Final Review 4 Electricity, Magnetism, and Energy
Terms in this set (30)
What is electricity? What 2 types of electricity are there?
Electricity is the movement of electric charge. The 2 types are static and current electricity.
Who was Nikola Tesla?
Tesla was a Serbian-American scientist who discovered Alternating Current (and many other electricity related discoveries!).
What are the 3 main subatomic particles and their charges?
Neutrons: Neutral, Protons: Positive, Electrons: Negative
What is the difference between electrical conductor and electrical insulator?
A conductor is a substance that allows electricity to flow freely, and an insulator is a material that resists the flow of electrons.
What is a static charge?
An unbalanced positive or negative electric charge on an object
How do positive and negative charges interact?
Opposite charges attract each other and like charges repel each other.
What are the 3 main ways that an electric charge can be transferred?
Contact, Conduction, Induction
What is electric current?
Electric current is the flow of electrons along a path.
How do the charges build up and move during lightning (page 314)?
Negative charges build up at the bottom of a cloud, which also repels negative charges on the ground, making the ground more positive. When enough positive and negative charges build up, the attractive force causes a lightning strike.
How do the charges build up and move when using a Van de Graaff generator (page 316)?
The belt helps remove negative charges from the dome, making it positive (and anyone touching it positive). From there, static charge builds up until it is released.
What is an electrical circuit?
An enclosed path with conductors, at least a power source, and at least one device.
How is the flow of electrons in a circuit like the flow of water?
If the water is the electric charge, then the water pressure is the voltage, the water traveling through the hose is current, and the diameter of the hose is resistance.
How are electrical current, resistance, and voltage related? What are the symbols and units of each?
V is the symbol for voltage, measured in volts (V). I is the symbol for electric current, which is measured in amperes (A). R is the symbol for electric resistance, measured in ohms (Ω).
How can Ohm's law be used to calculate voltage, current, and resistance? (Ohm's Law Triangle)
Formula: V=IR Ohm's Law Triangle: Draw a triangle with voltage at the top, and resistance and current in two boxes on the bottom. Cover up the value that you want to find, and it will make your equation.
What is the difference between a series circuit and a parallel circuit? How can you tell which is which?
A series circuit has only one path through which electrical current can flow, but a parallel circuit contains more than one path through which current can flow. Series circuits are typically arranged in a sequence, with one device after another in a circle formation. If you remove a device the entire circuit is open. In a parallel circuit, devices are arranged so that there are multiple paths of electrical current. If you remove one device, the others can still operate.
What electrical safety measures can normally be found around the house?
Circuit breakers, GFCIs, and fuses all break the circuit if the current surges.
What is a magnet? What is a magnetic pole? Where's the magnetic force the strongest?
A magnet is any object that attracts the metal iron. A magnetic pole is a place on a magnet where the force it applies is strongest. This means that the magnetic force is strongest at the poles.
How can you observe magnetic field lines?
You can use iron filings to see where the magnetic field lines are.
What causes the Earth's magnetic field?
Molten ferromagnetic elements (iron and nickel) in Earth's outer core.
What are the 3 main ferromagnetic elements?
Iron, nickel, cobalt
What are magnetic domains?
A region in which the magnetic fields of all atoms are lined up in the same direction.
What is the difference between a temporary magnet and a permanent magnet?
A permanent magnet remains a magnet after being removed from a magnetic field, whereas a temporary magnet loses its magnetic field after being removed from a magnetic field.
What is energy? What's the difference between potential and kinetic energy?
Energy is the ability to cause change. Kinetic energy is energy due to motion, as opposed to potential energy which is stored energy due to the interactions between objects or particles.
What is work? How is work calculated?
Work is the transfer of energy that occurs when a force is applied over a distance. Work = Force x distance W = F x d.
What is the law of conservation of energy?
Energy can be transformed from one form into another or transferred from one region to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.
How can energy change between different forms?
Energy can change between kinetic and potential energy and can also change between chemical energy, radiant energy, electrical energy, thermal energy, etc.
How does friction affect the moving object?
Friction is a force that resists the sliding of 2 objects that are touching. It slows down objects and causes them not to not move as far or as fast as they would without friction.
What is thermal energy? What's the difference between temperature and heat?
Thermal energy is the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of the particles that make up an object. Heat is the transfer of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler one. Temperature is the average kinetic energy.
What are the 3 ways thermal energy can be transferred?
Thermal energy can be transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection
What are the 3 temperature scales currently in use?
Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit
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