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Biology 1 Chapter 8
Holt McDougal "Biology" Chapter 8
Terms in this set (36)
mice injected with S Bacteria & Live R Bacteria died
Summarize how Frederick Griffiths experiments led him to believe in a "Transforming Principle":
contain very little phosphorus
Oswald Avery's ability to identify the "transforming principle" as DNA was the fact that proteins do what?
It was consistent of with DNA
Chemical analysis of Avery's extracts showed what about the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus?
Bacteriophages were used because they contain little more than DNA and protein. Hershey and Chase were able to isolate each factor to determine which was active.
Summarize Hershey and Chase's experiments and explain why chose to use bacteriophages in their experiments because these viruses:
They are named for their nitrogen containing bases
The four types of nucleotides that make up DNA are named for what aspects?
After examining the DNA of different organisms, what did Erwin Chargaff conclude about the four bases?
Which DNA sequence is complementary to the base sequence ACCGTAT?
a double helix
Combining the work of other scientists with their own research, Watson and Crick discovered that two strands of DNA join together to form a(n)
What holds case pairs together?
(genetic) information flows from DNA->RNA->Proteins
What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
bring amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes
The main function of tRNA is to...
the DNA strand begins to unwind, separating the two strands
What event occurs directly after RNA polymerase recognizes the transcription start site of a gene?
Replication happens once and transcription happens repeatedly throughout the cell cycle
What is the primary difference between replication and transcription?
What is the term for a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid?
20 amino acids
How many amino acids are used to make up all of the proteins in the human body?
a start codon
a tRNA that carries the amino acid methinine and pairs with which type of codon?
the process that converts or translates, an mRNA message into a polypeptide
translation takes place in the cytoplasm
What is the site of translation?
When lactose is present in the environment or with the lac repressor
When is bacterial lac operon switched on?
What is the term for the nucleotide sequence that are removed during mRNA processing?
it tells the RNA polymerse where to start
What is the main function of a promoter?
Generally, mutation that affect a single gene occur during which process?
a frameshift mutation
Deletion of a nucleotide? (type of mutation)
Which type of mutation has no effect on phenotype?
germ (sex cell)
Mutations that can affect the offspring of an organism occur in what cell type?
Ultraviolet rays, industrial chemicals, and various drugs
List some mutagens:
Which sciencetist conducted tests on extracts made of bacteria to show that the genetic material in bacteria is in DNA?
They have different bases
The main difference between the four nucleotides that make up DNA is?
Watson and Crick
Which scientists figured out the three-dimensional structure of DNA by using a model of metal and wood?
In the nucleus
In humans, where does DNA replication take place?
to bind nucleotides together
During replication, the function of the enzyme DNA polymerase is?
It delivers DNA's instructions for making polypeptides
What does messenger RNA do?
2 amino acids
How many frames do you read at a time with mRNA
In the nucleus
Where is messenger RNA "edited" into its final form?
What is the term for the sections of messenger RNA that are spliced together during processing?
In bacteria, what binds with the repressor to activate the lac operon?
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