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Unbroken Ch 18-24
Terms in this set (72)
What was thrown into Louie's cell?
two pieces of hardtack (dry biscuit that was the standard fare of sailors), and a tiny cup of tea (weak and equal to about a swallow)
Why did a Kwajalein native strike up a "conversation" with Louie?
Louie and Phil were the talk of the island because of Louie's track career (very popular in Japan)
Why was life in Louie's cell so ominous and miserable?
he was forced to have his face shoved over the waste hole, was starved, beaten, had to deal with flies, diarrhea, and sweltering heat. he was treated like an animal, and couldn't sing, talk, or whistle.
Why was Louie's thirst worse than what he had experienced on the raft?
he experienced such a substantial fluid loss from diarrhea
What was Louie's guess as to why he and Phil were being treated so horribly?
miscommunication, neither understood each other, Japanese were trying to torture POWs by taking away their dignity
What was the cumulative effect of the guard's humiliation and dehumanization of Louie?
he felt lonely and found his hope dwindling
"Dignity is as essential to human life as water, food, and oxygen." "In places like Kwajalein, degradation could be as lethal as a bullet" (189). Explain these two quotes.
Dignity is just as essential to life as is food and water. It keeps you sane and human. The Japanese's methods of degradation were so extreme that captives found it worse than, for example, living stranded on a raft like Louie. The Japanese thought of honor as most important, so they thought that taking it away from the captives would be extreme punishment.
What information were the Japanese seeking during their interrogation of the captives?
the model of Louie's plane, Louie's knowledge of the E-model B-24, the location of the radar system, info about a Norden bombsight, and a drawing of a B-24D and radar system
How did one guard, Kawamura, defend Louie after Louie was mistreated by another sadistic guard?
Kawamura told Louie to point out the guard who abused him, and he beat him up
How did a submarine crew of some 80-90 men abuse the prisoners?
the men tormented the prisoners by shouting at them, spitting on them, hitting them with rocks, hurling sticks, etc.
How were the prisoner treated like "lab rats?" What were the effects upon them?
the prisoners were injected with various solutions that the Japanese were testing. effects could be lethal causing their skin to burn, itch, sting and develop a rash; thousands died
While in his cell, what disease did Louie contract
dengue fever, a potentially fatal mosquito-borne illness that was ravaging the tropics; he had a headache, dizziness, achy bones, and a baking fever
What reward did Louie receive for describing the air bases on Hawaii?
cola, a biscuit, and a pastry
In lieu of execution, what was Louie's next destination?
a POW in Yokohama, Japan
Presumably, why did Louie receive a broken nose?
he told a drunken Japanese soldier that America would win the war; retaliation because the Japanese also found a picture of Louie in his efforts in the invasion of Wake
What was one benefit of being locked in an officer's cabin as Louie recovered from his broken nose?
he found and drank a bottle of sake
After getting off the Japanese naval ship, where was Louie taken?
he was brought into a car which took him to the POW camp
After a disinfecting bath, what surprise awaited Louie in an unlit room?
his old friend Jimmie Sasaki
What was Jimmie's current job?
he was a civilian employee of the Japanese navy, which had made him head interrogator of all POWs in Japan. he supposedly had the same rank as an admiral
Louie was informed that, in fact, he had not been taken to a POW camp. What was it?
"It was a secret interrogation center called Ofuna, where "high-value" captured men were housed in solitary confinement, starved, tormented, and tortured to divulge military secrets" (198).
What were three rules there?
No speaking to anyone except for the guards.
No eye contact will be made with other captives; they were to be directed downwards at all times.
The captives were to learn Japanese.
What was a "favorite punishment" there?
the Ofuna crouch, a painful and strenuous position in which men stood with knees bent and arms raised
What were two primary characteristics of the guards? (200)
"One was marked stupidity. The other was murderous sadism" (200).
Explain the phrase "transfer of oppression" (201).
Many Japanese guards were low ranking, which caused them to be the ones mainly embodied with sadism, as "transfer of oppression" caused them to overcome with the need to beat, since they were beaten by higher officials themselves (taking out their anger).
It seems that the Ofuna guards had ingested "the fatal poison of irresponsible power" (202). What does this mean?
The Japanese guards experienced a similar situation to Frederick Douglass' mistress when he was a slave. He guards, like his mistress, had no restraints on the brutality they could create upon others, causing them to become intoxicated with "the fatal poison of irresponsible power" (202).
What misconception did Louie had regarding being transferred to a POW camp (Ofuna)?
he thought that he would be treated with the humane rules of international law and put in contact with the Red Cross and his family
Whom did Louie befriend at Ofuna? How did his friend get there?
William Harris; he swam 8.5 hours after getting captures then ran for China after reaching Bataan Peninsula, but got captured again later on my Japanese citizens. he managed to survive by eating ants and even joined a guerrilla band
Why did Louie suspect that no efforts were being made to interrogate him?
Sasaki never pressed Louie during interrogations, and instead wanted to reminisce about USC; Louie suspected he was using his influence to protect him
"Both the forced silence of Ofuna and the bowing submission of its captives were illusions." Explain.
the captives managed to uphold a silent defiance
When did the action suggested by the chapter title (Farting for Hirohito) take place?
after the men saved up intestinal gas, they let it all out when they bowed toward the emperor
What was Louie's personal act of rebellion?
he kept a diary depicting life at camp and contact info of captives
How did the men receive highly coveted news of the war?
information from new captives and newspapers
How did Harris contribute to the prisoner's subterfuge?
he had tools to make books (translation books)
What was the most important effect of "resistance?"
the captives retained their dignity
What was a contributing factor to the prisoner's famine?
camp officials were stealing food and selling it on the black market
When they discovered that Louie was an Olympic runner, how did the guards humiliate Louie?
they forced him to race (and lose) even while he was weak and unprepared
Who was likely a recipient of a Japanese doctor's mercy killing?
Anton Minsaas - traded food for cigarettes
What gift from a Norwegian sailor may have saved Louie's life?
What was ironic in the story offered by a new prisoner form Burbank, CA, named Fred Garrett?
they both were from the Los Angeles area of CA and he and Louie both had been kept in the same Kwajalein cell
What was the result of Louie's defeating a Japanese runner in a 1.5 mile race?
he got clubbed in the skull
In March of 1945, where was Phil taken?
Ashio (a camp where captives were forced to mine copper)
What did Phil do in this new location?
mine copper (possibly forced into slavery)
What happened to the letter Phil sent to Cecy?
it got thrown away, so Phil held on to it in order to give it to her when he sees her in real life
In June 1943, what news of Louie came - and what followed?
Louie's disappearance; "excruciating silence"
What was the source of the Zamperinis' distress?
"Their distress came not from grief but from the certainty that Louie was out there, in trouble, and they couldn't reach him" (220).
Why was Sylvia (Louie's sister) especially distressed?
her husband was also in the war
Why did Sylvia and her father (Anthony) take over the cooking?
their mother had a weeping rash on her hands
What was done with Louie's Christmas gifts in December 1943?
"The gifts would be tucked away in the belief that one day, Louie would come home to open them himself" (222).
What did a serviceman find in the wreckage after the US had obliterated Kwajalein?
the wood that Louie etched his name onto
How did Joe Deasy on Oahu have credible evidence that Phil and Louie had survived the crash?
the report he read described two men on a life raft (a pilot and a bombardier) getting captured and transferred - described the two perfectly
How were the Philipses' reactions to Phil's absence similar to that of the Zamperinis' to Louie's?
they were left in the dark, and were stressed
What message did the War Department send the Zamperinis on June 27, 1944?
Louie was officially declared dead
How did they receive the news?
through a letter in the mail; they were shocked at first but in their hearts did not believe it
For what job did Louie receive rice balls as payment?
a barber for the guards
How did Louie retaliate against a guard who never paid him?
he "accidentally" shaved his eyebrow
Why might the prisoners fear an Allied victory?
the Japanese's "kill all" policy - when the Allies were approaching the Japanese killed all the captives
What information did a newspaper lifted from the camp commander reveal?
"The map confirmed that the Allies were closing in on Japan" (229).
Why was the victory at Saipan a significant step for the Allies?
they knew mainland Japan was in reach
What happened on the island of Tinian? (23)
the Japanese applied the "kill all" policy on 5,000 Korean captives
What happened to the food that was delivered to Ofuna?
rations were being cut because officers were stealing it
What did Louie say was the worst thing he witnessed in the war? (231)
Gaga's death - a guard violated the bird in front of the camp
What caused Louie, Tinker, and Harris to abandon their escape plan?
after an attempted escape of a capture at another POW camp, a new decree was made stating that anyone who tried to escape would be killed and if they did escape, others would be shot as well
What caused Harris to be brutally and unmercifully beaten - and by whom?
his intricate map drawings had been discovered; the Quack
Why was Louie pleased to be leaving Ofuna, headed to Omori?
Omori was a real POW camp and he was told he'd be in touch with the Red Cross
What is a psychopath - and who was introduced as such?
a psychopath is an antisocial person who has no sense of empathy or remorse, and has bold, egotistical traits
What presumably caused this psychopathic personality?
he got rejected from becoming an officer - he was humiliated
"Virtually nothing about Japan's use of POWs was in keeping with the Geneva Convention" (240). What were the results of this disregarded?
captives were treated like slaves, with no regard for their lives, and were paid pennies a week
What was lacking from the prisoners' meager diet?
What signaled an imminent attack of one of the prisoners by Watanabe?
his right eyelid would sag
The many examples included in POW Jack Brady's observation of the Bird: "He was absolutely the most sadistic man I ever met" (243).
- bipolar behavior: he beat up Bush, apologized, then continued to beat up other POWs
- he found pleasure in outrageous and sadistic beatings
- he mistreated and beat up other officers because it gained "respect"
- he challenged men's sanity and mentally tormented them
How did his fellow Japanese at Omori feel about Watanabe?
he was despised for his haughtiness and curtness but was also feared because he was so inconsistent and brutal; they loathed him
Why was Watanabe obsessed with inflicting pain on Louie?
Louie had been an officer, defiant, and famous
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