221 terms


Appendages or accessory structures of an organ.
Bony pelvis
The 4 bones of the pelvis that make up the lower part of the trunk of the body; serves to support the upper body and protect the pelvic organs.
Intrauterine position of a fetus in which that buttocks or feet present first.
Cesarean section (C-section)
A surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised to deliver a baby.
Corpus luteum
Short-term endocrine gland. A small mass of yellow-colored tissue that develops on the ovary and that grows within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation; responsible for secreting progesterone to maintain the high level of vascular supply to the uterine endometrium for the purposes of implantation and pregnancy. If conception takes place it will continue to grow and secrete progesterone.
Difficult birth due to various reasons, such as cephalopelvic distortion, fetus size, or condition or position of fetus.
Painful menstruation.
The surgical incision of perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening and prevent tearing of the perineum and muscles during delivery.
Refers to total removal of; usually used in reference to the surgical procedure of total pelvic exenteration, which involves the removal of the vagina, uterus, and cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries, bladder, and rectum for surgical treatment of cancer.
Finger-like structures that form on an edge of the fallopian tubes.
Abnormal communication between to normally seperate internal structures, or an abnormal communication between an internal structure and the body surface.
Refers to the pregnant female; in reference to number of pregnanncies.
Loop Electrosurgical Excision; Surgical procedure that uses the electrosurgical unit coupled to a loop electrode on the cautery pencil; used to excise a cone of tissue to remove an area of neoplasia.
A band of fibrous tissue composed of collagen that connects bone to bone.
Incision of a closed cavity with the suturing of the opened edges to the wall of the wound to form an open wound that will heal by second intention.
A benign fibroid tumor of the uterus.
Occiput anterior
The most common relationship between the presenting fetal part and the maternal body pelvis.
The classification used to indicate the number of live and stillborn births that a female has delivered at more than 20 weeks of gestation (viability).
The diamond shaped wedge of fibromuscular tissue between the posterior portion of the vagina or scrotum and the opening to the anus. Forms the base of the perineal floor and posterior wall of the vagina. The levator ani muslces form a sling to keep the pelvic contents intacts during coughing, straining, or bearing down in labor.
Surgical transverse incision made in the lower abdomen, uaully employed when performing a C-section.
Smooth area surrounded by minora; includes urethra, vagina, and Bartholin's glands
What is the fornix?
The annular recess created by the cervical-vaginal junction.
What are the 3 layers of the uterine wall?
Peritoneum, myometrium, and endometrium
Where are the Bartholin's glands located and that is their function?
They are located within the vestibule and they secrete a lubricating mucoid substance.
List the structures contained within the broad ligament.
Uterine fallopian tube, the round and ovarian ligaments, various blood vessles, nerves, and lymphatics.
What are the 2 other names for the fallopian tubes?
Uterine tubes and oviducts.
Name the 2 hormones from the anterior pituitary that stimulate the ovarian cycle.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
Name the 2 hormones that are produced by the ovary.
Estrogen and progesterone.
What is the main muscle of the pelvic floor? Name it's 3 components.
Levator ani muscle; it's 3 components are, 1) iliococcygeal 2) pubococcygeal and 3) puborectalis.
Labia Majora
Rounded prominent longitudinal flaps, the large outer lips. Contains sebaceous and sweat galnds, covered in a triangle of hair - after menopause the labia majora atrophies.
The external female genitalia.
Mons pubis
Rounded elevated portion of fatty tissue prominence over symphysis pubis, covered with hair.
Erectile structure of the female anatomy, it's the female equivalent to the penis.
Labia minora
Connective tissue within the labia majora, they are the 2 smaller lips that contain sebaceous glands. The anterior portion forms the prepuce of the clitoris, the medial sides form the frenulum
Rectal oriface.
Thin fold of membrane just inside the vaginal oriface.
T or F; The uterus is pear shaped with a fundus, body, and cervix.
What are the ligaments connected to the pelvic wall?
Cardinal, round, and infundibulopelvic.
The graafian follicle
Releases the oocyte,
The corpus luteum releases ____?___ to maintain the endometrial lining.
False; progesterone.
T or F; The pituitary gland releases LH and FSH to stimulate development of an oocyte or ovum.
Blood flow is supplied to the uterus via branches of the ?
Internal iliac artery
The ___?___ of the fallopian tube is important in the prevention of endometriosis.
Are Braxton-Hicks contractions an indication that delivery of the fetus is imminent?
No, they are normal contractions not associated with progressive cervical dialation=false labor.
Cervix softens and thins.
Opening of the cervix.
Fetal part overlying pelvic inlet.
Number of times giving birth.
Largest diameter of head encircled by vulvular ring.
Descent of presenting part of fetus in relation to ischial spines.
Cephalopelvic disproportion; Fetus' head is too large for maternal birth canal. Usually ends up being delivered via C-Section.
First stage of vaginal delivery
Onset of true labor and is considered complete when the cervix is fully dialated.
Second stage of vaginal delivery.
Complete dialation of the cervix and terminates with the birth of the infant.
Third stage of vaginal delivery.
Initiated with the birth of the infant and ends when the placenta is delivered.
Fourth stage of vaginal delivery.
Begins at the point and is completed when the mother's condition has stabilized.
What surgical intervention is commonly done during a normal vaginal delivery?
Cord blood is collected routinely with every delivery. Why?
To check cord gases. Also, it's collected for it is rich with stem cells which can be preserved and used for later use if needed.
What does "fetal distress" mean?
Sustained low heart rate.
List the possibe sites for ectopic pregnancy.
Fallopian tubes, peritoneal cavity, ovary, or uterine cervix.
Benign leisons of the uterus.
Bartholin's glands
Secrete vaginal lubricant, lies deep in the bulbocavernosus.
Thin, vascular membrane of connective tissue that surround the vaginal oriface. Wide variations of thickness and elasticity. The presence or absense of a hyminal ring does not indiacte sexual activity.
The reproductive organs lie in the_______ _________protected by the bony pelvis.
pelvic cavity.
The ________ _______ of the uterus and the ________ constitute the birth canal.
dialated cervix, vagina.
Dialation and Curettage. Done within 10 minutes, done on women that have polyps, blood clots, and can't stop bleeding. Usually goes on for about a month or more.
Dialation and Evacuation. Done up to 12 weeks, possibly 16 weeks (1st trimester).
Cone Biopsy
Done w/or without laser, looks for cancerous cells on the cervix.
Can be done vaginally, abdomenally, or LAVH (Laproscopic Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy) which is becoming more common.
Tubal ligation
Usually done after giving birth (PPTL: Post Partam Tubal Ligation), but can be done laparoscopically or transvaginally. Fallopian tubes are cut and tried off to prevent further pregnancies, a permanent procedure. cautery, clips, silastic bands, babcock, Essure.
Why is a foley catheter used?
To prevent bladder distension and possible injury.
What happens if the ureter is accidentally cut?
The patient will most likely die.
Deep vien thrombosis; which can lead to pulmonary thrombosis, a heart attack, or stroke.
What is used to prevent DVT?
Heparin injection, antiembolitic stockings, sequential compression devices, and early ambulation.
Why are lasers used over ESU?
Lasers can make fine cuts that don't have the effect of a deep thermal burn like the ESU.
overgrowth of tissue.
Why would the patient be put into Trendelenburg postion for an abdominal apporach?
It shifts the organs upward so the surgeon can get a better view.
What are adhesions?
bands of scar tissue.
Adhesions may cause?
Infertility, intestinal obstruction, and chronic pain.
What are some diagnostics that are used when looking at the vagina?
Pelvic exam, Pap smear (Papanicolaou), cytological aspirations for cancer of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries or cervix, and the Schiller Test.
What is the Schiller test?
It's the staining of the vaginal vault and cervix with Lugol's solution to determine areas of abnormal tissue for biopsy. Normal tissue satins brown/abnormal stains white or does not take up the iodine.
Uterine Cancer consists of:
Cervical cancer (cervix) and Endometrial cancer (w/i the uterine lining).
Endometrial cancer is more common than_______ and occurs more in _______________ women.
Cervical cancer, postmenopausal.
Cervical cancer effects....
Those with early sexual intercourse, multiple partners, non barrier contraceptives, poor sexual hygiene, chronic cervical infections of hx of STD's.
Why is a sound used before any procedure is done?
A sound is placed to determine uterine depth so the uterus dosen't get perferated.
What are some complications that can arise with a D&C and a D&E?
Perforation of the uterus, laceration of the cervix, tear in the internal OS, damage to other pelvic organs, excessive bleeding (monitered for 6 hours), post-op infection.
Excisional biopsy on the cervix is the removal of the...
entire lesion, may require sutures and hemostasis for the cervix is highly vascular (have raytecs handy).
Insisional biopsy on the cervix can be done by a_______ _______ or a _______.
Punch biopsy, LEEP (Loop-Electrocautery Excisional Procedure).
Is an instument that shines a light on the cervix and magnifies the view for the doctor.
_______ ________ is applied to the cervix and vagina with a cotton ball or swab. The solution turns abdnormal tissue ______ for identification of areas that may need further evaluation.
3% acetic acid, white.
Colposcopy-directed biopsy
Is a procedure in which the cervix is examined with a colposcope for abnormalities and a tissue sample is taken.
Cervical biopsy
Done on patients that have been diagnosed by PAP smear for severe cervical dysplasia or intraepithelial cancer of the cervix.
Cold cone biopsy
Is a surgical procedure requiring general anethesia and is done from the presense of precancerous changes in the cervix. A large area of tissue around the cervix is excised for examination in Pathology.
Cervical punch biopsy
The cervix may be stained with iodine solution (Lugols) in order to see abnormalities better. A small tissue samples are taken from the cervix and examined for disease or other problems. Usually done in a drs office.
Tubal Perfusion
To test tubal patency using methylene blue and saline. Using a laparoscope, dye entering the uterus from the fallopian tubes indicate patency.
Infertility radiologic study of the uterus and tubes after repeated negative Ruben testing.
Pelvic laparoscopy
a sx procedure that examines and treats pelvis organs through a small sx viewing instrument (laproscope) inserted into the abdomen at the naval.
When will a pelvic laparoscopy be recommended?
Pelvic pain due to Endometriosis (uterine tissue found outside of the uterus), abdominal infections, suspected twisting/torsion of an ovary, ovarian cyst, scar tissue, perforation of the uterus following a D&C or by and IUD, evaluation of infertility, sterilization, evaluation and removal of an abnormal pelvic mass, removal of uterine fibroids (myomectomy), removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), sx tx of tubal pregnancy, and evaluation of a women who may have appendicitis or salpingitis.
Complications and considerations with pelvic laparoscopy.
Care must be taken not to perforate blood vessels, the uterus or bladder, Perforation leads to infection, this is a sterile procedure, and surgeon expertise, patient selection, and adequate anesthesia and safe equipment are essential.
Introduction of scope to allow inspection of interior of uterus & tube openings. Is used to diagnose and treat many uterine disorders, including extremely heavy periods and abnormal bleeding.
Diagnostic hysteroscopy
Is performed to examine the uterus for signs of normalcy or abnormality (myomas).
Abnormal bleeding may be caused by a _______ _______, it may also be caused by benign growths, such as ______ ______ or ______.
hormonal inbalance, fibroid tumors, polyps.
In some cases, abnormal bleeding may be a sign of __________ ________, particularly in women over 45 (postmenopausal bleeding).
endometrial cancer.
Why is postmenopausal bleeding a concern?
It is usually a key sign that someone has endometrial cancer. You are considered postmenopausal when you have experienced no bleeding for 1 year. If you start bleeding after that time frame, you need to see your dr.
Air or gas are not used to expand the uterus for danger of air or gas embolism. What is used instead?
Glycine (liquid glucose), saline, or hyskon can be used.
Diagnostic laparoscopy
Is used to view a women's reproductive organs-uterus, ovaries, tubes, and bearby organs.
For prolapsed vaginal wall r/t urethrocystocele (herniation of bladder into vaginal canal)
Enterocele (Cul-de-sac Hernia)
Bowel herniates in the vaginal Cul-de-sac (pouch of Douglas)
Bladder/vagina fistulas. May also include urethra(urethrovaginal) and/or ureters (ureterovaginal)
rectum/vagina fistulas
Prolapse or protrusion of the bladder into the vagina. Caused by a defect in the pubocervical fascia - fibrous tissue that seperates the bladder and vagina.
Prolapse of the urethra into the vagina.
Prolapse or protrusion of the rectum into the vagina caused by a defect in the rectovaginal fascia - fibrous tissue that seperates the cecum and vagina.
Prolapse of the small bowel into the vagina.
Occurs when an organ falls or sinks out of its normal anatomical place.
Uterine prolapse
Occurs when the uterus protrudes downward into the vagina.
Factors that are linked to pelvic organ prolapse include:
Age, repeated childbirth, hormone deficiency, ongoing physical activity, and prior hysterectomy.
Symptoms of prolapse
Stress incontinence, a vaginal bulge, painful sexual intercourse, back pain, difficult urination or bowel movements.
Colporrhaphy may be performed on the ______ and/or _________ walls of the vagina.
Anterior (front), posterior (back)
What does an anterior colporraphy treat?
Cystocele or urethrocele.
What does a posterior colporrhaphy treat?
What is a cystogram used for?
A cystogram may be used to determine the extent of a cystocele; the bladder is filled by urinary catheter with a contrast medium and then X-rayed.
Excessive uterine bleeding.
Intermenstrual bleeding, bleeding between regular menses which may be associated w/either benign or malignant conditions that requires further investigation.
Why is a caesarean birth done?
Eclampsia, active genital herpes in the mother, uterine dystocia (difficult labor), breech birth, and fetal distress.
Maternal indications for a cesarean...
Diseases such as eclampsia or preeclampsia, cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, cervical cancer, herpes. Previous C births (classic type), previous uterine surgery (full thickness myomas), a previous uterine rupture, obstruction to birth canal, fibroids, ovarian tumors, dystocia, or maternal demise.
Fetal indications for a cesarean...
Fetal distress, prolapsed umbilical cord, breech, transverse presentation, multiple births (depends on number and presentation), and fetal demise.
Placenta previa
placenta that is implanted in the lower uterine segment
Placenta abruption
the placenta breaks away from the wall of the uterus too early, before the baby is supposed to be born.)
The incidence of an ecoptic pregnancy is higher among women with...
previous tubal disease, tubal surgery, previous ectopic pregnancy, assisted reproduction, and IUD users.
Cornual ectopic
These ectopics grow in the portion of the tube that passes through the uterine cornua. These tend to rupture early and violently, with massive abdominal hemorrhage. Many of the fatalities due to ectopic pregnancy are from cornual pregnancies.
First degree perineal laceration
Involves the vaginal mucose or perineal skin.
Second degree perineal laceration
Extends into the vaginal submucosa or perineum with or without the perineal body musculature being involved.
Third degree perineal laceration
Involves the anal sphincter.
Fourth degree perineal laceration
Involves the rectal mucosa.
Cervical Cerclage (Shirodkar's procedure)
Is the placement of a large diameter Dacrom or Mersilene taope around the cervix at the level of the internal OS to prevent spontaneous abortion. The procedure is usually performed in late second trimester or early third trimester of pregnancy to correct an incompetent cervix.
Microscopic resection and anastomosis of the fallopian tube to restore tubal patency. It is the operative choice when infertility is secondary to tubal obstruction.
Why would a Simple Vulvectomy be performed?
It's performed on women with multifocal in situ neoplasia of the vulva.
The surgical removal of uterine fibroids from the muscular myometrial wall.
When doing a hysterectomy, why would the ovaries be left behind?
So the patient won't go into early menopause. Ovaries are usually left behind for their hormonal value.
Removal of the ovaries.
Removal of part or all of the fallopian tube.
The pelvic girdle consists of the_________.
iliac crest, ischia, pubic bones, and sacrum.
Bartholin's glands are located within the _________.
The pH of vaginal fluids is________.
The uterine lining is called the_________.
The ligament that supports the bulk of the ovary is called the _________ ligament.
The uterine tubes are contained within the _______ ligament.
The uterine appendages are the _________.
ovaries and fallopian tubes.
Which is a synonym for the fallopian tubes?
Uterine tubes.
In which position is the patient generally placed into for a D&C?
The internal cervical os is the __________.
aperture at corpus uteri cervical junction.
The 3 layers of the uterine wall are the __________.
visceral peritoneum, myometrium, and endometrium.
The 2 hormones from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian cycle are_______ and ______.
LH and FSH.
The absense or abnormal stoppage of the menses is called________.
Posterior colporrhaphy is performed to ___________.
repair a rectocele.
A foley catheter is used routinely during a pelvic procedure to ___________.
decompress the bladder to prevent injury.
The trendelenburg position is used to prevent injury and enhance visualizationby displacing the abdominal contents ___________.
Total abdominal hysterectomy involves the removal of which structure(s)?
just the uterus. A radical abdominal hysterectomy involves the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.
The ovaries function to__________.
produce and expel ova.
The external female genitalia are collectively referred to as the________.
The fundus is the_____________________.
domelike portion of the uterus.
The fornix is the _______.
annular recess created by the cervical-vaginal junction. AKA the cul-de-sac.
All of the following are parts of the uterus EXCEPT the fundus, corpus, fimbrae, and cervix.
A pap smear is performed to rule out_______.
cervical dysplasia.
Endometriosis is________.
an abdominal implantation of endometrial tissue.
In which position is the patient placed for a total abdominal hysterectomy?
A fibroid is a benign tumor found in the ________.
Indigo carmine is used following tuboplasty to demonstarte_______.
tubal patency.
The term D&C represents_________.
dialation and curettage.
Cystocele is prolapsed of the____________.
bladder and vaginal vault.
Vaginal hysterectomy is used to describe the removal of the ____________.
uterus through a vaginal incision.
A curette is a surgical instrument used to_______.
remove tissue by scraping.
Salpingectomy is the removal of the______.
fallopian tube.
The name of the female erectile tissue located directly above the urethral oriface is known as the_______.
Which female gland secretes a lubricating mucoid substance?
Bartholin's gland.
The perineum in the female is the area between which 2 structures?
Vaginal oriface and anus.
The uterus is lined with_______.
Which name is given to the ligament that suspends the uterus laterally?
broad ligament.
Which name is give to the ligament that suspends the uterus anteriorally and supports as a pivot?
cardinal ligament.
Arterial blood supply to the uterus is derived from the uterine branch of which artery?
internal iliac.
Another name given to the fallopian tubes is the______.
Arterial blood supply to the fallopian tubes is derived from which arteries?
Uterine, ovarian.
Which 2 hormones do the ovaries release?
estrogen and progesterone.
Which hormone does the corpus luteum secrete?
Which hormone is repsonsible for maintaining the growth of the uterine lining in preperation for implantation and development of ferilized ovum?
What is another name given to an anterior and posterior repair?
What is the name given to a fistula that forms between the bladder and vagina?
vesicovaginal fistula.
beginning of menstruation.
Blood, fluid, or pus in the cul-de-sac is aspirated by needle via the posterior vaginal formix for suspected intraperitoneal bleeding, ectopic pregnancy, or tubo-ovarian abscess.
Nonoperative, except those that use monopolar, used for exploratory observation
Operative; hypotonic, nonconductive, low-viscostus
All procedures; nonelectic fluid
Indications that may lead to infertility?
Immature or abnormal reproductive system, anomalies or organs, endocrine dysfunction, emotional problems, adhesions, STD's, PID, and repeat abortions.
Round ligament
Runs along top of broad ligament
Uterosacral ligament
Supports posteriorly
FSH stands for?
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Secondary sexual characteristics, initiates growth of lining of the uterus, regulates the menstrual cycle
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Stimulates secretion of estrogen and growth of ova (eggs).
When is progesterone released?
During the second half of the menstrual cycle.
LH stands for?
Luteinizing hormone
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Stimulates ovulation and the production of progesterone
Process of fertilization
1.) Release of LH & FSH stimulates begining of ovarian cycle
2.) FSH influences primary follicle development
3.) LH influences ripening of follicle to graafian follical, which then erupts, releasing oocyte into fimbria and fallopian tubes.
4.) Within the ruptured follicle the corpus luteum now grows in the ovary, where it will remain until 6 months gestation.
What are the two most common gyn incisions?
Pfannenstiel & low verticle midline
Endometrial laser ablation
CO2, ND: Yag, and Argon
What is used to stop bleeding after dx vaginal procedures?
Monsel's solution
Prevents adhesions on tubes
Excessive uterine bleeding during menstration
Intermenstrual bleeding (between reg. menses)
Your life sucks...Heavy bleeding during and between menstruation:(
Labia majora
Bi-sectional folds of tissue which encircles vestibule of external genitalia
Cervical dilation
expansion of the cervix
cervical effacement
thinning of cervix
placenta previa
placenta abnormally implants in lower uterine segment (may cover cervix)
placenta abruption
partial or total placental detachment from uterine wall
portion of fallopian tubes communicating with uterus (narrow)
middle portion of fallopian tubes, curves around ovary
funnel shaped end portion of fallopian tube which recieves ova
fingerlike projections of fallopian tube which sweep ova into tube
Internal os
aperture at corpus uteri cervical junction
close an incompetent cervix
Ovaries function to
produce estrogen and progesterone, & produce and expel ova