Western Europe: Middle Ages and Renaissance
Terms in this set (47)
Also known as the medieval period, the time between the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century AD and the beginning of the Renaissance in the fourteenth century.Europe's medieval period (also called the Middle Ages) is commonly
regarded as starting in the late 6th century CE. It lasted about 1000 years.
A number of factors influenced the societies of medieval Europe. The most
important were feudalism, manorialism, and the spread of Christianity.
These factors helped to preserve social order and stability for many
Germanic people who eventually settled near England. The Angles and Saxons influenced development of English language heavily.
Came from Scandinavia, also called Northmen or Norsemen, and Danes. Sea warriors, they built amazing ships that held 300 warriors, could hold 30 tons. Raided villages and monastaries. Also traded and farmed. Journeyed to Russia and Constantinople. Gradually excepted Christianity.
A member of the western Goths that invaded the Roman Empire in the fourth century A.D. and settled in France and Spain, establishing a monarchy that lasted until the early eighth century.
An outbreak of the plague under Justinian allowed this tribe led by Totila to overcome Belisarius' forces and recapture northern Italy and Rome.
Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
Charles Martel, Pepin the Short, and Charlemagne all belong to THIS Frankish dynasty, A series of Frankish rulers including Pepin and Charlemagne lasting from 751 to 987
Holy Roman Empire
Central and western European kingdom created at the Treaty of Verdun in in 843 and lasting until 1806.
Treaty of Verdun
-Charlemagne's descendant's treaty that divided the empire into three parts. This weakened the empire and increased invasions.
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
he founded a monastery in northern Italy in the 6th century and wrote a set of instructions governing the lives of monks that was used by monasteries and convents across Europe.
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
A severe penalty imposed by the Church for serious sins against the Catholic religion; it brings exclusion from participation in the sacramental life of the Church
An ecclesiastical censure, by which the church of Rome forbids the performance of divine service in a kingdom, province, town, etc.
the official list of laws by which the Church governs itself
"The Hammer" the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
Battle of Tours
732 AD Christians defeat Muslim invaders and stop the spread of Islam into Europe
"Charles the Great" leader of the Franks (France); unified most of the Christian lands of Europe with the help of Pope Leo III who crowned him "Holy Roman Emperor" 800 c.e.
A ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials. Whoever controlled this held the real power in naming bishops, who were very influential clergy that kings sought to control.
Practice of the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages wherein Church leaders sold high Church positions. This practice was used to gain power for sons who would not inherit family wealth and land because of birth order.
Concordat of Worms
A compromise between the king and the Pope that started that the church alone could grant a bishop his church power but his power could be vetoed by the king.
A style of church architecture developed during the 1100s characterized by tall spires and flying buttresses
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
Land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord. A peasant.
A person who received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services
a mounted soldier serving under a feudal superior in the Middle Ages. (in Europe in the Middle Ages) a man, usually of noble birth, who after an apprenticeship as page and squire was raised to honorable military rank and bound to chivalrous conduct.
a code of behavior for knights in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion.
Law The right of the eldest child, especially the eldest son, to inherit the entire estate of one or both parents.
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade(Holy War)
12th-century Muslim ruler; reconquered most of the crusader kingdoms. Famous in the Third Crusade .(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
Richard the Lion-Hearted
English king, leader of the Third Crusade, agreed to a truce with Saladin
William the Conqueror
1027-1087 Norman king in 1066 he defeated Harold, the Anglo-Saxon king, to become the first Norman king of england, (c. 1027-1087) King of England from 1060 to 1087; he was a powerful French noble who conquered England and brought feudalism to England.
In 1154, He became king of England, broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law and establishing royal courts. Married to Eleanor of Aquitaine, father of King John. Great grandson of William the Conqueror.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
• Famous women in medieval history • Most wealthy and powerful women of the 12th century • Inherited Aquitaine • Married Louis VII • 4 daughters together • Marries Henry II and has 5 sons
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
(n.) an opinion different from accepted belief; the denial of an idea that is generally held sacred
a feudal superior; the proprietor of a manor.
When and where did migrating and invading groups disrupt life in medieval Europe?
The Barbarians disrupted European life from c. 400 to 900A.D. This was originally a generic term, used by the Romans, to refer to any non-Romans. The Gauls were referred to as "barbarians", even by the mighty orator Cicero.
How were the Frankish kings able to rise to prominence in Western Europe, and what were their most important accomplishments?
A. The Franks expanded, rather than migrating, into the empire. Their numbers were constantly increased by men and women from the old heartland of Frankish lands. They advanced relatively slowly and were never in a position to be threatened, as the Vandals and other tribes had been, by the great numbers of their Roman subjects.
B. They were protected by geography from the Muslims and eastern Romans. Neither the Muslims nor the Byzantines attempted to extend their power to the Frankish homeland far to the north.
C. Their opponents were generally weak or distracted. Neither Syagrius nor the Allemanni were particularly powerful, and the Visigoths and Burgundians were troubled by the unrest of their subjects, who welcome the Catholic Franks and worked against their Arian masters.
D. Their government was primitive
Most important achievement was victory at tours
How did the Roman Catholic Church become the dominant influence in West Europe in the Middle Ages?
Control of knowledge, and knowledge is power From the fifth century, the Church limited access to education and literacy, on the basis that only the clergy.
What roles did the Church Play in the Lives of Europeans in the Middle Ages?
Though the Roman Catholic Church became increasingly involved in secular concerns during the Middle Ages (500-1350), it played a much larger part in medieval European life. Missionaries converted many of the Germanic tribes; thus, the church was influential in civilizing these so-called barbarians. Further, churches throughout Europe housed travelers and served as hospitals for the sick. Monasteries and cathedrals became centers of learning.
What were the economic, social, and political effects of Feudalism?
It was Nobles at the top, followed by lords, then Lesser lords, then knights, then peasants (which made up about 90% of the population).
Politically, the Church had the most power.
The Pope could excommunicate a lord and leave him and his peasants with nothing.
Excommunication means: Exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey Church laws.
Economically, the images should explain that peasants farmed for the lords which made money off them.
Socially, Sundays was the only day off.
Peasants would go to Church, as well as everyone else.
Sunday was the day where everyone met up and enjoyed themselves.
The Feudal System
Give large land grants to Upper Lords called fiefs
Receives money, military service, and advice
Give land grants to Lesser Lords
Receives money, military service
Give land grants to knights
Receives money, military service
Give land to peasants/serfs
Receives crops, labor
Receives land to farm
Pays with labor, crops