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Final Review 3: Organisms, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Classification
Terms in this set (52)
What is an organism?
Any living thing. Anything that exhibits the 6 basic features of living things.
What are the 6 basic features that all living things share (ROGER H)
Reproduce, Organized, Grow and Develop, Energy Use, Respond to Stimuli, Homeostasis
What are biotic and abiotic factors in the environment? List 2 of each.
Biotic factors are the living or once living parts of an environment. Ex. Birds, Grass, Humans, etc. Abiotic factors are the nonliving parts of an environment. Ex. Air, Sunlight, Water, etc.
What is an organism's habitat?
The place in an ecosystem that provides the biotic and abiotic factors an organism needs to survive and reproduce.
What is a biome? What is an ecosystem?
A biome is a geographical area on Earth that contains ecosystems with similar biotic and abiotic features. An ecosystem is the biotic and abiotic parts of an environment.
What is the difference between a population, a community, and an ecosystem?
A population is all the organisms of the same species that live in the same area at the same time, a community is all the populations living in an ecosystem at the same time, and an ecosystem is all the biotic and abiotic parts of an environment.
Briefly describe each of the following Land Biomes: Desert, Grassland, Tropical rainforest, and Temperate Rainforest
A desert is a biome that receives very little rain, a grassland is a biome in which grasses are the dominant plants, a tropical rain forest is a biome that receives large amounts of rain and have dense growths of tall, leafy trees, a temperate rain forest is a biome with relatively mild climate and distinct seasons, they are moist ecosystems in coastal areas.
Briefly describe each of the following Land Biomes: Temperate Deciduous Forest, Taiga, and Tundra
deciduous forest is a biome where winter and summer have more variation than that of a temperate rain forest, and the leaves change color in the fall, a taiga is a forest biome consisting of mostly cone-bearing trees, a tundra is a cold, dry, and treeless biome.
Briefly describe each of the following Aquatic Biomes:
Streams & Rivers, Ponds & Lakes. Streams are narrow, shallow, and fast-flowing. Rivers are many streams merged together, and are larger, deeper, and flow more slowly than streams. Ponds are bodies of water that are shallow, warm, and filled with nutrients. Lakes are deeper, larger, and colder as sunlight doesn't reach the bottom in the same way as a pond.
Briefly describe each of the following Aquatic and Ocean Biomes:
Wetlands are aquatic ecosystems that have a thin layer of water covering soil that is wet most of the time. Estuaries are regions along coastlines where streams or rivers flow into a body of salt water, nutrient levels are high. Coastal ocean includes several ecosystems, including the intertidal zone and continental shelves, high biodiversity. Open ocean extends from the continental shelf to the deepest parts of the ocean.
What is ecological succession?
The process of one ecological community gradually changing into another.
What is a climax community?
A stable community that no longer goes through major ecological changes.
What is a pioneer species? Give an example.
The first species that colonize new or undisturbed land. Ex. Mosses and Lichens
What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
Primary succession occurs in areas with little or no soil, and secondary succession occurs in existing ecosystems that have been destroyed or disturbed.
What is the end result of aquatic succession?
The end result is land where the water used to be.
What is eutrophication?
The process of a body of water becoming nutrient-rich.
What is an organism's niche?
Its role in its environment.
What is symbiosis? What are the 3 main types of symbiosis?
Symbiosis is a close, long-term relationship between two species that usually involves an exchange of food or energy. The 3 main types are mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
Compare mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
Mutualism is a form of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit. Commensalism is when one organism benefits and one is neither harmed nor benefits. Parasitism is when one organism benefits (the parasite) and the other is harmed (the host).
How does competition and predation cause population change?
Through competition, the species that does not get the resource they need (i.e. food), will not be able to sustain their entire population and will therefore suffer a population decrease. The other species will then have the resource and have the potential for a population increase. During predation, the prey's species will suffer a population decrease due to the predator species hunting them, and the predator's species may increase in population due to a sustainable source of food.
What is an ecosystem's carrying capacity?
The largest number of individuals that can ecosystem can support over time.
What are producers? Give 2 examples.
Producers are organisms that are able to make their own food. Ex. green plants, algae
What are consumers? What are the 4 main types of consumers?
Consumers are organisms that aren't able to make their own food. The 4 main types are carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, and detritivores.
How are food chains and food webs web similar and different?
A food chain is one path that energy takes in an ecosystem, whereas a food web is many food chains combined. They both show how energy moves from one organism to another, and what path that energy takes.
What is an energy pyramid?
A model that shows how much energy is available at each link of a food chain (or trophic level in an ecosystem).
How much energy moves up to each higher level of energy pyramid?
What are the major factors in global warming and climate change?
The use of fossil fuels contributes greatly to global warming/climate change.
What is the difference between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
During photosynthesis, producers take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen as a product. During cellular respiration, the organism takes in oxygen from the atmosphere and releases carbon dioxide as a product.
What are the raw materials (reactants) and products of photosynthesis?
Reactants: CO2, sunlight, water Products: Glucose, oxygen
What are the raw materials (reactants) and products of cellular respiration?
Reactants: oxygen and glucose Products: CO2 and H2O and energy
How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration keep oxygen and carbon dioxide levels balanced in the biosphere? What upsets that balance?
While photosynthesis is taking in carbon dioxide and water and producing glucose and oxygen, Cellular Respiration uses glucose and oxygen and produces CO2 and water. In short, the products of one are the raw materials (reactants) of the other. The balance is upset when humans add more CO2 into the environment than plants can absorb.
What are the 3 domains of living things?
Eukarya, Bacteria, Archaea
What are the 6 kingdoms of living things?
Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Bacteria, Archaea
What is the difference between a prokaryotic organism and a eukaryotic organism?
Prokaryotes don't have nuclei and membrane-enclosed organelles, but eukaryotes do.
What are the prokaryotic kingdoms?
What are the eukaryotic kingdoms?
Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Animalia
What is the difference between unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms?
Unicellular organisms only need one cell to carry out their life processes, but multicellular organisms need multiple cells to carry out their life processes.
What are the 8 levels of classification?
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Who was Carolus Linnaeus?
A Swedish botanist who discovered a system for naming and grouping organisms based on their structures in the late 1700s. (binomial nomenclature)
What is the science of classification called?
What is a dichotomous key?
A detailed list of identifying characteristics that uses paired statements to identify and name a species.
What are Archaea?
Unicellular prokaryotes that often love extreme environments.
What are the 3 types of protists?
Animal Like (protozoa), Plant like (algae), fungus-like protists (slime molds, etc.)
What are the basic parts of a mushroom?
Cap, stem, volva, gills, mycelium (hyphae), ring
What part of the plant is a mushroom comparable to?
What 2 main types of plants are there?
Vascular plants have tub-like structures that transport food and water around (this allows them to grow large). Non vascular plants do not have these structures and so must grow low and stay close to their water source.
What are the basic parts of a flower?
Basic Parts: stem, sepal, petal, stamen (anther, filament), Pistil (style, stigma, ovary) The stamen is the male part and the pistil is the female part.
What features do all animals share?
multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophs, digest their food, capable of sexual reproduction, move at one point in their life
What is the difference between sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction? Give 2 examples of each.
Sexual reproduction requires genetic material from two different cells (sperm & egg) to produce an offspring. Ex. humans, birds, dogs, plants (flower). Asexual reproduction requires only genetic material from one cell, and the offspring is an identical copy of its parent. Ex: bacteria dividing and hydra budding.
What 2 main groups can all animals be divided into?
Vertebrates (have a backbone) and invertebrates (don't have a backbone)
Which animals are the simplest?
The sea sponges
Which animals are the most complicated?
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