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Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues
Terms in this set (48)
The most abundant cartilage types in the body provides firm support with some pliability.
Cartilage with abundant elastic fibers; more flexible than hyaline cartilage.
The most compressible type of cartilage; resistant to stretch. Forms vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages.
Growth accomplished by the addition of new layers onto those previously formed.
Lacunae-bound cells divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the tissue from within.
Skeleton of the head, neck, and trunk; one of the two major skeletal divisions of the body.
Skeleton of the limbs or appendages; one of the two major skeletal divisions of the body.
Bone is longer than it is wide, containing a shaft with two widened ends.
A bone that is roughly cube-shaped, such as the bones in the wrist and ankle.
A bone that is thin and flattened,, and usually a bit curved, such as the sternum, scapulae, ribs, and skull bones.
A bone that has a complicated shape that does not fit into any other class of bone shape, such as the vertebrae.
External layer of bones, made up of repeating units of osteons. Also called lamellar bone.
Internal layer of bones, made up of porous arches of irregularly-shaped lamellae. Also called cancellous bone.
Strut or thin plate of bone found in spongy bone.
Elongated shaft of a long bone.
The end of a long bone, attached to the shaft.
Central cavity of a long bone. Contains yellow or red bone marrow.
Yellow bone marrow
Tissue that stores fats, often found inside bones/cavities of adults.
Plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone
Remnant of the epiphyseal plate, after the hyaline cartilage has completely ossified (green arrow in image).
Double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the outer surface of a bone.
Connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces.
Extensions from the outer fibrous layer of the periosteum, which help secure the tissue to the bone matrix. Also called Sharpey's fibers.
Red bone marrow
Hematopoietic tissue typically found within the trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones and in the diploe of flat bones, as well as medullary cavities in juveniles.
Projections, depressions, or openings on the outside of bones that serve as sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, or as conduits for blood vessels and nerves.
Mitotically active stem cells in the endosteum and periosteum, which can differentiate into bone-lining cells or osteoblasts.
Mature bone cells
Large cells that reabsorb or break down bone matrix.
System of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone unit of bone, also called Haversian system.
A layer, such as of bone matrix in an osteon of compact bone.
A layer of bone matrix in compact bone.
The canal in the center of each osteon that contains minute blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the osteocytes; also called Haversian canals.
Canals that run at right angles to the long axis of the bone, connecting the vascular and nerve supplies of the periosteum to those of the central canals and medullary cavity; also called Volkmann's canals.
Extremely small tubular passage or channel that connect lacunae in bone.
Small spaces, cavities, or depressions; lacunae in bone or cartilage are occupied by cells.
Incomplete lamellae that lie between intact osteons, filling the gaps between forming osteons, or representing the remnants of an osteon that has been cut through by bone remodeling.
Lamella that extend the entire surface/diameter of a bone.
The process of bone formation, also called osteogenesis.
Primary ossification center
First locationin shaft of bone where endochondral ossification begins.
Secondary ossification center
Locations where endochondral ossification begins, after the primary ossification center forms, usually in the epiphyses of long bones.
Embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; most skeletal bones are formed by this process.
Embryonic formation of bone that begins between fibrous connective tissue membranes formed by mesenchymal cells.
Cells within the mesenchyme embryonic tissue layer which gives rise to all connective tissues.
Hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium levels.
Hormone released by the thyroid, which lowers blood calcium levels only when present at high levels.
A break in a bone.
Decreased density and strength of bone resulting from a gradual decrease in rate of bone fracture.
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