Terms in this set (47)
Simple Triage and Rapid Transport
ABCDE assessment in trauma
Abdominal evisceration - treatment of
The wound is managed in the prehospital setting by covering the eviscerated contents with a moist, sterile gauze or trauma dressing to prevent further contamination and drying. No attempt should be made to replace eviscerated organs into the peritoneal cavity
Abdominal palpation in trauma
Inspect and palpate all four abdominal quadrants
Look for DCAP-BTLS
Feel for tenderness, rigidity, masses
Abdominal rigidity involves abnormal muscle tension or inflexibility of the abdomen, detected when touched or pressed.
When there is a sore area in the abdomen, the pain becomes more intense as the hand presses against it and overcomes the muscular resistance.
A patient's fear or nervousness about being touched (palpated) in the abdominal area is referred to as voluntary rigidity. It usually occurs on both sides of the abdomen. Involuntary rigidity, usually caused by a physical condition, may affect one or both sides and may be associated with pain.
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal tenderness, swelling, and pain often accompany abdominal rigidity.
Aqueous & Vitreous Fluid
The clear, watery fluid circulating in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye
The transparent, jellylike material that fills the space between the lens and the retina
Air embolism in soft tissue injuries
air bag injuries
An airbag can produce significant injury if it is deployed in close proximity (10 inches or closer) to the occupant. Deployment in these situations can produce spinal fractures, hand and eye injury, and facial and forearm abrasions. The following groups are at higher risk of injury from airbag deployment
• Infants and children less than 12 years of age
• Adults of short stature (less than 5'2")
• Older adults
• Persons with special medical conditions
Loss of memory
Remember everything but events leading up to the injury, retrograde amnesia
Remember events after the injury, anterograde amnesia
With partial amputations, make sure to immobilize the part with a bulky compression dressings and a splint to prevent future injury
With a complete amputation, make sure to wrap the part in a sterile dressing and place it in a plastic bag
A localized dilation of a wall of a blood vessel
Normal or congenital unequal pupil size
a condition in which the aorta, the largest artery in the body, is torn or ruptured as the result of trauma. The condition is frequently fatal due to the profuse bleeding that results from the rupture. Since the aorta branches directly from the heart to supply blood to the rest of the body, the pressure within it is very great, and blood may be pumped out of a tear in the blood vessel very rapidly. This can quickly result in shock and death. Thus traumatic aortic rupture is a common killer of victims of automotive accidents and other traumas
Failure of muscle coordination
What is Atelectasis & its cause
An abnormal condition characterized by the collapse of lung tissue, preventing respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Emphysema, improper deep breathing, pneumothorax
Autonomic Nervous system
The part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary vital functions, including the activity of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands; it is subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
The study of the dynamics of projectiles.
The study of the flight characteristics of projectiles.
The study of the functioning of firearms.
The study of the firing, flight, and effects of ammunition.
Basilar Skull Fracture
a fracture of the base of the skull, typically involving the temporal bone, occipital bone, sphenoid bone, and/or ethmoid bone.
Such fractures can cause tears in the membranes surrounding the brain, or meninges, with resultant leakage of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
A respiratory pattern consisting of irregular respirations that very in depth and that are interrupted by intervals of apnea
Primary blast injuries result from sudden changes in environmental pressure. These injuries usually occur in the gas-containing organs and suffer the most severe damage when poorly supported tissue is displaced beyond its elastic limit.
Secondary Blast Injuries
Secondary blast injuries usually result when bystanders are struck by flying debris
injuries occur when victims are propelled through space by an explosion and strike a secondary object. These injuries are similar to those sustained in vertical falls and ejections from automobiles or smaller motor vehicles.
injuries result from radiation exposure and inhalation of dust and toxic gases.
Direct pressure, elevation, pressure point, and only last, tourniquet
Results from Blunt chest trauma
can cause clavicular fractures, rib fractures, flail chest, sternal fractures, closed pneumothorax, open pneumothorax, tension pneumothorax, hemothorax, pulmonary contusion, and traumatic asphyxia
Types of Bones
Long bones, femur
Short bones, radius, ulna
Flat bones, ribs
Irregular bones, vertebrae
Protrusion of an internal organ through a wound or surgical incision, especially in the abdominal wall
•Common finding with stab wounds
•May be seen to a lesser degree with gunshot wounds
Do not replace organs back into abdomen
•Protect organs from further damage
•Cover with sterile saline moistened dressing
is a loss of sensation and motor function (paralysis and ataxia) that is caused by the lateral hemisection (cutting) of the spinal cord
Superficial (first degree) burns
Partial-thickness (second degree) burns
Full-thickness (third degree) burns
A temporary or permanent opening produced by a force that pushes body tissue laterally away from the track of a projectile
Central Cord Syndrome
A spinal cord injury commonly seen with hyperextension or flexion cervical injuries; it is characterized by greater motor impairment of the upper extremities than of the lower ones
An accumulation of fluid in the brain tissue
Cerebral perfusion pressure (CCP)
A measure of the amount of blood flow to the brain
Cerebral Spinal Fluid
Fluid that fills the subarachnoid space in the brain and spinal cord and in the cerebral ventricles
How to treat a chemical burn
Treatment is directed at stopping the burning process. This can best be accomplished by the following:
1. Remove all clothing, including shoes, which can trap concentrated chemicals
2.Brush off powdered chemicals
3.Irrigate the affected area with copious amounts of water
a. Otherwise stable patients, irrigation takes priority over transportation unless irrigation can be continued in route to the emergency department
b. If a large body surface area is involved, a shower should be used for irrigation, if Radley of available
Burns that go around the extremity
the auditory portion of the inner ear.
A fracture in which the bone is broken into more than two fragments
An injury that occurs at a site opposite the side of impact
A closed, soft tissue injury characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain
The appearance of irregularly formed hemorrhagic patches (Bruising) on the skin around the umbilicus
acute pancreatitis, where methemalbumin formed from digested blood tracks around the abdomen from the inflamed pancreas
bleeding from blunt abdominal trauma
bleeding from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm
bleeding from ruptured ectopic pregnancy
the triad of widening pulse pressure (rising systolic, declining diastolic), change in respiratory pattern (irregular respirations), and bradycardia. It is sign of increased intracranial pressure, and it occurs as a result of the Cushing reflex.
An attempt by the body to compensate for a decline in cerebral perfusion pressure by a rise in mean arterial pressure
Penetrations or punctures
When body organs are put into motion after an impact, they continue to move against the structures that attach them to the body
•Risk of separation of body organs from their attachments
•Injury to the vascular pedicle or mesenteric attachment may lead to brisk or exsanguinating hemorrhage
Dermatomes-corresponding spinal nerves
Each of the spinal nerves exits the spinal canal between two of the vertebra. Each then goes to a particular area of the body. The area of skin served by each of these nerves is called its dermatome.
Occur when the normal articulating ends of two or more bones are displaced
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