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Chapter 11: The Nervous System
Terms in this set (48)
Complex network of nervous tissue thay carries electrical messages throughout the body.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Nerves that run everywhere else throughout the body.
The structural and functional units of the nervous system. Transmit nerve impulses.
Electrical signals transmitted by neurons.
Provide support and nutrients for neurons.
Cell body, dendrites, and axon
The three basic parts of a neuron.
Contains nucleus and other cell organelles.
Extend from the cell body and receive nerve impulses from other neurons at specialized junctions called synapses.
The space between neighboring neurons where signals are transmitted.
Long extension of the cell body that transmits nerve impulses to other cells.
Points of communication between neurons.
The protective outer layer of an axon.
A type of glial cell that produces myelin.
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps between Schwann cells.
Carry nerve impulses from tissues and organs to the spinal cord and brain.
Carry nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cords to muscles and glands.
Carry nerve impulses back and forth between sensory and motor neurons. Most numerous.
Electrically charged atoms or molecules.
A neuron at rest is not actively transmitting nerve impulses, but is ready to transmit one.
A sudden reversal of the electrical charge across the membrane of a resting neuron.
A chemical that gets released when action potential reaches the axon terminal.
Most complex organ of the human body. The control center of the nervous system. Contains 100 billion neurons.
Cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem
The three major parts of the brain.
The largest part of the brain. Controls conscious functions like reasoning, language, sight, touch, and hearing.
Processes smell with olfactory bulb and contains the motor cortex, which is important in planning and reasoning.
Located at the top of the brain and is responsible for speech and reading.
Located in the back of the brain and is responsible for vision.
Located at the base of the brain and is involved in interpreting sounds.
Controls a majority of the body's involuntary actions like breathing, heartbeat, and blood flow.
Acts as a gateway to and from the motor cortex. Receives motor and sensory inputs from the body and regulates states of sleep and consciousness.
Controls body temperature, water intake, and energy expenditure (homeostatic controls).
Acts as a relay system between the medulla oblongata, cerebrum, and cerebellum.
Coordinates body movements, like balance.
Connects the rest of the brain with the spinal cord and passes nerve impulses between the brain and spinal cord. Controls unconscious functions, such as heart rate and breathing.
Thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue. Extends from the brain stem and continues down the center of the back to the pelvis. Protected and encased by the vertebrae. Passes messages from the body to the brain and from the brain to the body.
A cable-like bundle of axons.
Sensory and motor
The two major divisions of the PNS.
Carries sensory information from the body to the CNS.
Carries nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
Somatic and autonomic nervous systems
The two divisions of the motor division.
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
Controls mainly voluntary activities that are under conscious control. Made up of nerves that are connected to skeletal muscles. Controls reflexes.
Very rapid motor response that is not directed by the brain.
The nerve pathway operating in a reflex action.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Controls all other involuntary actions and basic functions, like heart rate, breathing, digestion, and sweat production.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
The two divisions of the ANS.
Deals with emergency situations. Fight or flight responses.
Controls involuntary activities that are not emergencies.
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Suzanne M. Keller
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
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