Terms in this set (46)
Tenement House Act of 1879
Failed state legislation that required tenement buildings to provide only a narrow airshaft between adjacent structures and only two toilets per floor. Resulted in "dumbbell tenements" notorious for poor living conditions.
Jane Addams (1860 - 1935)
Housing reformer who founded Hull House, a settlement house, in Chicago in 1889. Settlement houses were a response to Dickensian urban squalor and attracted educated middle-class people to live in poor urban neighborhoods to provide social and educational services
Jacob Riis (1849 - 1914)
Photojournalist who provided the stimulus to housing reform with the publication of two books: How the Other Half Lives (1890) and Children of the Poor (1892).
Tenement House Act of 1901
State legislation that improving lighting and ventilation in tenements, and required toilets and running water in each unit. Outlawed the dumbbell design of 1879 New York City Tenement House Law
Lawrence Veiller (1872 - 1959)
Housing reformer in New York City. Wrote Housing Reform (1910) and helped draft the 1901 Tenement House Law
Mary Simkhovitch (1867 - 1951)
Social worker and housing reformer in the New York City settlement movement. Founded the settlement house, Greenwich House in 1902.
1909 Conference of City Planning
Represented a transition from planning by laypersons and professionals in allied fields to planning by professional planners. This was a shift from planning supported by the citizen activist- and business-dominated City Beautiful movement to the view that municipal governments should assume planning functions and hire professional city planners.
Catherine Bauer Wurster (1905 - 1964)
American urban planner and public housing advocate. A leading member of the "housers," a group of planners who advocated affordable housing for low-income families, she dramatically changed social housing practice and law in the United States. Her influential book Modern Housing was published in 1934.
Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)
Non-publicly traded corporation created in 1934 under the New Deal to guarantee investors timely payment of principal and interest on loans
Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae)
Government-sponsored enterprise founded in 1938 under the New Deal. Its purpose is to expand the secondary mortgage market by securitizing mortgages in the form of mortgage-backed securities (MBS), allowing lenders to reinvest their assets into more lending and in effect increasing the number of lenders in the mortgage market by reducing the reliance on locally-based savings and loan associations (aka "thrifts").
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac)
Government-sponsored enterprise founded in 1970 to expand the secondary market for mortgages in the US. Along with other GSEs, it buys mortgages on the secondary market, pools them, and sells them as a mortgage-backed security to investors on the open market. This secondary mortgage market increases the supply of money available for mortgage lending and increases the money available for new home purchases.
Gautreaux Project (1976)
Court-ordered housing desegregation experiment conducted in Chicago. Allowed public housing residents and people on public housing waiting lists to use Section 8 vouchers to rent housing in the Chicago suburbs, rather than only in the central city. Tested and confirmed the hypothesis that greater housing choice results in greater economic and education opportunities.
HUD-recognized standard that holds no more than 30 percent of one's take-home income should go toward housing costs.
A measure of the financial affordability of a family to buy a house, published by the National Association of Realtors. 100 means that a family earning the national median income has exactly enough money to qualify for a mortgage on a median-priced home. > 100 means more than sufficient income, <100 means insufficient income.
Village of Belle Terre v. Boraas (1974)
A U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld the constitutionality of a residential zoning ordinance that limited the number of unrelated individuals who may inhabit a dwelling. The municipality was a Long Island college town that sought to preserve peace and quiet in the neighborhood.
Southern Burlington NAACP v. Township of Mount Laurel a.k.a. Mt. Laurel 1 (1975)
New Jersey Supreme Court case that struck down an exclusionary zoning ordinance adopted by a Philadelphia suburb that prevented the construction of affordable housing for poor and moderate-income families. The court ordered individual jurisdictions to rewrite zoning laws to accommodate the need for providing a fair share of the affordable housing stock.
Moore v. City of East Cleveland (1977)
U.S. Supreme Court case that struck down an ordinance that had the effect of making illegal the shared occupancy of closely related individuals (a grandmother and her grandchildren). In addition, the Court ruled that cities could not define family to exclude closely related individuals from living together.
Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp. (1977)
A case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court dealing with a zoning ordinance that forbade multi-family apartments to be built in a neighborhood zoned for single-family detached dwellings. The plaintiff argued the ordinance in effect barred families of various socio-economic, and ethno-racial backgrounds from residing in a neighborhood. The Court held that the ordinance was constitutional because there was no evidence of intentional racial discrimination.
Southern Burlington NAACP v. Township of Mount Laurel a.k.a. Mount Laurel II (1983)
The New Jersey Supreme Court, in response to noncompliance with the Mount Laurel I constitutional mandate, decided to establish criteria known as "affirmative measures" for determining fair share requirements in growth areas in New Jersey. They included the removal of restrictive barriers, density bonuses, mandatory set asides, and mobile home zoning.
City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center, Inc (1985)
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a town outside Fort Worth, TX did not have the right to deny the living center a permit for a group home for the mentally retarded because there was no rational basis for the prohibition.
Federal Home Loan Bank system (1932)
Twelve U.S. government-sponsored banks that provide stable, on-demand, low-cost funding to American financial institutions (not individuals) for home mortgage loans, small business, rural, agricultural, and economic development lending.
Housing Act of 1934 (a.k.a. Capehart Act)
New Deal legislation passed during the Great Depression in order to make housing and home mortgages more affordable. It created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. It also created the United States Housing Authority to make low-interest, long term loans to local public agencies for slum clearance and construction of low-income dwellings. It was designed to stop the tide of bank foreclosures on family homes. Both the FHA and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation worked to create the backbone of the mortgage and home building industries
Housing Act of 1937 (a.k.a. Wagner-Steagall Act)
Federal legislation that provided for subsidies to be paid from the U.S. government to local public housing agencies (LHAs) to improve living conditions for low-income families. Empowered LHAs to determine local housing needs, construct, and operate public housing projects as well as engage in slum clearance.
Housing and Home Finance Agency (1947)
Predecessor to HUD. All federal housing programs were consolidated under this agency.
Housing Act of 1949
Federal legislation that enabled a sweeping expansion of the federal role in mortgage insurance and issuance and the construction of public housing. Ushered in the Urban Renewal period. It was part of President Harry Truman's program of domestic legislation, the Fair Deal. About 800,000 new units were constructed under its provisions. Focused on slum clearance and urban renewal.
Urban Renewal (1949 - 1973)
Redevelopment program initiated under the Housing Act of 1949, administered by HHFA and later HUD. Used eminent domain to assemble, clear, and rebuild sites, which were then sold or leased to private developers at below market value.
Housing Act of 1954
Federal legislation that expanded the Urban Renewal program. Consolidated previous piecemeal housing studies and instituted comprehensive housing and community redevelopment planning. Contributed substantially to the establishment of planning departments.
Housing Act of 1959
Federal legislation that made federal funds available for comprehensive planning at the metropolitan, regional, and state level.
Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965
Federal legislation that created HUD (successor to HHFA) as a cabinet level agency.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
a.k.a. Fair Housing Act. First federal law prohibiting housing discrimination.
Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968
Federal legislation that enacted the New Communities Act, which provided funding for private development of new towns. Provided funding for the construction of six million subsidized housing units.
Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970
Federal legislation that created Community Development Corporations (CDCs) to emphasize economic and community development in central cities and low-income areas.
Section 8 Housing (1974)
Housing assistance program established under Nixon Administration. Recipients pay only 30% of their income towards housing and the federal government pays the difference. Federal government's main source of housing assistance to low-income households.
Housing and Community Development Act of 1974
Federal legislation that instituted the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), which reshaped housing policy and community development by replacing the categorical grant with the flexible block grant as the principal form of federal aid for local community development. Consolidated the Urban Renewal, Model Cities, and Public Facilities programs administered by HUD. Increased local decision-making power in how federal funds were spent.
Emergency Housing Act of 1975
Federal legislation that provides emergency federal relief for underemployed and unemployed homeowners. Authorized HUD to provide short-term assistance to help defray mortgage payments for persons temporarily unemployed or underemployed as the result of poor economic conditions.
Tax Reform Act of 1986
Federal legislation that created the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) as an alternate method of funding low-income housing. Enabled non-profit housing organizations to raise housing construction funds by selling tax credits to investors and corporations. Resulted in emergence of institutional investors for affordable housing construction and is the Republic Party's alternative to HUD supplying construction money.
McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987
Federal legislation that provides federal money for homeless shelter programs. It was the first significant federal legislative response to homelessness. Established the Continuum of Care concept
Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988
Federal legislation that expanded the scope of fair housing provisions to cover community residences, group homes, and halfway houses; and to prohibit housing discrimination on the basis of age and disability.
Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act of 1990
Federal legislation that established the Home Ownership Made Easy (HOME) program, which provides matching federal funds to local government expenditures for low-income housing needs.
HOPE VI (1992)
HUD program established to replace the many large-scale, low-quality public housing projects with smaller, low-rise, higher-quality, mixed income buildings.
Housing Opportunity Extension Act of 1996
Federal legislation that established "one strike you're out" in public housing, requiring tenants living in housing projects or otherwise receiving housing assistance from the federal government to be evicted if they, or any guest or visitor under their more-or-less direct control, engage in certain types of criminal activity on or, in some cases, even off the premises of said housing.
Manufactured Housing Improvement Act of 2000
Federal legislation that established installation and building standards for manufactured homes.
Under local ordinance or zoning law, the requirement to include affordable and/or specific types of housing; sometime in exchange for bonuses. Leading case is Mount Laurel (1975).
Practice of allowing developers to make payments, usually to the local housing authority or an affordable housing trust fund, in lieu of providing affordable housing units with a given development project.
Linkage fee (a.k.a. impact fee)
Typically assessed on commercial or industrial development. Rationale is that the additional jobs created by the new commercial or industrial development create a need for additional housing, which the fee is used to construct.
Continuum of care
The current federal policy model for addressing homelessness. A community plan to organize and deliver housing and services to meet the needs of people who are homeless as they move to stable housing and maximize self-sufficiency.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
American Government - Your Voice, Your Future | Matthew Kerbel
Federal Mortgage Related REAL
Chapter 1: Mortgage Lending Overview
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Natural Resources + Environmental Quality
AICP - Economics, Demographics, & Data