Pathophysiology Exam 9
Chapter 17 - Digestive System
Terms in this set (60)
Which of the following cells in the gastric mucosa produce intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid?
Which of the following is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
When highly acidic chyme enters the duodenum, which hormone stimulates the release of pancreatic secretions that contains very high bicarbonate ion content?
Which of the following breaks protein down into peptides?
In which structure is oxygenated blood (arterial) mixed with unoxygenated blood (venous) so as to support the functions of the structure?
Which of the following stimulates increased peristalsis and secretions in the digestive tract?
Which of the following processes is likely to occur in the body immediately after a meal?
What does the term gluconeogenesis refer to?
Formation of glucose from protein and fat
The visceral peritoneum:
forms the outer covering of the stomach.
The early stage of vomiting causes:
Yellow or greenish stained vomitus usually indicates the presence of:
Small, hidden amounts of blood in stool are referred to as:
Severe vomiting can lead to metabolic acidosis because of increased:
hypovolemia and lactic acid production.
What is the definition of dysphagia?
Difficulty in swallowing
Oral candidiasis is considered to:
be an opportunistic fungal infection of the mouth.
What does the term periodontitis refer to?
Bacterial damage to the teeth and surrounding alveolar bone
What is a common sign of acute gastritis?
Vomiting and anorexia
What does the pathophysiology of chronic gastritis include?
Atrophy of the gastric mucosa with decreased secretions
What is a common cause of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella?
Raw or undercooked poultry or eggs
Which of the following individuals is likely to develop acute gastritis?
An individual with an allergy to shellfish
A patient with acquired pyloric stenosis would likely:
vomit undigested food from previous meals.
Prolonged or severe stress predisposes to peptic ulcer disease because:
of reduced blood flow to the gastric wall and mucous glands.
The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease may involve any of the following EXCEPT:
increased stimulation of mucus-producing glands.
Which of the following would a perforated gastric ulcer likely cause?
What is frequently the first manifestation of stress ulcers?
What would be the result of chronic bleeding from gastric carcinoma?
Occult blood in the stool and anemia
Following gastric resection, the onset of nausea, cramps, and dizziness immediately after meals indicates:
a large volume of chyme has entered the intestines, causing distention.
Predisposing factors to cholelithiasis include excessive:
bilirubin or cholesterol concentration in the bile.
What is the major effect when a gallstone obstructs the cystic duct?
Severe colicky pain in upper right quadrant
Which of the following applies to hepatitis A infection?
It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route.
During the course of a hepatitis B infection, the onset of jaundice occurs in the:
What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?
Gradual irreversible damage to the liver and cirrhosis
What indicates the presence of third-stage alcohol hepatitis?
Decreased production of blood clotting factors
A factor that may precipitate encephalopathy with cirrhosis is the elevated:
In patients with cirrhosis, serum ammonia may increase when:
bleeding occurs in the digestive tract.
What is the primary cause of esophageal varices?
Increased hydrostatic pressure in the veins
What is the primary cause of increased bleeding tendencies associated with cirrhosis?
Deficit of vitamin K and prothrombin
Which factors contribute to ascites in patients with cirrhosis?
Increased aldosterone and deficit of albumin
What causes massive inflammation and necrosis in acute pancreatitis?
Autodigestion of tissue by pancreatic enzymes
How does chemical peritonitis and shock frequently result from acute pancreatitis?
Inflammation and increased vascular permeability of the peritoneum affect fluid balance.
Which of the following best describes steatorrhea?
Bulky, fatty, foul-smelling stools
What are the typical changes occurring with Crohn's disease?
Inflamed areas of the wall of the ileum alternating with thick fibrotic or normal areas
Stools that are more liquid and contain mucus and frank blood are typical of:
How may a fistula form with Crohn's disease?
Recurrent inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis, forming a connection between intestinal loops
How does iron deficiency anemia frequently develop with ulcerative colitis?
Chronic blood loss in stools
What is the cause of inflammatory bowel disease?
What pain is typical of diverticulitis?
Lower left quadrant
What usually initiates acute appendicitis?
Obstruction of the lumen of the appendix
With acute appendicitis, localized pain and tenderness in the lower right quadrant results from:
local inflammation of the parietal peritoneum.
How does localized peritonitis develop from acute appendicitis before rupture?
Intestinal bacteria escape through the necrotic appendiceal wall.
Which of the following is a typical indicator of an intestinal obstruction caused by paralytic ileus?
Severe steady abdominal pain
What causes hypovolemic shock to develop with intestinal obstruction?
Continued vomiting and fluid shift into the intestine
What causes the characteristic rigid abdomen found in the patient with peritonitis?
Inflamed peritoneum, resulting in reflex abdominal muscle spasm
What would be the likely outcome from chemical peritonitis related to a perforated gallbladder?
Leakage of intestinal bacteria into blood and the peritoneal cavity
How does pelvic inflammatory disease frequently lead to bacterial peritonitis?
Infection spreads through the fallopian tubes directly into the peritoneal cavity.
Which of the following is the most frequent location of peptic ulcers?
What does the term melena mean?
Blood in a dark-colored stool
Which of the following occurs with hepatitis B?
The liver is inflamed and enlarged.
What is the initial pathological change in alcoholic liver disease?
Accumulation of fat in hepatocytes with hepatomegaly
Although many factors may precipitate pancreatitis, the two major causes are:
gallstones and alcohol abuse.