67 terms

GOPO Final Terms J-R

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Jacksonian Democracy
The first major opening up of American suffrage (voting rights) by Jackson's new Democratic Party in 1830s. Franchise extended to all white men (not just rich white men). Achieved by state legislation not constitutional amendment.
Jim Crow Era
Era in the South after Civil War (1865) until 1950s. African Americans were freed from slavery and could legally vote (Amendments 13, 14, 15) but were still subjected to discriminatory state laws enforcing segregation and kept from voting by laws (ex. poll taxes, literacy tests) and by violence (KKK)
John Locke
Father of political liberalism (limited government to protect life liberty & property; right to revolt if government becomes a tyranny); he greatly influenced Jefferson & the Declaration of Independence.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
One General from each of the 4 armed service branches (army, navy, air force, marines) and, since 1/2012, the National Guard. The JCS are key military advisors to the President.
Joint Committees
Congressional committees to discuss & supervise certain topics, with membership drawn from both houses. (ex., Committee on Library, Taxation)
Judicial Activism
A philosophy of judicial decision-making whereby judges allow their personal views about public policy (liberal or conservative) to guide their decisions. Activist judges are comfortable declaring laws unconstitutional.
Judicial Appointment Factors
Political ideology (litmus test); acceptability to Senate (not too radical); judicial experience; diversity
Judicial Restraint
A philosophy of judicial decision-making whereby judges give significant deference to the decisions made by elected representatives in the legislative and executive branches. Restrained judges are uncomfortable declaring laws unconstitutional.
Judicial Review
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional. Established in Marbury v. Madison (informal amendment to Constitution)
Jurisdiction
The right & power to make decisions in a particular area. Federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction. Before a federal court can hear a case it must establish that it has the power to hear this type of case (primary jurisdiction is to hear cases involving the federal constitution and/or federal law).
Lame Duck
Person holding office after his or her replacement has been elected to the office, but before the current term has ended. Lame Duck Presidents may find it hard to influence Congress (why work with a guy who is about to leave?)
Legislative Oversight
Congress making sure the Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy is correctly executing (carrying out) laws.
Libertarianism
Belief in as much freedom and as little government as possible (tolerates some government to provide stability & security). Supports free market economy, no government regulation of morality, low taxes.
Line Item Veto
Law giving president power to veto portions of budget bill; purpose = reduce size of national deficit; declared unconstitutional (violates separation of powers)
Line-Item Veto
Allows president to veto bad parts of a bill but keep the rest. Like a scalpel. Especially useful for cutting out pork from spending bills. Declared unconstitutional (impermissibly changed the detailed law-making process established in Article I)
Literacy Test
A method to deny blacks right to vote during the Jim Crow Era by requiring reading or civics test in order to vote. Could be selectively applied. Rationale: only the educated should vote. Prohibited by the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Lobbying
The act of trying to influence a politician or bureaucrat. Usually lobbyists are highly paid insiders with access to people in power (revolving door). Major weapon of corporate interest groups.
Logrolling
You support my bill, I'll support yours. Trading favors by legislators to help pass their bills.
Mapp v Ohio
1961 case incorporating 4th Amendment (and exclusionary rule) into 14th Amendment DPC, binding on states.
Marbury vs. Madison
Chief Justice John Marshall famously announces the existence of the power of judicial review: the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional.
Marking Up
The process by which a congressional committee debates, amends, and/or rewrites bills.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1824)
(1) CJ Marshall establishes doctrine of implied powers (Congress can create a national bank because it is necessary & proper to carrying out the enumerated power to coin money); (2) Supremacy clause prevents state (Maryland) from taxing the National Bank. Very important case enlarging power of federal government.
Motor Voter Act (1993)
Tried to increase voter turnout by allowing voter registration at same time as getting or renewing driver's license. Increased the registration rate, but not the voter turnout rate (people still apathetic or not motivated to vote)
Narrowcasting
The modern media trend for TV and radio shows to target very narrow ideological audiences (ex. conservatives watch Glenn Beck and Bill O'Reilly); results in greater political polarization
National Committee
National party organization that, with Congressional leaders and President, runs party affairs between national conventions, (DNC and RNC, each is headed by a chairperson).
National Convention
The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform. Brokered Convention occurs if no candidate has won a majority of delegates in state primaries & caucuses.
National Security Counsel
Consults with the president on matters of defense and foreign policy.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Gives congress the power to do anything that is necessary and proper to carry out an enumerated power. Also known as the "elastic clause." Leads to implied powers doctrine (McCulloch v. Maryland)
New Jersey Plan
Plan at Philadelphia Convention for equal representation in new Congress (1 state 1 vote). Also known as "small state plan." Opposite of the Virginia "big state" Plan. Becomes basis of representation in the Senate.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Free trade agreement among USA, Canada & Mexico. Goal = promote economic prosperity & cooperation. Easier perhaps to achieve at regional level than global level (World Trade Organization).
Office of Management and Budget
EOP agency that helps the President prepare annual budget proposal and evaluates budget priorities and effectiveness of federal agencies (oversight)
Open Primary
Anyone can vote in any party primaries (but can only vote in the primaries of one party). Less party control over process. May cause raider effect.
Open Rule
An order from the House Rules Committee that permits a bill to be amended on the floor (allows "death by amendment")
Oral Arguments
The stage in Supreme Court proceedings in which attorneys for both sides appear before the Court to present their positions and answer questions posed by the justices. Good theater (for law nerds).
Original Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of courts to hear a case for the first time (trial). Trial courts (District Courts in federal system) assess the facts in a case and the issue the first decision (guilt, innocence). Supreme Court has OJ over disputes between 2 states.
Party Caucus (historical)
A meeting of important party members to select party candidates. Attacked as corrupt and anti-democratic so not used anymore.
Party Caucus (modern)
One way for a state party to select delegates to send to the National Convention. Consists of a series of meetings (local, county, state) among party members (no "open caucuses").
Party Platform
A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years, created at National Convention. Lofty rhetoric and specific legislative goals. Can cause splintering (example: southern whites abandoned Democratic Party in 1948 when it adopted a pro-civil rights plank.
Patriot Act (2001)
Law responding to 9/11. Expands anti-terrorist powers (wiretapping, surveillance); 4th Amendment concern for civil liberties.
Patronage System
AKA Spoils System. Filling government bureaucracy based on connections & political favors not merit (cronyism); ended by Pendleton Act (1883)
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
1883 reform law that replaced the patronage/spoils system in the federal bureaucracy with a merit-based professional system. "Important" leadership positions in bureaucracy (Secretaries, Commissioners, Directors) & federal judges still appointed by president.
Pigeonholing
Occurs when a committee ignores a bill and doesn't report it out. Also known as "tabling" or "death by committee." Major cause of bill death.
Plaintiff
One who brings a court action against another (the complainer)
Pluralist Theory
Belief that American political system basically works; competing interest groups all get heard at different times and places in government. Federalism helps (more layers of government).
Pocket Veto
If a bill is proposed within 10 days of congress adjourning and the president does not sign it , it will die (un-overrideable veto).
Political Action Committee
A committee set up by a corporation or interest group to raise and funnels money to political candidates. Donation amounts to PACs are limited by FECA rules (hard money).
Political Ideology
A more or less consistent set of beliefs about what policies government should pursue.
Political Participation
Main form = voting. Also joining political party, volunteering on political campaign, campaign contributions, running for office, protests...
Political Party
A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, develop a party platform (policy goals), win elections, and run government
Political Socialization
The process by which individuals acquire (absorb) a sense of political identity (beliefs & behaviors). Key agents of socialization include family, media, peers.Process can be informal (family) or formal (APGOPO)
Poll Tax
Tax on voting. Used to discourage African Americans from voting during the Jim Crow era. Also used to exclude poor whites. Declared unconstitutional by 24th Amendment.
Precedent
A decision in a previous court case that is used as the basis for a decision in a similar case.
President's Budget Proposal
Detailed budget outline prepared by President & OMB. Sets priorities in discretionary spending & proposes changes to entitlement programs. Start of annual budget process.
Primary Election
Election to select party's candidate for each office. It is now the main way of selecting party candidates. Most democratic method and simpler than caucus. Greatly weakens the power of party leaders and increases power of ordinary voters.
Primary Election
One way for a state party to select delegates to send to the National Convention. Can be closed, open or blanket. Now used by most states instead of caucus (cheaper, quicker, more democratic).
Primary Frontloading
The tendency of states to move their primaries & caucuses earlier in the calendar in order to maximize their impact on nomination process (bandwagon effect).
Prior Restraint
Government censorship of written material (preventing publication). Almost impossible due to 1st Amendment (only when major threat to national security). See Pentagon Papers Case (NY Times v. US)
Privatization
Process of ending government services and allowing the free market (private firms) to provide the service. Purpose = reduce government spending & provide more efficient services. Example = abolishing the postal service. Supported by Republicans.
Procedural Due Process
Literal meaning of 5th & 14th Due Process Clauses: Government cannot deprive you of life, liberty or property without holding certain procedures (trial, lawyer, right to question witnesses). Many elements of PDP are specifically protected by 5th, 6th, 7th & 8th Amendments.
Prosecutor
The state or federal government attorney in a criminal case.
Rally Effect
Short-term patriotic increase in president's popularity and power during times of serious international crisis or war (e.g. Bush after 9/11)
Realism
Major foreign policy ideology. Act in the world only to protect and benefit yourself. (Contrast with idealism)
Redistricting Process
When a state legislature or independent commission draws new House district lines (if gain/loss of seats after reapportionment process based on census every ten years)
Republic
Representative democracy. Sovereignty rests with the people, as opposed to a king or monarch.
Republican Party
One of the two major modern American political parties. It emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consisted of former northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats. Now the party is conservative (pro-life, anti-affirmative action, anti-too much government intervention, anti-taxing on the rich, pro-death penalty)
Republican Party Coalition (modern)
Major supporters of Republican Party = WASPs, business people, the rich
Rule of 4
How the Supreme Court decides whether to hear a case. Requires four or more justices to "grant certiorari" (agree to hear an appeal). Supreme Court agrees to hear <1% of cases.