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Terms in this set (53)
Little rock 9
1st group of black students who were able to attend an all white school because President Eisenhower used the military to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision
Separate but equal
racially segregated but ostensibly ensuring equal opportunities to all races.
Brown vs. board of ed
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Plessy vs. ferguson
(1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provide that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.
An American activist and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He helped the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott as well as his March on Washington and his "I have a Dream" Speech. He was assassinated on April 4, 1968. He was significant b/c he was a major reason for such a push for civil rights.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration. He changed his views, but was assassinated in 1965.
Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.
1961-1963, Democrat, both parties had the platform of civil rights planks and a national health program, used president to be elected and first Roman Catholic
Vise President to JFK,1963-1969, deomcrat, passed civil rights act of 64, included a program called Great Society, presidency based on vietnam war, passed Gulf of Tonkin and said "to take any measures nessesary",decided to escalate American involvement in Vietnam, proved to be extremely unpopular
He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
began in Greensboro, North Carolina when four students sat at a "whites only" lunch counter.
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
1964 effort to register African American voters in Mississippi
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
14th Amendment (1868)
Citizenship to everyone born in the U.S.
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam
A 1954 conference that divided Vietnam at the seventeenth parallel
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Economic crisis of 1973 that occurred when OPEC nations refused to export oil to Western nations. Ensuing economic crisis plagued Gerald Ford's time in office.
Fall of Saigon
Marked the end of the Vietnam War in April, 1975 when North Vietnamese invaded South Vietnam, forcing all Americans left to flee in disarray as the capitol was taken
Mexican American civil rights movement
Chicano Movement had 4 goals:
1. Restoration of land grants
2. Farm workers' rights
4. Political rights
Also wanted to preserve the cultural and linguistic identity of Mexican Americans.
Plan that brought laborers from Mexico to work on American farms
United Farm Workers Organizing Committee wanted CA's large fruit & vegetable companies to accept their union as the bargaining agent for the farm workers. Chavez convinced supermarkets & shoppers to boycott CA grapes.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Leader of the Nation of Islam
(Communism)a state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare, in particular.
Warsaw Pact (1955)
Soviet Allies that agreed to protect each other in the even of an attack
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Proxy Wars of the Cold War
A war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. While powers have sometimes used governments as proxies, violent non-state actors, mercenaries, or other third parties are more often employed. It is hoped that these groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Standoff between John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in October 1962 over Soviet plans to install nuclear weapons in Cuba. Although the crisis was ultimately settled in America's favor and represented a foreign-policy triumph for Kennedy, it brought the world superpowers perilously close to the brink of nuclear confrontation.
Korean War (1950-1953)
North Korea (aided by SU) fighting to take over South Korea (Aided by US)
Marshall Plan (1947)
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe on condition they wouldn't go communist. Helped contain communism in Europe and helped our economy as Europe bought from US businesses to rebuild.
Truman Doctrine (1947)
A policy set forth by U.S. President Harry S Truman stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere.
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country
A nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972.
Dimension of the red scare of the 1950s that targeted the homosexual community as loyalty and because of their perceived lack of morality and security risks because communist influences could use blackmailing threats of exposing closeted homosexuals for American intelligence.
Stonewall Riots (1969)
Violent clashes between police and gay patrons of New York City's Stonewall Inn, seen as the starting point of the modern gay rights movement.
1st openly gay politician in Calif.; one of only a very few in the US at the time. Assassinated while in office; Helped to erase the stigma of being openly homosexual.
fiction that concerns the nature of fiction itself, either by reinterpreting a previous fictional work or by drawing attention to its own fictional status.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
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