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89 terms

Biology Exam #1

Questions for General Biology II that covers the nervous system, digestive system among others.
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axon
sends information away from neuron
dendrites
receives information into the neuron
soma (cell body)
contains nucleus and organelles. electrical and chemical reactions take place in cell body.
catabolism
breaking down large molecules such as proteins to amino acids.
anabolism
building up molecules such as nucleotides into DNA.
metabolic rate
the rate at which organisms use energy to power cellular processes
glycogen
excess glucose stored by the liver
organic nutrients
proteins
nucleic acids
vitamins
carbohydrates
lipids
inorganic nutrients
water
minerals
crop
dilation of the esophagus that stores and softens food
proventriculus
secrets acids and enzymes
gizzard
contains tiny pebbles that pulverize food
cloaca
excretes undigested material
4 phases of nutrient consumption
ingestion
digestion
absorption
elimination
essential nutrients
must be consumed in their complete form in the diet
amino acids
building blocks of protein
8 essential amino acids
isoleucine
leucine
lysine
methionine
phenylalanine
threonine
tryptophan
valine
polyunsaturated acids
cannot be synthesized by animal cells
coenzyme
organic compound that temporarily binds to the surface to promote chemical reaction
adipose
fatt tissue
suspension feeders
animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water
bulk feeders
animals that chew or swallow food such as anaconda's humans and cows
fluid feeders
animals that feed on the fluid of other organisms
pepsinogen
converted to pepsin to begin protein digestion (acidic conditions)
hydrochloric acid
kills microbes
cellulase
breaks down cellulose
gallbladder
stores bile
liver
site of bile production
lactase
digests lactose
amylase
breaks down carbohydrates starting in the mouth
pepsin
breaks down proteins in the stomach
phagocytosis
cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane
intracellular digestion
digestion using phagocytosis to bring food directly into the cell
extracecellular digestion
digestion outside the cell, usually in a cavety of some sort
gastrovascular cavity
explain how it occus in hydra
heartburn
stomach acid rising into the esophagus
simple stomach
single dilation of the alimentary canal
true stomach
produces hydrochloric acid
hydrolytic enzyme
any of the enzymes that behave like a hydrolase
glycogen
excess glucose stored in the liver and muscles
gluconeogenesis
generating new glucose
metabolism
general term for chemical reactions taking place in an organism
excess protein
stored as fat
(what happens to) carbohydrates?
broken down into glucose and used to synthesize ATP
(what happens to) triglycerides?
used during absorptive phase for energy
(what happens to) proteins?
converted to amino acids. Excess is converted and stored as fat by the liver
glycolysis
process of breaking down glycogen from muscle and liver into glycogen
glycogenolysis
conversion of glycogen polymers to glucose monomers
glycogenolysis (takes place in the)
a process that takes place in the liver
absorptive stage
carbohydrates
proteins
triglycerides
postabsorptive stage
glucose is regulated by the pancreas.
4 types of heat exchange
conduction - loss or gain of heat through direct contact
convection - wind cooling body
evaporation - evaporation of water from the body
radiation - emission of electromagnetic waves
endothermic homeotherms
animals that can generate their own body heat
ectothermic heterotherms
animals that cannot generate their own body heat
BMR
basal metabolic rate
(what is the relationship between) BMR and body mas
Generally, larger animals have lower BMR, such as humans and elephants whereas smaller animals such as mice and rats have higher BMR's.
homeotherms
animals that maintain their body temperature within a narrow range
heterotherms
animals that have body temperatures that vary with the environment
torpor
lowering the body temperature to that of just above the environment
hibernation
extended period of torpor
glucagen
protein harmone that stimulates glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis process and synthesis of ketone's in the liver
leptin
produced in adipose tissue and acts on hypothalamus to reduce appetite and increase metabolic rate
neurons
cells that send and receive chemical and electrical signals
4 types of glial cells
astrocytes - provides metabolic support for neurons
microglia - dispose of cellular debris produced by dying cells
oliodengrocytes - mylin producing glial cells in the CNS
Schwann cells - mylin producing glial cells in the PNS
3 parts of a neuron
axon
dendrites
soma (cell body)
resting potential
the membrane potential of a cell that is not sending impulses
electrical gradient
determines information flow through neuron
electrical signal
communication between neurons
action potential
all or none. cannot be graded
graded potential
potential that can graded by volts
countercurrent heat exchange
heat is transferred from the arteries to nearby veins, thereby reducing heat loss to the water
phospholipids
essential fatty acid required for making cell membrane
polarized
when a neuron has a net positive charge on the outside and a net negative charge on the inside
CNS
central nervous system
PNS
peripheral nervous system
(what makes up the) CNS (in vertebrates)
brain and spinal chord
what makes up the PNS
all other axons and nervous tissue outside the CNS
sponges
only group of animals that do not have neurons
4 levels of organization
cells
tissue
organ
system (organ system)
organism
4 types tissue
muscle
nervous
epithelial
connective
3 types of muscle tissue
skeletal - attached to bone
smooth - surrounds hollow tubes and cavities
cardiac - only in the heart, involuntary control
(3 general purposes to an) electrical signal (from the nervous system)
initiate new electrical signals
stimulate muscle to contract
stimulate glands to release chemicals
epithelial tissue
sheets of densely-packed cells
epithelial tissue
cover the body or individual organs
epithelial tissue
tissue that protect and secrete or absorb
connective tissue
blood
adipose
bone
cartilage
loose and dense tissue
reticulum
contains microbes for digesting cellulose
rumen
forms part of the reticulum
omasum
absorbs salts and water from partially chewed food