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AP Comparative Gov Iran Terms
Terms in this set (63)
Sixth president of Iran
Assembly of Religious Experts
86 man assembly of clerics elected directly by the people; broad constitutional interpretation responsibility; selects the Supreme Leader; has the right to dismiss Supreme Leader; must have a seminary degree
Axis of Evil
A group of nations accused by the Bush administration of sponsoring terrorism and threatening to develop weapons of mass destruction
a loosely organized military that is formally part of the Revolutionary Guard, and it gained international attention in the aftermath of the disputed presidential election of 2009, when opposition candidate, Mir-Hussein Moussavi, accused the Basij of brutality as it contained the demonstrations and admissed dissidents; means "mass mobilization" in Persian, and it dates back to the Iran-Iraq War
a religion emphasizing the unity of all religions and peoples, teaching that all founders of the world's religions have been God's divine messengers
Parastatal foundations made in part from assets nationalized after the Iranian revolution
Constitution of 1979
most important document that legitimizes the state today; written during the last months of Ayatollah Khomeini's life; forty amendments; highly complex mixture of theocracy and democracy; preamble reflects the importance of religion for the legitimacy of the state, affirming faith in God, Divine Justice, the Qur'an, the Prophet Muhammud, the Twelve Imams, and the eventual return of the Hidden Imam
Revolution of 1905
result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities.
(1966-1976) Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
Economics is for Donkeys
disdains the importance of economics for policymakers and affirming the superiority of religious, rather than secular leaders
policy towards women; divorce and custody laws now follow Islamic standards that favor males; women must wear scarves and long coats in public, and they cannot leave the country without the consent of male relatives; stoning of women; women are allowed education and entrance into some occupations
The Executives of Construction Party
founded by several members of former President Rafsanjani's cabinet;
an expert in Islamic Law
Conservative beliefs in the Qur'an and that it should be literally believed and applied
This is the most powerful theological body in Iran. It consists of 12 members 6 clerics appointed by the Supreme Leader and 6 judges appointed by the Majils. The importance of them is they have to approve all candidates and all legislation.
Head of State
The executive role that symbolizes and represents the people both nationally and internationally.
Head of Government
The executive role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the state, such as formulating and executing policy.
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. In occlusion since ca. 873, he is expected to return as a messiah at the end of time.
Shi'a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali's successors.
Import Substitution Industrialization
An economic system aimed at building a country's industry by restricting foreign trade. It was especially popular in Latin American countries such as Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil in the mid-twentieth century. (823)
Iranian Militant Clerics Society
left wing pro-reform party led by Muhammad Khatami;
Islamic Iran Participation Front
reformist party led by Khatami's brother Muhammad Reza Khatami; founded in 1998 with the motto "Iran for all Iranians"; did well in 2000 but candidates barred in 2004
Islamic Society of Engineers
The Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran; alliance of conservative parties and is shortened to Abadgaran; sponsored by Ahmadinejad, who won the presidential election in 2009
Khomeini's concept that the Iranian clergy should rule on the grounds that they are the divinely appointed guardians of both the law and the people. He developed this concept in the 1970s.
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
Supreme Leader of Iran
President from 1997-2005. Reformist who aimed to end freeze in relations between Iran and the West. Believed in a "dialogue among civilizations" that fostered positive relationships with other countries.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic.
Reformists filled seats through a coalition of reformist parties. Won 80% of vote in campaign that drew 70% of electorate.
Iran's unicameral parliament, consisting of 290 elected representatives
Iran's prime minister. His two goals were to establish constitutional government in Iran and to free Iran from foreign interference. He trued to limit the power of the shah and to strengthen the Majles.
in reality, won the election against Ahmadinejad in summer 2009, but Ayatollah rigged the election so he lost
Muhammad Reza Shah
Became Shah of Iran in 1941. Supported the overthrow of Mosaddiq in the 1953 coup. Was a strong proponent of Western based economic and social reform, announcing the White Revolution reforms in 1963. He was viewed as a vehicle for Western influence and in 1975 he ended the two-party system and instituted a one-party authoritarian state.
Ho Chi Minh wanted to unite Vietnam under Northern rule and aided what group of communist rebels trying to overthrow Diem in the south. Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.
no sacred basis; body of statutes made by legislative bodies; passed by the Majles; law made by the people's elected representatives
Turkish group; moved the capital to Tehran and retained Shiism as the official state religion; Shia clerical leaders could claim to be the main interpreters of Islam, so the separation between government and religion widened; encouraged the Constitutional Revolution
a patronage system that controlled large companies that fed the pocketbooks of the shah and his supporters
The ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925-1979. During this time Iran experienced political secularization, the Majles lost power, and the government became more authoritarian.
A company or agency owned or controlled wholly or partly by the government. Common in both Mexico (Pemex for example) and Nigeria. Usually inefficient as there is a lack of competition for the goods or services they provide.
People of the Book
the name for Jews and Christians for whom the Muslims had religious tolerance; called this because each religion had a holy book with teachings similar to that of the Qur'an
an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC
Akbar Hasemi Rafsanjani
a former president known for his moderate and pragmatic views; the other candidate in the second round of the 2005 presidential election (with great controversy)
Reformers v. Conservatives
people who work for change v. keep regime as it is
a country that obtains a hefty income by exporting raw materials or leasing out natural resources to foreign companies
created by Muhammud Reza Shah in 1975; declared Iran to be a one-party state with him as the head; replaced the Islamic calendar with a new one and gave himself a new title; created Religious Corps, whose duty was to teach Iranian peasants "true Islam"
Revolution of 1979
events involving overthrow of Iran's monarchy and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution
Revolution of Rising Expectations
the probability that people will take action to change their society is maximized during period when things have been improving but when the hope for change outpaces actual change
a faction of Iran's military that is only controlled by the Leader and the clergy. The Guard is supposed to "protect Iran from internal enemies" and works at the whim of religious leaders
Leader of Persia who sought to modernize the country by making public schools, building roads and railroads, extending women's rights, and promoting industrial growth. He held all of the power of the country that he later called Iran in 1935.
Name of the recently elected prime minister 14th June 2013
Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.
A process of removing institutions such as education and government from the dominance or influence of religion.
Body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life
One of the two main branches of Islam. Shiites recognize Ali, the fourth caliph, and his descendants as rightful rulers of the Islamic world; practiced in the Safavid empire
Statists v. Free-marketers
statists believe government should take active role in controlling the economy v. free-marketers to remove price controls, lower taxes, encourage private enterprise
Majority of the Muslims; believe succesor of Muhhamad can be an elected caliph.
The country's most powerful political figure, who has the authority to overrule or dismiss the president, appoints members of the Guardian Council, and has personal representatives in the army, universities, etc.
A government ruled by religion
the pro-Soviet communist party of Iran between 1941 and 1953
the bloodless coup of reformists of Ahmadinejad
The term used by the shah to describe reforms in Iran between the end of World War II and the downfall of his regime in 1979
interest group organization for factory workers/laborers; own newspapers, rallies, protests of the government; has a lot of grievances against the regime
A religion originating in ancient Iran that became the official religion of the Achaemenids. It centered on a single benevolent deity, Ahuramazda, who engaged in a struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world. It emphasized truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature.
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