43 terms

Parenting Final


Terms in this set (...)

Ellen Galinsky's authority stage
From the child's second to the fourth or fifth year.
Parents decide what kind of authority to be, how rules are set, what the rules are, when they are enforced, and what happens when they are broken.
Images about discipline approaches can be kept OR revised for harmony.
Problems in the parent-child relationship are inevitable.
Language development and parenting skills
Active & verbal
Increased attention span and memory -> longer time activities
Explore the world through action
Ask 70 - 90 questions an hour: "Why" questions
Rely on person who knows answers
50 words at 19th months -> 10,000 words at age six (learning 5.5 words per day)
Talk a lot with their children
Refer to many topics
Use a variety of words and ask questions
Give children positive feedback about their behavior
Verbal skills predict IQ & reading skills in the following years.
Development of self-regulation
Children learn the rules of life from interactions
Conventions, routines, & moral actions/rules
Children can disobey parents' rules although they have a clear idea of right & wrong.
Preschoolers evaluate actions by their outcomes.
Behavioral control -> collaborate with peers, comply with adults' requests, cognitive performance
Children improve self-regulation in families with fewer stresses.
Promote social competence
Play with children
More verbal interactions & symbolic pretend play as children grow older
Symbolic pretend play: Learn the routines & Develop emotional, social, verbal, intellectual skills.
Ellen Galinsky's interpretive stage
Elementary school years
Parents become more realistic Redefine the authority relationship
Parents share facts and information and interpret the world to their children.
Teach values and guide behavior in certain directions.
Figure out how they want to interpret reality, how to answer questions, what kinds of knowledge, skills, and values to promote.
Parents review what they think, believe, and value.
Translate parents beliefs to their children.
Process involves evaluating their children.
Children create images of what a parent should be like.
Peer relationships
Children spend about 30% or more of time with peers with less supervision.
Relationships grow when children can express thoughts and feelings clearly.
Supported by secure attachments
Model good social skills
How to teach social skills?
1. Ask the child to describe what happened.
2. Ask the child to identify what he/she thinks was the social mistake.
3. Help the child to identify the social error accurately.
4. Provide the alternative options and let the child choose one.
5. Create a social scenario and see if the child recognize the problem.
6. Let the child practice the remedy at least once in the coming week.
Parent and child are collaborators.
Bullying: Characteristics of victims of bullies / how to overcome?
2/3 of aggressive children are overt bullies.
10-15% of children are victims.
Some children are both bullies and victims (become bullies after being victims).
Bullies and victims have low self-esteem, negative views of schools, believing authorities are unfair.
Victims accept the aggression and withdraw, become depressed and develop problem behaviors in the later life.
How to overcome?
Resist bullying with self-assertion.
Positive school climate is related to decreases in bullying.
Programs for building healthy self-esteem and school success prevent bullying.
School: Parents' role
Home routines support children's learning at school.
Parents' belief & attitudes support children's confidence.
Parental involvement in children's learning predicts children's achievement.
Parents' ability to remain calm and positive in helping children maintains confidence.
Advocates for children at times of academic or social difficulties.
The reasons for doing home-schooling
The reason for doing home-schooling: Concerns about safety, drug, negative peer influences, desire to provide religious and moral edu, dissatisfaction with programs.
Ellen Galinsky's interdependent stage
(13 - 18 years old)
Might have shocking changes in the child.
Redefine authority relationship, images
Communicating with teenagers
Setting limits and giving guidance
Parents must accept a separate identity: A gradual process
Distance & closeness / Separateness & connectedness
Separate from the child BUT be available to help the child grow.
Physical development
When does puberty begin?
Dramatic changes in body proportions, sexual maturation, and personality.
Issues with early maturation & late maturation (Boys vs. Girls)
Girls rate physical health as less good than boys of same age; more likely to see doctor, exercise less, diet more
Body schedules change: stay up late, sleep in due to melatonin secretion changes
Parents should maintain regular sleep cycle
Sexual development is related with psychological factors.
Issues with early and late maturation
For girls. Being on time related to greater satisfaction with body and appearance than being early or late. Early maturing girls have more difficulties than late maturing girls, more prone to social anxiety, depression, substance abuse

For boys, being early is related to greater satisfaction with size and physical appearance
Emotional development
More anxieties & nervousness at school
More positive feelings at home w/ family members
Unpredictable conflicts -> loneliness, low self-esteem, depression
Spillover effects at home and school
There is a decline in good feelings & an increase in negative feelings.
Have more good feelings in a day than negative ones.
Positive experience can buffer negative moods.
School experience
Schools do NOT meet needs of teens (big, less personal, high pressure, require level of responsibility, all especially true for younger teens)
Parental involvement is leading predictor of success across ethnic groups and SES.
Authoritative parenting still wins, higher grades, fewer behavior problems.
Achievement vs. Interest
Social comparison
What is initiative? How can it be stimulated?
"The ability to be motivated from within to direct attention and effort toward a challenging goal."
Creativity & leadership
Tasks should be interest and challenging.
James Marcia identity achievement
Permissive, neglectful parenting skills that offer little advice or guidance foster this identity formation.
These adolescents may be happy with this formation because it is so predictable and stable, but later they could be unsettled by their decision.
Bart, though unsuccessful in music, liked animals, and decided to pursue a career in zoo keeping.
Adolescents in this group tend to have a more positive attitudes towards their parents.
Madeline's mother always told her that women should not go to college and just get married and have children, so that what Madeline did.
Adolescents feel the most anxiety in this formation and sometimes love then hate their parents as they struggle and fear parental disapproval.
Adolescents who have spent time analyzing various experiences and decided on what they want to do based on those experiences.
These adolescents are aimless, taking whatever comes along, and often have poor self-esteem and self-image.
Parents allow adolescents to think for themselves and help with family decisions.
Development of identity: Boys & girls
Girls less likely to reach identity achievement than boys.
Boys have higher levels of self-esteem than girls do.
Adolescents boys who rank high in identity exploration come from families
They an express their own opinions.
Receive support from parents even when disagree with them.
Encouraged to be independent & connected to family members.
Adolescents girls who rank high in identity exploration come from families
They are challenged.
Receive little support from parents
Need slightly abrasive atmosphere
Dating/sexual activity
Parent-child attachment -> Peer relationship -> Dating & romantic relationship ****
Conflicts, sadness, loneliness
Learn how to resolve conflicts
Teens are most likely postpone sexual activity when they have close relationships with parents & have positive activities they enjoy.
40-50% of late teens have first sexual experiences.
When girls have first sexual experiences earlier -> depression
Parent-child relationship becomes more distant, shares less time.
When parents remain close but give room to grow, sexual activity is less likely to continue.
Warm relationships
Successful sexual education programs -> parents can use!
Have available information
Give information on safe, responsible sexual activity.
Substance use/discouraging substance use
Alcohol is the mind-altering substance most widely used by teens.
Reason: Escape from boredom
Cause car accidents, high-risk sexual behaviors.

80% of parents concern about children's drug use.
Substance users reveals that difficulties in elementary school preceded substance use in high school.
Teens are less likely to use substances when they come from families in which
Parents are well educated
Compatible with each other
Monitor their children's activities
Do not make alcohol available in the home
Have specific rules about not drinking & enforce these rules.
Promote the importance of schoolwork.
In general, self-esteem increases, depressed feelings decrease.
10-15% of children & adolescents show signs of depression.
Depression: feeling down, being unhappy over an upsetting event
Sometimes expressed in angry, rebellious, acting-out behavior.
Common reasons: Genetic factors, hormonal changes, family interactions, peer & romantic relationships, discipline problems at school, substance use, risk-taking behaviors
Lack self-esteem, feel helpless
What is spillover effects and crossover effects?
Spillover- different aspects of ones life
Crossover - different people life, work, impact on spouse and children
Spillover effects between work and family
Health insurance
Dependent care credits for rearing families
Flexible work schedule
Feeling successful at work
Increasing work hours for new, low-income mothers improves their moods and decreases depressive symptoms when work is not stressful.
Parenting strategies to overcome negative spillover effects
Monitor and supervise children's activities via phone.
Less-well-monitored boys have lower school grades and less skill in school-related activities, regardless of whether mothers are employed.
Decrease early adolescents' externalizing problems
Improve quality of interactions with children
Have stress-free, focused time
Talk about work: What they do and why they like it.
Children can understand positive aspects of parents' work.
Indirect lessons
Effects of child-care attendance & quality (research results)
Infant day care experience is associated with insecure attachment during infancy.
Heightened aggressiveness and noncompliance during the preschool, school-age.
Later consequences disappeared.
More than 20 hours per week may be a risk factor
Physical health
Controversial for toddlers or preschool-age children
In general...
Attendance has positive effects on cognitive skills.
Attendance has positive effects on social skills (cooperation, communication, engagement, responsibility, empathy).
Attendance/more exposure have negative effects on problem behaviors.
In general, there is no long-term effects.
Infants demonstrated higher levels of cognitive development in their later life.
Higher quality care predicted higher vocabulary scores in preschool age.
Long-term effects are small but exist.
The effects on social skills are controversial.
Good quality of child-care can buffer negative effects of family disadvantage.
Quality Rating and Improvement System: Ohio's Step Up To Quality
Structural quality & process quality
Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS)
Implemented by Ohio Department of Job and Family Services
Ohio's QRIS: Step Up To Quality (SUTQ)
Have three levels, using stars as a symbol for quality
3-star programs > 2-star programs > 1-star programs
Indicators: Ratios and group size, teacher education and qualification, specialized training, administrative practice, early learning curriculum
Transracial and International adoption: giving cultural information
Racial background of child and adoptive parents is different.
Well adjusted without behavioral or emotional problems.
Important to encourage positive racial identity.
Parents often failed to prepare them for racial discrimination & to realize the depth of the pain. -> Children have to navigate without parental guidance

Children are adopted from foreign countries.
Most are infants at the time of adoption.
Must meet all the criteria for adoption in that country as well as those of the state.
US citizenship is conferred for the child when adoption becomes finalized.
Concerns: Trauma, attachment, quality of foster care,
Medical problems, large expenses (repeated traveling, etc.), frustrations with agencies
Parents are more likely to give adoptive children cultural information about their country of origin when
Parents are aware of differential treatment of racial & ethnic groups.
Adoptive parents vs. parents who naturally conceive
10 -15% of couples have trouble conceiving their children -> adoption, assisted reproductive technology (ART)

Adoption: The oldest solution to infertility
Increasingly transracial
Similar parenting behaviors to traditional family formation
Those who wish to adopt need to be prepared for a long wait, frustration, and expense.
First-time adoptive parents need assistance in adjusting to the changes.
This may be achieved via
Support groups for parents
Parenting classes
Assistance from families of origin
Reading and studying about parenting
Open communication
Assisted Reproductive Technology
Adoptive child is genetically unrelated to at least one parent.
Families with a child conceived by ART is typically related with either parents.
Both ART parents and parents conceiving naturally experienced less stress in the transition to parenthood when pre-birth experiences were positive.
ART parents are warmer and more sensitive (infancy, early childhood) than parents naturally conceiving their children.
If ART parents have not disclosed, may be less mutually responsive with 7-year-olds.
Children show no negative psychological effects of ART use.
A child has always been a wanted child may constitute a very important difference.
Review article: Golombok et al. (1995)
Children didn't obtain poorer scores than naturally conceived children for several assessments.
ART parents refuse to participate: keep the child's origins secret, not wanting to be reminded of the lack of genetic relationship.
Adopted parents refuse to participate: concerned about information being fed back to the adoptive agency.
Mothers were older.
Most didn't have siblings. -> Greater commitment to parenting
Suggestion: Genetic ties are less important for family functioning than a strong desire for parenthood.
Telling children about ART
American Society for Reproductive Medicine encourages parents to tell children.
Growing pressure to tell children conceived by ART about their origins.
Some countries have laws.
It is best to tell the child about their origins early in children's lives.
Parents should be comfortable.
Theoretically speaking: Galinsky & Erikson (Teen Parenting)
Galinsky: Image Making

Erikson: Identity vs. Identity Diffusion

Based on these perspectives of development, what is going on in a teen parent's life and development?
Comparing with older parents (Teen Parenting)
Unrealistic expectations of children
Less likely to provide verbal and cognitive stimulation
Less sensitive interaction
Is teen parenting necessarily bad?
What does predict resilience? (Teen Parenting)
Cognitive readiness to have children
Knowledge of children and developmentally appropriate tasks
Realistic expectations of children
Parenting style
Attitudes about being mothers/fathers
Postnatal stability (moving, school changes, romantic partner)
Pre-birth qualities such as IQ, social status -> help mothers' cognitive readiness but did not predict child outcomes
Protective factors (Single Parenting)
Child's characteristics: Positive sociability, attentiveness
Maternal qualities: Efficacy, low risk of depression
Parenting qualities: Positive parent-child relationship, father involvement
Qualities of the larger social context: Social support, few difficult life experiences

Disadvantaged, never-married mothers averaged 3.
20% of families had more than 5 factors.
Predicted better child outcomes (except father involvement)
Child outcomes (Single Parenting)
Family structure -> decline in familial/economic resources -> negative child outcomes
Ineffective parenting
Psychological well-being of parents
The most important predictor: Discipline
When single mothers reduce their level of stress, their children are similar in behavior to children living in two-parent families.

Father involvement
Single fathers are more likely to establish paternity when benefits to the child are emphasized.
Process of divorce (Divorced Families)
Roughly 50% of marriages end in divorce within 20 years.
Likelihood of divorce increases with each subsequent relationship (roughly 60% at second, and 70% at third).

Divorce is not a single event, triggers changes over time
Changes occur in entire family system (parents, children, extended family members)
Entire social network influences child's response (peer, neighborhood, school)
Great diversity in ways children and parents respond
Children's adaptation (Divorced Families)
Divorce affects children regardless of their age.
Children need time to adjust.
When assessed in young adulthood, children who experienced only one divorce and no other marital transitions had the same level of well-being as children who grew up in two-parent families.
Outcomes depend on
Children's view of divorce
Amount and length of conflicts
Parenting, availability (loss)
Economic disadvantage
Parenting protective factors
Maintain positive authoritative parenting behaviors
Anger management
Ability to be warm and supportive
Clear rules and limits
How to protect children from parental conflict?
Work on problems with each other in private.
Prepare the child for a visit with the other parent.
Remain reasonably flexible about visiting.
Do not conduct adult business in front of the child.
Telling children (Divorced Families)
Give them info and support
Explain in simple language
Provide reasons
Remarriage: benefits (Parenting in remarried families)
Emotional closeness
Parents feel greater self-esteem, contentment, happiness.
Share financial and caregiving responsibility
Challenges (Parenting in remarried families)
A lack of emotional bonds
Unclear guidelines for parents and children
Melding different family cultures into a new family system
Acquiring new ways of doing family business
More people in family
Anger and frustration from the previous marriage intensify current irritations
Feelings of loss and sadness related to previous marriage
Balancing loyalties to former family systems with those to the new one
Child outcomes (Parenting in remarried families)
Children in remarried families often feel the new marriage is depriving them of their parent.
Stepparents are more likely to be accepted in families in which remarriages occur when children are very young.
A small subsample of children had problems.
Outcomes depend on
Child characteristics
Parents' expectations about how quickly closeness and cohesiveness of family members will develop
Relationships with stepparents
Process of disclosure
Become aware of parents' sexual orientation gradually and notice differences with other families
Direct way: explain them directly
Indirect way: taking children to a same-sex events, leaving reading material around
Reactions: No big deal vs. angry/ashamed & worry about being rejected from peers
All family members have to decide how and how much to disclose to friends
Keeping parents hidden can create family tensions.
Parents do not put pressure but might be hurt -> can discuss feelings
Child outcomes
Understand and accept different points of view
Open in talking about their feelings and problems
Free of the restrictions of traditional role models
Less stereotyped in interests and activities
Function as well psychologically and socially as children from two-parent heterosexual families
Sexual orientation of parents did not predict child outcomes (e.g., academic success, dating and romantic relationships, social friendships, substance use, delinquent activities, experiences of victimization)