sons of Liberty

mainly middling artisans and minor merchants, leaders of mob who demanded resignation of stamp tax collectors (mostly native colonists) made effigy of collector Andrew Olicer which beheaded and burned, then destroyed his warehouse, attacked house of lt. gov. Hutchinson; Rabble (crowds of angry people) - intimidated royal officials. NY leaders = radical whigs who feared reform of imperial system = undermine polt. liberty; published names of merchants who imported Brit. goods, broke store windows and harassed employees

Declaratory Acts

1766 explicitly reaffirmed British Parliament authority to bind Am.

Townshend Acts

1767 new legislation because Townshend wanted new source of revenue in America; imposed duties on colonial imports, would raise 40,000 a year part would pay Am. military and most would create colonial civil list - fund to pay salaries of royal gov. judges and other imperial officials, who feed by money and dependent on Am. would follow Parliament and king.

Boston Massacre

Mar. 1770 group of soldiers fired into rowdy crowd of demonstrators killing 5 men; revived fears of ministerial conspiracy against liberty, Radical Whigs labeled it a massacre and filled popular press with accusations British deliberately planned it

Committees of Correspondence

Nov. 1772; Sam Adams persuaded Boston town to establish; to urge patriots in other towns to state rights of Colonists of Province; within months 80 towns had similar committees all in communication with one another; British gov't sent royal commission with authority to Send Am. to Brit. for trial causing House of Burgess to set up own committee

Tea Act

May 1773; provided money and relief for Brit. E. Indian Co. (deeply in debt because of military expeditions that extended Brit trade and polt. influence in India). Act provided co. with gov't loan and relieved co. from paying tariffs on tea imported into British Am; made tea competitive with Dutch so Am. bought E. India trading co. and paid Townshend duty

Boston Tea Party

Patriots raided the Dartmouth: a group of artisans and laborers disguised as Indians boarded the ship, broke open 342 chests of tea and threw them into the harbor outraging the British Privy council and the king.

Intolerable (coercive) Acts

4 acts to force MA into submission;

First Continental Congress

Patriot leaders called a meeting of new all-colony assembly. Delegates chosen by 12 mainland assemblies met in Philly Sept. 1774 and addressed a set of controversial and divisive issues. S. favored new econ. boycott, New Eng. advocated polt. union and defensive military preparations, mid-Atl. wanted to seek a polt. compromise.

Second Continental Congress

May 1775 Patriot leaders gathered in Philly; Zealous Patriots supported Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms asserted Am. dreaded war but prefer it to slavery. Created continental army with George Washington leading it; Moderates led by Dickinson still hoped for reconciliation with Britain.; ended with invasion of Canada to unleash French uprising and Am. merchants waged econ. warfare by cutting off all exports to Brit. and W. Ind. sugar islands.

Port Bill

An intolerable act; closed Boston Harbor until E. India co. was paid for its tea

Gov. Act

An intolerable act; annulled MA charter and prohibited local town meetings

(New) Quartering Act

An intolerable act; required colony to build barracks/accommodate soldiers in private homes

Justice Act

An intolerable act; Protect royal officials from Am juries, allowed trials for capital crimes be transferred to other colonies or Brit.

Outcome of the first continental congress

Galloway proposed new imperial system resembling Albany Plan, king would appoint pres-gen. and Am. assemblies would select legislative council with veto power over parliament legislature that affected Am. Instead they passed Declaration of Rights and Grievances that condemned Coercive Acts and demanded repeal, repudiated Declaratory Act of 1766 proclaiming Parliament's supremacy and demanded Brit. restrict control over Am. affairs to matters of external trade. Brit branded illegal assembly, Am. must pay own defense and administration and acknowledge Parliament's authority

Common Sense

Direct assault on trad. polt. order in rousing language stirring popular emotions; call for independence and republicanism form of gov't; personal attack on King Geo. III; made compelling case for Am. independence turning trad. metaphor of patriarchial authority on head, called on Am. to reject king and Parliament and create independent, repub. sts.

Proclamation Line of 1763

Brit est. law in return for Pontiac and his allies accepting Brit as new political fathers; closed trans-Appalachian W. to Anglo-Am. settlements; without permission from Brit authorities charters theoretically went to Pac.

Objections to Patriot cause

resistance to Brit would destroy respect for all polt. institutions and end with mob rule, Quakers and Germans neutral, If landlord is a patriot tenant farms opp., social divisions, enslaved blacks if masters are patriots, loyalists

Declaration of Independence

to persuade Am. and foreign observers to support independence vilified Geo III. Employed ideas of EU enlightenment justifying republicanism by proclaiming unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, govt derives power from consent of governed and can be overthrown if govt destructive of rights, linked docs of individual liberty, pop. sovereignty, and repub. form of govt with independence, Jefferson est. as defining values of new nation; est. legitimacy of repub. st. gov't

Articles of Confederation

1781; est. loose confederation, each st. retains sovereignty, freedom, and independence and powers not expressly delegated to US.; gov't could declare war/peace, make treaties with foreign nations, adjudicate disputes btwn sts. borrow and print money and requisition funds from sts. for common defense or gen. welfare.; Each st. had 1 vote regardless of wealth/pop., laws needed approval by at least 9 of 13 sts. and changes needed unanimous consent. Gov't lacked authority to impose taxes.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

provided for the creation of the territories that would eventually become OH, IN, IL, MI, and WI, reflecting enlightenment beliefs prohibited slavery in those territories and earmarked funds from land sales for the support f schools, also specified cong would appoint gov. and judges to administer new territory once 5,000 free adult men in residence could elect a territorial legislature, when pop. 60,000 legislature could write repub. constitution and apply to join confederation of basis of complete equality with existing sts.; added new W. dimension to national identity, Am. had space to expand

Shay's Rebellion

merchants and creditors persuaded MA leg. to repay st. war debt by increasing taxes and deter inflation by halting issuance of paper currency with poor farmers no pay debt threatened with court suits. so bands of angry farmers closed courts by force and resistance gradually grew into full scale revolt proving money of war and fruits of independence not shared evenly; Gov;t passed riot act outlawing illegal assembly and equipped a formidable fighting force and called for additional troops to put down rebellion.

British Advantages

11 mill. ppl, rich, most powerful navy in world, standing army with 48,000 and 1000s of hired Ger. soldiers, had experience in Am war, imperial gov't had support of Loyalists and Indian tribes (but slowly attacked awaiting unlikely compromise)

Patriot Advantages

1/3 zealous patriots, 1/3 supported with taxes/milt. duties, experienced politicians who commanded public support and inspired leader (Geo. WA). Washington had greater margin for error than Brit. gen., Am. decided outcome preferring patriots to loyalists, had financial and milt. support of Fr.

Treaty of Paris

Sept. 1783, Fr. and Sp. stalled talks hoping for more territorial conquests but Am. and Brit wanted to end it, exploiting rivalry between Brit and Fr. Am secured peace on favorable terms, Brit formally recognized Am. independence while retaining Canada and promised to withdraw garrisons, left Brit. Indians alone to their fate

Constitutional Convention 1787

May 1787, 55 delegates arrived in Philly representing each st. except RI, most were monied men; reviewing confederation gov't and revise the Articles of Confederation but new plans introduced scheme for powerful new national government with representation as central problem.

Federalist Papers

argued free society should not suppress groups, but prevent anyone from becoming dominant, an end best achieved in a large republic

Judiciary Act of 1789

created fed. dist. courts in each st., provided 3 circuit courts to hear appeals from the dist., permitted appeals to the supreme court, ensuring that nat'l (not st.) judges would decide meaning of constitution.

First Bank of the U.S.

repository of nat'l assets, issue paper money based on assets, source of investment capital

Bill of Rights

safeguard certain fundamental personal liberties and mandated various legal procedures that protected the individual; addressed antifed concerns securing legitimacy of new constitution.

Washington's Farewell Address

warns against foreign influence, break with EU, Republicans = anti-isolationism, Federalists = pro-isolationism

Virgina Plan

James Madison, rejected st. sovereignty in favor of supremacy of national authority, called for national gov't to draw authority directly from ppl and exercise direct power over them, by pass st. gov't and operate directly on individuals, created 3 tier national gov't in which pp; only elect lower house with mmbrship based on st. pop. of leg. and lower house name mmbrs of upper house and both houses would select executive and judiciary

New Jersey Plan

strengthened confederation by giving the power to raise revenue, control commerce, and make binding requisitions on sts. Preserved sts. control over their own laws and guaranteed their equality, each st has one vote in unicameral leg.

The Great Compromise

upper house (senate) would always have two members from each st.; lower house (house of reps) would be apportioned on basis of pop. as determined every ten years by national census.


stressed need for strong gov't to conduct foreign affairs and denied it would foster tyranny, national authority divide up among president bicameral leg. and judiciary each branch check and balance thus preserving liberty; favored constitution


opposed constitution fearing loss of st. gov't power; feared that constitution lacked declaration of individual rights, feared that powerful central gov't would be run by aristocracy of wealth; favored keeping gov't close to ppl with nation as collection of sm. sovereign republics.

Whiskey Rebellion

Ideological conflicts sharpened debate over Hamilton's economic policies so in 1794 farmers in W. PA, mounted rebellion to protest Hamilton's excise tax on spirits, which had raised price and thus cut demand for corn whiskey. WA raised army of 12,000 troops that soon dispersed rebels

Pickney's Treaty

1795; allowed settlers in the MS R. Valley to export crops through the Sp. held port of New Orleans

John Adams

elected 1796 as federalist candidate, continued Hamilton's pro-Brit foreign policy and dealt with XYZ affair, to silence critics enacted series of coercive measures resulting in further Republican rebuking. Wrote "Thoughts on Gov't" adapting Br. Whig theory of mixed gov't to fit with Repub. society, dispersing authority by assigning different functions between bicameral leg., elected gov. with veto power, and elected judiciary to review.

XYZ Affair

Fr. navy seized Am. merchant ships, Fr. foreign ministers Talleyrand Solicited a loan and bribe from Am. diplomats to stop seizures, Admas charged that Talleyrand's agents (dubbed X,Y,Z) had insulted Am. honor. Party conflict now extended to foreign affairs

Alien and Sedition Acts

authorized deportation of foreigners and prohibited publication of ungrounded or malicious attacks on president or congress

Virginia and Kentucky Resolves

declared alien and sedition acts unauthorative/void, set forth "sts rights" interpretation of constitution by arguing that sts. had right to judge legitimacy of nat'l laws


use authority of national gov't to stimulate trade and industry, pro-Br., favored merchants, financiers, argued for strong executive and judicial review, loose interpretation of constitution


U.S. remain agricultural nation with local and st. gov't predominant, pro-Fr., favored farmers, artisans, believed in democracy and rule by leg. majority

Compromise on Slavery

dented cong. power to reg until 1808, "fugitive clause" allowing masters to reclaim runaways, not give slavery nat'l recognition by explicitly mentioning. count slaves as 3/5 of person for purposed of rep. and taxation

Revolution of 1800

bloodless transfer of power demonstrated that gov'ts elected by ppl could be changed in orderly way even in times of bitter partisan conflict

Marbury v. Madison

1803; asserted court's power of judicial review

John Marshall

shaped evolution of constitution with 3 principals - commitment to judicial authority, supremacy of national over state leg. and trad. static view on property rights.

Louisiana Purchase

Napoleon coerced Sp. to give Fr. LA and ordered Sp. officials to restrict Am. access to New Orleans, so Jefferson negotiated purchase of New Orleans and ended up with whole LA territory because Napoleon feared Am. invasion with failure of Fr. Haitian invasion and war in EU already going on. Bought for $15 mill; Jefferson forced to reconsider interpretation of constitution

Chesapeake Affair

During Napoleonic era neither Fr./Br. respected neutrality o Am. merchant vessels. so 1807, Brit warship attacks US vessel, 21 casualties outraging Am.

Embargo Act

1807 prohibited Am. ships from leaving home port until Fr. and Br. repealed restrictions, US exports plunge 108 million to 22 million over 2 years, merchants and farmers howl at lost profits and fed howl at tyranny.

Hartford Convention

1814, lay foundation for reform in "Nat'l Compact" discuss strat, proposed succession by sts, amendments restricting commercial embargos, proposed constitutional amendment limit office to one, four yr. term and rotate among citizens from different sts.

War of 1812

officially went to war because of violations of neutral rights seizure of neutral ships and impressment of am. sailors. W. Repub favored acquisition of new territories and hoped war discredit feds and pro-Br. policy, W/ embargos failure Madison replaced it with series of new econ. restrictions not persuading fr. and br. to respect Am. neutral rights. Shawnee chief revived W. Confederacy and in Battle of Tippecanoe village was burned down;

Treaty of Ghent

1815; restored prewar borders to US; made Andrew Jackson war hero, redeemed US pride and w/ coming of peace undercut Hartford convention's demands for sig. revisions to constitution.

Adams-Onis Treaty

1819; persuaded Sp. to cede FL, to US in return US gov't took responsibility for its citizens and financial claims against Sp., renounced Jefferson's claim Sp. TX part of LA purchase and agreed on compromise boundary btwn New Sp and st. of LA

Monroe Doctorine

declared Am. continents not subject for further colonization by nations of EU. in return reiterated US policy of no interference in internal concerns of EU nations

Henry Clay's American System

integrated program of national econ development that relied on the 2nd bank of the US to regulate st. banks and advocated use of tariff revenues to build roads and canals; nationalistic prog. pop. in W. which needed transport. improvements but crit. in S. w/ no manufacturing indust. to protect

commonwealth system

Am plan of mercantilism with goal to increase the commonwealth of society by st. leg enacting measures to stimulate commerce and economic development mainly by granting co. charters to private businesses for projects that would benefit the public

limited liability

easier to attract investors, if business failed, personal assets of share holders would not be seized to pay for co.'s debts

eminent domain

commonwealth system that used st. incentives to encourage business to improve general welfare

Era of good feeling

decline of federalists and party politics

Protective tariffs

tax on imports, with two purposes of raising revenue for the gov't and protecting domestic products from foreign competition.

Missouri Compromise

1820; series of polt. agreements; allowed ME to enter Union as free st. in 1820 and MO follow as slave st in 1821; preserved existing balance in senate btwn N. & S. and set precedent for future additions to the union, prohibited slavery in the rest of LA purchase N. of latitude 36o30' S. boundary of MO


celebrated importance of feeling - physical, sensuous appreciation of God, nature, and other human beings caused new marriage system to appear

Difference between 1st and 2nd Great Awakening

second was more complex, took place in churches and frontier camp meetings led to new denominations, first was churches prospered preaching spiritual equality and gov. selves in relatively democratic fashion

Tariff of Abominations

1828; S. had no need for it and by the increase in price of br. manufacturers it cost S. planters $100 million a yr. planters either buy the increasingly costly Am. textiles and iron goods enriching NE business and workers or increasingly taxed Br. goods thus paying cost of nat'l gov't; saw it as legalized pillage

Andrew Jackson

pres. from rose from common origins and fit tenor of new dem. age and reputation as plain, solid repub. attracted voters from all regions; created spoils system while in office. Wanted to limit reach of nat'l gov't and deconstruct Clay's Am. system. Legacy - permanently expanded authority of executive, using rhetoric of pop. sovereignty asserted pres = direct rep. of ppl, upheld authority with threat of milt. force, reinvigorated Jefferson's trad. of limited/frugal central gov't

spoils system

dispersing gov't jobs to aid friends and win support


ruling ideology, rule by property owning men of talents and virtues


1820s/1830s in practice meant rule by popularly elected party politicians, maj. sh gov.

Martin Van Buren

chief architect of emerging system of party gov't, created first st. wide polt machine - Albany Regency, then first nat'l polt. party - Jacksonian democrats. patronage = important, insisted on party discipline, required st. leg. to follow dictates of party meeting/caucus. Sacrifice individual preferences for gen. good.; laissez-faire outlook ill-suited for econ depression, pres. 1837 - 1841

South Carolina's Ordinance of Nullification

declared tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void, forbade collection of duties in SC after Feb. 1833 and threatened secession if fed tried to collect them

Force Bill

authorized pres. to use milt. force to compel SC to obey nat'l laws.

Indian Removal Act of 1830

granted money and lands in OK & KS to Ind. who would give up ancestral holdings

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

1833, Cherokees take case to court and claim status of foreign nation. Marshall denied claim and declared Inds domestic dependent nations

Worcester v. Georgia

Marshall sided with Cherokees voiding GA's extension of st. law of Cherokee; held Ind. nations = distinct polt. communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive

Trail of Tears

Scott's army rounded up 14,000 Inds and forcibly marched 1,200 mi. to new Ind territory. arduous journey w/ 3,000 Ind die of starvation and exposure. All tribes removed except Seminole who waged successful guerrilla warfare

Whig Party

formed by Clay, Calhoun, and Webster; rise of dem sparked the creation of 2nd party; began in 1834 by congmen who opp Jackson's policies, accused Jackson of violating constitution with spoils sys. and increasing pres. authority. goal - polt world dom. by men of ability and wealth chosen by talent not birth, celebrated role of enterprising entrepeneurs, welcomed indust. rev. of investments, money capitalists, provide poor with jobs and continue econ progress with return of Clay's Am. sys.

Working Men's parties

send urban artisans and wage earners to leg to ban priv. banks, chartered monopolies, and imprisonment for debt. Goal of a society in which there was no dependent wage earners and all men were independent proprietors working on own capitals on farms/shops

Commonwealth v. Hunt

maj. legal success, improved long term prospects of labor movements by upholding rights of workers to form unions and enforce closed shop, overturned common law precedents by ruling union is not an inherently illegal org. and could strike

Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co.

Taney declared leg. charter not necessarily bestow monopoly, leg. could promote gen. welfare by chartering a competing bridge co.

Radical Reform ideas of early 19th century

extreme individualism, common ownership of property, the immediate emancipation of slaves, sexual equality


intellectual movement that postulated importance of an ideal world of mystical knowledge and harmony beyond world of sense; critical examination of society and emphasized individuality, self-reliance, and nonconformity; Emerson and Thoreau

Utopian communities

escape constraints of life in Am's emerging market society, hoped planned societies org. life in new ways allow members to realize spiritual and moral potential, opted out of competition and tension of urban society, members hoped to develop minds and souls and inspire new social order


common ownership of prop. and devised unconventional forms of marriage and family life, challenged cap. values and trad. gender roles


no marriage/sexual pleasure, lust = corruption, committed to celibacy

Fourierist Phalanxes

men and women work cooperatively

Noyes and Oneida community

complex marriage, all married to each other, wished to free women from prop. of husbands, no multiple pregnancies, communal nurseries, women cut hair and wore pants


founded by Joseph Smith believing God led him to receive special revelations of divine truth. fled religious conflicts in E. used communal labor and elaborate irrigation sys. based on communal water rights and transformed region

Seneca Falls

goal - advance women's movement, rousing manifesto for women's rights - Declaration of Sentiments, persuade Am. right to long-standing wrong staking out claims for women in public life and no separate spheres

separate spheres

men and women have diff. gender-defined characteristics and that consequently the sexes inhabited and should inhabit diff. social worlds, with men in public world of polt. and econ. and women in priv. world of home and family

Grimke sisters

turned to Christian bible for justification, Jesus defines duties of followers without any reference to sex or condition, invoked enlightenment principles to claim civic rights for women

James Polk

pres 1845 - 1849; strategy of linking TX and OR put him in the wh. house and TX in the union; initiated Mex-Am. War

Slidell Mission

Polk sent guy to Mex city with instructions to win acceptance of Rio Grande as boundary and buy Mex. provinces of New Mex. and CA paying no more than $30 mill but anticipating failure had alt. plan.

Wilmot Proviso

dem. congman from PA wrote to limit slavery spread proposed to prohibit institution in any territories acquired from Mex. call for free-soil = 1st anti-slavery proposal to attract pop. support. leg. killed it.

Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo

Polk signed Feb. 1848 US agreed to pay Mex. $15 mill. in return for over 1/3 of territory - TX, NM, and CA, ratified by senate Mar. 1848

Mex-Am War

Polk ord. gen. Taylor to Rio Grande to incite armed response from Mex. essential that Mex. start war, taking liberties with the truth, pres. declared Mex. passed boundary of US, invaded territory and shed Am. blood on Am. soil

Compromise of 1850

to mollify S. included new fugitive slave act, to satisfy N. leg. admitted CA as a free st. resolved boundary dispute between NM and TX in favor of NM and abolished slave trade in WA D.C., org. rest of lands acquired from Mex into territories of NM and UT on the basis of pop. sovereignty

Fugitive Slave Act

fed. magistrates in N. sts determined status of alleged runaway slaves, law denied accused blacks jury trial and right to testify, plight of runaways and appearance of slave catchers in N and MidW. aroused pop. hostility and free blacks and abolitionists defied new law

Gadsden Purchase

Purchase of narrow splice of land that'd assist Pierce's negotiator James Gadsden to build S. based transcont. rail line

Ostend Manifesto

doc. detailing S. expansionists funded milt. expeditions to Cuba in hopes of causing sugar producing slave owners to announce independ. from Sp. and join US. publication of this doc. revived N. fears of "Slave Power" conspiracy halted planter dreams of carrying out empire for slavery in Caribbean.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

repeal MO compromise and org. region on basis of pop. sovereignty and agreed to formation of two new territories NEB and KS

Republican Party

vowed to ban slavery in all new territories, opp. slavery cuz degraded manual labor by enslaving blacks and driving down wages and working conditions of free whs. celebrated moral virtues of society based on middling classes who own soil and work it with own hands, every man chance to own prop. assert values of freedom and individual enterprise

Know-Nothing Party

anti-immig. and anti-catholic, unite native-born protestants against alien menace of Ir. & Ger catholics, prohibit further immig. and institute literacy tests for voting

William Lloyd Garrison

abolitionist who denounced free-soil doctrine as racist, embraced women's rights, pacifism and abolition of prisons

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