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Sensation and Perception
Terms in this set (58)
Which of the following best describes the Platonic view of vision and the world?
The Platonic View of vision and the world is that there is a "real world" but our mortal senses are only capable of sampling a small subsection of that world, just the 'shadows on a cave wall'
Which of the following is the alternative view which is illustrated in the writing of Friedrich Nietzsche?
There is no real world, only the world we create in our heads
The world that we visually sense is entirely dependent upon......
Our retina. It is the only direct contact we have with the outside world, and different for everyone. It works out the colour and brightness of an image then adds form, structure, motion and depth.
Excitation refers to.......
Neurons firing action potentials continually along their synapses from one neuron to the other to result in a response
Sensation refers to....
What you actually experience as a result of the neurons firing action potentials
What do L,M and S denote when applied to cones?
Different cones sensitive to different wavelengths. Long = reddish, M= greenish, S = blueish
The branch of psychology dealing with the interaction between physical stimuli and mental phenomena
The crux of the argument between Hering and Helmholtz was...
Helmholtz = 3 receptors sensitive to blue, red or green, applies to retina
Herings = black-white, blue-yellow and red-green, applies to brain
Herings theory was made in opposition to Helmholtz
The spectral sensitivity of the three cone types must overlap because
Otherwise we would only see green, blue and red independently and we would not see other colours
A colour space is
A mathematical model describing the way colour can be represented as tuples of numbers
Your sensation on a particular colour depends on
The unique distribution of photoreceptors in your retina
The common statement that 'The brain turns the image the right way up' is incorrect because
It ignores the complexity of the process. As soon as the image is inverted relative to the source, it is shattered into a collection of responses to the absorption of photons over space and time
What is red?
Red is a colour we have defined by an arbitrary definition because we have no other way of relaying our interpretation of the colour to someone else without these words.
What reason may you have for expecting the photoreceptors to be physically anchored on the retina despite the observation that this means that there is a neural matter between the light source and the photoreceptor?
Is the presence of a blindspot. This is due to converging neural material in front of the retina, which allows photoreceptors to receive blood and nutrients and prevents light from being reflected.
Opponency confers which of the following properties upon that stage of the system?
The theory of opponency records the differences/opposites between colour or stimuli
Which statement best describes a receptive field?
A receptive field is a region within which a neuron responds to appropriate stimulation
What is the most likely format of the first spatially structured receptive fields in the visual system?
Centre - surround organisation.
The receptive field arrangement referred to in Question 17 confers what properties to the system?
The property of opponency
Why, when considering the processing of the neural signal is the actual physical location of any visual neurone other than the photoreceptors, arbitrary?
Because all receptive fields in the visual system have some relationship to the same x, y, t space that constitues the axes of visual input.
Why, however is the relative location of any sensory neurone potentially important?
Because sensory neurones have to receive input from the outside world, and this is dependant on the stimulus, relative positions of neurones allow different information to be taken in from different angles.
What is meant by the term "retinotopic mapping"?
Occurs in lower visual areas where neurons are organised in an orderly fashion. They form a 2D representation of the visual image formed on the retina in a way that neighbouring regions of the image are represented by neighbouring regions of the visual area
The term 'phase-coherance' refers to the hypothesis that...
An edge/border is signalled consistently across all scales of analysis
The idea of modularity in visual processing refers to...
The systems components can be separated and re-combined. Form, motion, colour and depth are processed separately, but combine to form the final image
What reason may you have for questioning the assumption that the LGN is just a relay station for signal travelling from the retina to the cortex?
May be flawed as there are many connections carrying signals from the cortex back to the LGN, suggesting it may have a larger role
Taken as a population, primary visual cortex (V1) neurons have what critical property?
V1 neurons represent every aspect of the image we can see, but in a sparse fashion. Receptive fields are selective rudimentary properties of colour, motion, depth and form. From here, information is transmitted to visual corticals that are more specialized
What is an example of an artificial receptive field?
What is the binding problem?
Refers to the process used by the brain to combine the results of many sensory operations into a single percept. We dont know why?
What is the potential problem with the binding problem?
We're assuming that because we have a clear understanding of the world, we assume the brain knows the same. There is nothing that coherant and clear and we shouldnt assume
An example of context-dependency in vision is...
Improved recall of specific episodes or information when the context present at encoding and retrieval
And attentionally-controlled motion system may...
Allow isolation of a particular aspect of motion. Attention modulated motion is the isolation of a particular aspect of motion so that we are not overwhelmed by input of information
The visual system appears to dissociate motion signals elicited by eye-movements or from retinal motion by...
The In-Flow Hypothesis: feedback from the eye-movement.
The Out-Flow Hypothesis: feedback from the commanding signal.
The spatial structure of natural textures is consistent with the properties of the system because...
Small receptive fields constitute fine edges and complex textures while larger receptive fields constitute thick edge and large space
"adaptation" refers too..
Adaptation is a functional component of the nervous system that solves a particular reproductive problem. Information processing is the highly abstract domain upon which psychological adaptations are thought to operate.
what is meant by the term "parallel processing"...
The ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality. This becomes most important in vision, as the brain divides what it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth.
The terms M and P in the context of the visual system refer to...
Two types of LGN cells: Magnocellular (input from Parasol Ganglion cells) and Parvocellular (input from Midget Ganglion cells).
Information is the perception that our sensory organs create of the outside world. Thus, what we see is translated into information for the brain to process so that we see what we see.
A vector is...
A vector is a quantity having direction as well as magnitude, especially as determining the position of one point in space relative to another.
The theoretical hierarchy established by David Marr is..
An informational processing system where there are 3 ways to approach a problem. Define the problem clearly then look for a solution, then look for implementation. Do not limit yourself when you might not know everything about the problem
"Retino-cortical expansion" refers too....
"Retino-cortical expansion" refers to the fact that there are more cortical neurons dedicated to figure out what's going on in the visual field.
The two most likely kinds of motion detector in the human visual system are called...
The basic one dimensional motion detector and Spatiotemporal Gradient
Three critical dimensions of vision are...
x, y and t (time)
Biological Motion describes...
The unique visual phenomenon of a moving, animate object. Often, the stimuli used in biological motion experiments are just a few moving dots that reflect the motion of some key joints of the moving organism
Interaction between V1 orientation-selective receptive fields follows what laws?
ON orientation excitation, OFF orientation inhibition, no change if across bout ON/OFF regions.
One critical similarity between the visual and auditory systems is...
Both have the ability to percieve the speed and direction of a moving object. Both systems also interact to coordinate and direct attention to one modality or the other and to control subsequent action
One critical difference between visual and auditory systems is..
Visual system has a set receptive field within the photoreceptors. The auditory systems receptive field is not confined to a particular region
The visual system is sensitive to
Light. The receptors in humans eyes are only able to detect a restricted portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, from 400-700 nanometres.
The auditory system is sensitive to
Sound waves, which have 3 properties: frequency, complexity and amplitude
What aspect of the relationship between the stimulus and the cortical representation is different between vision and audition
The visual system exhibits some form of cortical magnification whereas the auditory system does not. (Varies a bit but relatively constant)
What is it meant by tonotopic mapping?
Spatial arrangements of where sounds of different frequencies are processed in the brain
What is one way in which the auditory system may deal with the problem of dealing with a unidimensional input?
Shape of ears being different and separating wavelengths of sound
Place theory in hearing refers to...
"Place theory" in hearing holds that different areas of the basilar membrane (specifically hair cells) are maximally sensitive to different frequencies.
Frequency Theory in hearing refers to...
"Frequency theory" in hearing proposes that the more frequently a sound wave cycles, the more frequently the basilar membrane vibrates and its hair cells fire.
A form of parallel processing in the auditory system is implemented in the cochlear nucleus by...
A form of parallel processing in the auditory system is implemented in the cochlear nucleus by the divergence of auditory signals received.
What critical neural interaction is affected by, among other things, hallucinogenic drugs?
The ability to inhibit certain signals is weakened. Results in more noise as all signals are received whether they are useful or not, and meaning is gained from them. Increases an individuals' awareness of background noise.
What is the problem for a system that needs to have a high sensitivity to both time and frequency in its input?
Its difficult to separate
Your experience of reality is....
Your experience of reality is entirely unique and different to everyone else's.
One fish, two fish...
Red fish, blue fish
What are the doors of perception?
Our limits of seeing the world objectively, and we cant get through that door without drugs
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